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Harmonic
A HARMONIC is any member of the harmonic series , a divergent infinite series. Its name derives from the concept of overtones , or harmonics in musical instruments : the wavelengths of the overtones of a vibrating string or a column of air (as with a tuba ) are derived from the string's (or air column's) fundamental wavelength. Every term of the series (i.e., the higher harmonics) after the first is the "harmonic mean " of the neighboring terms. The phrase "harmonic mean" likewise derives from music. The term is employed in various disciplines, including music, physics, acoustics , electronic power transmission, radio technology, and other fields. It is typically applied to repeating signals, such as sinusoidal waves. A harmonic of such a wave is a wave with a frequency that is a positive integer multiple of the frequency of the original wave, known as the fundamental frequency
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Reciprocal (mathematics)
In mathematics , a MULTIPLICATIVE INVERSE or RECIPROCAL for a number x, denoted by 1/x or x−1, is a number which when multiplied by x yields the multiplicative identity , 1. The multiplicative inverse of a fraction a/b is b/a. For the multiplicative inverse of a real number, divide 1 by the number. For example, the reciprocal of 5 is one fifth (1/5 or 0.2), and the reciprocal of 0.25 is 1 divided by 0.25, or 4. The RECIPROCAL FUNCTION, the function f(x) that maps x to 1/x, is one of the simplest examples of a function which is its own inverse (an involution ). The term reciprocal was in common use at least as far back as the third edition of Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
(1797) to describe two numbers whose product is 1; geometrical quantities in inverse proportion are described as reciprocall in a 1570 translation of Euclid
Euclid
's Elements
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Orchestration
ORCHESTRATION is the study or practice of writing music for an orchestra (or, more loosely, for any musical ensemble , such as a concert band ) or of adapting music composed for another medium for an orchestra. Also called "instrumentation", orchestration is the selection of different instruments to play the different parts (e.g., melody , bassline , etc.) of a musical work. For example, a work for solo piano could be adapted and orchestrated so that an orchestra could perform the piece. Only gradually over the course of music history did orchestration come to be regarded as a separate compositional art in itself. In classical music , most composers write the melodies , chord progression and musical form for a piece and, then, if they want the piece to be played by an orchestra, they orchestrate the piece themselves
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Periodic Function
In mathematics , a PERIODIC FUNCTION is a function that repeats its values in regular intervals or periods. The most important examples are the trigonometric functions , which repeat over intervals of 2π radians . Periodic functions are used throughout science to describe oscillations , waves , and other phenomena that exhibit periodicity . Any function which is not periodic is called APERIODIC. An illustration of a periodic function with period P . {displaystyle P.} CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 Examples * 3 Properties * 4 Double-periodic functions * 5 Complex example * 6 Generalizations * 6.1 Antiperiodic functions * 6.2 Bloch-periodic functions * 6.3 Quotient spaces as domain * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links DEFINITIONA function f is said to be PERIODIC with period P (P being a nonzero constant) if we have f ( x + P ) = f ( x ) {displaystyle f(x+P)=f(x)} for all values of x in the domain
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Transverse Flute
A TRANSVERSE FLUTE or SIDE-BLOWN FLUTE is a flute which is held horizontally when is played. The player blows across the embouchure hole, in a direction perpendicular to the flute's body length. Transverse flutes include the Western classical flutes , the Indian classical flutes (the bansuri and the venu ), the Chinese dizi , the Western fife , a number of Japanese fue , and Korean flutes such as Daegeum
Daegeum
, Junggeum and Sogeum . Humans perceive the pitch of a transverse flute at the amplified 2nd harmonic or more commonly, one octave above the produced fundamental
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Cymbals
A CYMBAL is a common percussion instrument . Often used in pairs, cymbals consist of thin, normally round plates of various alloys . The majority of cymbals are of indefinite pitch, although small disc-shaped cymbals based on ancient designs sound a definite note (see: crotales ). Cymbals are used in many ensembles ranging from the orchestra, percussion ensembles, jazz bands, heavy metal bands, and marching groups. Drum
Drum
kits usually incorporate at least a crash , ride or crash/ride , and a pair of hi-hat cymbals. A player of cymbals is known as a CYMBALIST
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Period (physics)
In physics , the WAVELENGTH of a sinusoidal wave is the SPATIAL PERIOD of the wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats, and thus the inverse of the spatial frequency . It is usually determined by considering the distance between consecutive corresponding points of the same phase , such as crests, troughs, or zero crossings and is a characteristic of both traveling waves and standing waves , as well as other spatial wave patterns. Wavelength is commonly designated by the Greek letter
Greek letter
lambda (λ). The concept can also be applied to periodic waves of non-sinusoidal shape. The term wavelength is also sometimes applied to modulated waves, and to the sinusoidal envelopes of modulated waves or waves formed by interference of several sinusoids
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Integer
An INTEGER (from the Latin
Latin
integer meaning "whole") is a number that can be written without a fractional component . For example, 21, 4, 0, and −2048 are integers, while 9.75,  5 1⁄2, and √2 are not. The set of integers consists of zero (0 ), the positive natural numbers (1 , 2 , 3 , …), also called whole numbers or counting numbers, and their additive inverses (the NEGATIVE INTEGERS, i.e., −1 , −2, −3, …). This is often denoted by a boldface Z ("Z") or blackboard bold Z {displaystyle mathbb {Z} } (Unicode U+2124 ℤ) standing for the German word Zahlen ( , "numbers"). ℤ is a subset of the sets of rational numbers ℚ, in turn a subset of the real numbers ℝ. Like the natural numbers, ℤ is countably infinite . The integers form the smallest group and the smallest ring containing the natural numbers
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Hertz
The HERTZ (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second . It is named for Heinrich Rudolf Hertz
Hertz
, the first person to provide conclusive proof of the existence of electromagnetic waves . Hertz
Hertz
are commonly expressed in multiples : kilohertz (103 Hz, kHz), megahertz (106 Hz, MHz), gigahertz (109 Hz, GHz), and terahertz (1012 Hz, THz). Some of the unit's most common uses are in the description of sine waves and musical tones , particularly those used in radio - and audio-related applications. It is also used to describe the speeds at which computers and other electronics are driven
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Sine
In mathematics , the SINE is a trigonometric function of an angle . The sine of an acute angle is defined in the context of a right triangle : for the specified angle, it is the ratio of the length of the side that is opposite that angle to the length of the longest side of the triangle (the hypotenuse ). More generally, the definition of sine (and other trigonometric functions) can be extended to any real value in terms of the length of a certain line segment in a unit circle . More modern definitions express the sine as an infinite series or as the solution of certain differential equations , allowing their extension to arbitrary positive and negative values and even to complex numbers . The sine function is commonly used to model periodic phenomena such as sound and light waves, the position and velocity of harmonic oscillators, sunlight intensity and day length, and average temperature variations throughout the year
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Guitar
The GUITAR is a musical instrument classified as a fretted string instrument with anywhere from four to 18 strings, usually having six. The sound is projected either acoustically, using a hollow wooden or plastic and wood box (for an acoustic guitar ), or through electrical amplifier and a speaker (for an electric guitar ). It is typically played by strumming or plucking the strings with the fingers, thumb or fingernails of the right hand or with a pick while fretting (or pressing against the frets ) the strings with the fingers of the left hand. The guitar is a type of chordophone , traditionally constructed from wood and strung with either gut, nylon or steel strings and distinguished from other chordophones by its construction and tuning. The modern guitar was preceded by the gittern , the vihuela , the four-course Renaissance guitar , and the five-course baroque guitar , all of which contributed to the development of the modern six-string instrument
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Guitar Amplifier
A GUITAR AMPLIFIER (or GUITAR AMP) is an electronic amplifier that strengthens the weak electrical signal from a pickup on an electric guitar , bass guitar , or acoustic guitar so that it can produce sound through one or more loudspeakers , which are typically housed in a wooden cabinet . A guitar amplifier may be a standalone wood or metal cabinet that contains only the power amplifier (and preamplifier ) circuits, requiring the use of a separate speaker cabinet–or it may be a "combo" amplifier, which contains both the amplifier and one or more speakers in a wooden cabinet. There is a wide range of sizes and power ratings for guitar amplifiers, from small, lightweight "practice amplifiers" with a single 8" speaker to heavy combo amps with four 10" speakers and a powerful amplifier, which are loud enough to use in a nightclub or bar performance
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Singing Bowl
A SINGING BOWL is a type of bell , specifically a bowl-shaped STANDING BELL. They are typically used for meditation and religious purposes, as well as for music making and personal enjoyment. In addition to STANDING BELL and SINGING BOWL a variety of other names are used in English, including PRAYER BOWL, TIBETAN SINGING BOWL, HIMALAYAN BOWL, RIN GONG, CUP GONG, and SUZU GONG. CONTENTS * 1 As musical instrument * 2 Usage * 3 Origins and history * 4 Antique singing bowls * 5 Modern development * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links AS MUSICAL INSTRUMENTMusically, these bowls are classified as a type of bell , specifically a standing bell (a musical bell is a hollow object which has maximum vibration around an open rim. A musical gong on the other hand has maximum vibration towards the centre). They are usually placed on a pillow, to allow the rim to vibrate freely, though small bowls may be held gently in the hand
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Musical Instrument
A MUSICAL IN