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Haribhadra
Haribhadra
Haribhadra
Suri was a Svetambara
Svetambara
mendicant Jain leader and author. There are multiple contradictory dates assigned to his birth. According to tradition, he lived c. 459–529 CE. However, in 1919, a Jain monk named Jinavijayi pointed out that given his familiarity with Dharmakirti, a more likely choice would be sometime after 650.[1] In his writings, Haribhadra
Haribhadra
identifies himself as a student of Jinabhadra and Jinadatta of the Vidyadhara Kula. There are several, somewhat contradictory, accounts of his life
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Dharma (Jainism)
Dharma
Dharma
(/ˈdɑːrmə/;[8] Sanskrit: धर्म, translit. dharma, pronounced [dʱəɾmə] ( listen); Pali: धम्म, translit. dhamma, translit
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Diwali
Diwali
Diwali
or Deepavali is the Hindu
Hindu
festival of lights celebrated every year in autumn in the northern hemisphere (spring in southern hemisphere).[4][5] It is an official holiday in Fiji, Guyana, India,[6] Malaysia, Mauritius, Myanmar, Nepal, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Suriname, and Trinidad and Tobago
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Samvatsari
Saṃvatsarī (Sanskrit: संवत्सरी) (lit. Annual Day or fig. Forgiveness
Forgiveness
Day) is the last day of Paryushana
Paryushana
festival observed annually by the followers of Shwetambar
Shwetambar
sect of Jainism. It falls on Shukla Panchami (5th day of waxing fortnight) each year in Jain calendar month of Bhadrapada, somewhere between the middle of August and September in the Gregorian calendar. On this day, Jains forgive and seek forgiveness for their mistakes committed knowingly or unknowingly from all the living beings. A yearly, elaborate penitential retreat called "samvatsari pratikramana" is performed on this day
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Arihant (Jainism)
Arihant (Jain Prakrit: arihant, Sanskrit: árhat "conqueror"), is a soul who has conquered inner passions such as attachment, anger, pride and greed.[1] Arihant are also called kevalins (omniscient beings) as they possess Kevala Jnana
Kevala Jnana
(pure infinite knowledge).[2][3] An arihant is also called a jina "victor". At the end of their life, arihants destroy all four gathiya karmas and attain moksha (liberation) and become siddhas, liberated souls
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Digambara
Digambara
Digambara
(/dɪˈɡʌmbərə/; "sky-clad") is one of the two major schools of Jainism, the other being Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara
(white-clad). The word Digambara
Digambara
(Sanskrit) is a combination of two words: dig (directions) and ambara (sky), referring to those whose garments are of the element that fills the four quarters of space. Digambara
Digambara
monks do not wear any clothes. The monks carry picchi, a broom made up of fallen peacock feathers (for clearing the place before walking or sitting), kamandalu (a water container made of wood), and shastra (scripture). One of the most important scholar-monks of Digambara tradition was Kundakunda. He authored Prakrit
Prakrit
texts such as the Samayasāra
Samayasāra
and the Pravacanasāra
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Śvētāmbara
The Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara
(/ʃwɛˈtʌmbərə/; Sanskrit: श्वेतांबर or श्वेतपट śvētapaṭa; also spelled Svetambar, Shvetambara, Shvetambar, Swetambar or Shwetambar) is one of the two main branches of Jainism, the other being the Digambara. Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara
"white-clad" is a term describing its ascetics' practice of wearing white clothes, which sets it apart from the Digambara
Digambara
"sky-clad" Jainas, whose ascetic practitioners go naked. Śvētāmbaras, unlike Digambaras, do not believe that ascetics must practice nudity.[1] Śvētāmbaras also believe that women are able to obtain moksha. Śvētāmbaras maintain that the 19th Tirthankara, Māllīnātha, was a woman.Contents1 History 2 Denominations 3 See also 4 Notes 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] The Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara
tradition follows the lineage of Sthulabhadra
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Samayasāra
Samayasāra
Samayasāra
(The Nature of the Self) is a famous Jain text
Jain text
composed by Acharya Kundakunda
Kundakunda
in 439 verses.[1] Its ten chapters discuss the nature of Jīva (pure self/soul), its attachment to Karma and Moksha (liberation)
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Pravachanasara
Pravachanasara, is a text composed by Jain monk, Kundakunda, in about the mid-second century BC. It means "Essence of Scriptures" or "Essence of Sermons" or "Essence of Doctrine". In the text, Kundakunda shows how the correct understanding of the duality of self and others leads to that defining characteristic of Digambara
Digambara
mendicant praxis, nudity.[2] It consists of three chapters and 275 verses. First chapter consists of 92 verses and it describes attributes of Supreme Beings and outlines the first steps in the process of transforming oneself into a Supreme Being. Second chapter consists of 108 verses and it describes laws of interaction between space, time particles, elementary matter particles, compound matter particles, motion and souls in the Cosmos
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Jain Agamas
Agamas are texts of Jainism
Jainism
based on the discourses of the tirthankara. The discourse delivered in a samavasarana (divine preaching hall) is called Śhrut Jnāna and comprises eleven angas and fourteen purvas.[1] The discourse is recorded by Ganadharas (chief disciples), and is composed of twelve angas (departments). It is generally represented by a tree with twelve branches.[2] This forms the basis of the Jaina Agamas or canons. These are believed to have originated from Rishabhanatha, the first tirthankara.[3] The earliest versions of Jain
Jain
Agamas known were composed in Ardhamagadhi Prakrit
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Tattvartha Sutra
Tattvartha Sutra
Sutra
(also known as Tattvarth-adhigama-sutra) is an ancient Jain text
Jain text
written by Acharya Umaswami, sometime between the 2nd- and 5th-century AD.[3][4][1] It is one of the first Jain scriptures written in the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language instead of the Jain liturgical language of Ardha Magadhi.[5] Tattvartha Sutra
Sutra
is also known in Jainism
Jainism
as the Moksha-shastra (Scripture describing the path of liberation). The Tattvartha Sutra
Sutra
is regarded as one of the earliest, most authoritative books on Jainism, and the only text authoritative in both the Digambara
Digambara
and Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara
sects (prior to the Saman Suttam)
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Dravyasamgraha
Dravyasaṃgraha (Devnagari: द्रव्यसंग्रह) (Compendium of substances) is a 10th-century Jain text
Jain text
in Jain Sauraseni Prakrit
Prakrit
by Acharya Nemicandra
Nemicandra
belonging to the Digambara Jain
Jain
tradition. It is a composition of 58 gathas (verses) giving an exposition of the six dravyas (substances) that characterize the Jain view of the world: sentient (jīva), non-sentient (pudgala), principle of motion (dharma), principle of rest (adharma), space (ākāśa) and time (kāla).[1] It is one of the most important Jain
Jain
works and has gained widespread popularity
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Kalpa Sūtra
The Kalpa Sūtra
Kalpa Sūtra
(Sanskrit: कल्पसूत्र) is a Jain text containing the biographies of the Jain
Jain
Tirthankaras, notably Parshvanatha
Parshvanatha
and Mahavira.[1] Traditionally ascribed to Bhadrabahu, which would place it in the 4th century BCE.[2], it was probably put to writing only after 980 or 993 years after the Nirvana(Moksha) of Mahavira.Contents1 History 2 Importance 3 See also 4 References4.1 Citations 4.2 Sources5 External linksHistory[edit] Within the six sections of the Jain
Jain
literary corpus belonging to the Svetambara
Svetambara
school, it is classed as one of the Cheda Sūtras. This Sutra contains detailed life histories and, from the mid-15th century, was frequently illustrated with miniature painting
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Rishabhanatha
Rushabhanatha or Rishabhanatha
Rishabhanatha
(also Ṛṣabhadeva, Rushabhadeva, Rishabhadeva, or Ṛṣabha which literally means "bull") is the first Tirthankara
Tirthankara
(ford maker) in Jainism.[5][6] Jain legends depict him as having lived millions of years ago.[7][4] He was the first of twenty four lords in the present half cycle of time in Jain cosmology, and called a ford maker because his teachings helped one across the sea of interminable rebirths and deaths (saṃsāra)
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Jain Flag
The flag of Jainism
Jainism
has five colours: orange or red, yellow, white, green and black or dark blue. These five colours represent the Pañca-Parameṣṭhi
Pañca-Parameṣṭhi
(five supreme beings). It also represents the five main vows, small as well as great.Contents1 Overview1.1 Colours 1.2 Swastika 1.3 Three Dots 1.4 Siddhashila
Siddhashila
Chakra2 Photo gallery 3 See also 4 ReferencesOverview[edit] Colours[edit] These five colours represent the "Pañca-Parameṣṭhi" and the five vows, small as well as great:[1]White - represents the arihants, souls who have conquered all passions (anger, attachments, aversion) and have attained omniscience and eternal bliss through self-realization. It also denotes peace or ahimsa (nonviolence). Red - represents the siddha, souls that have attained salvation and truth. It also denotes truthfulness (satya). Yellow - represents the acharya the Masters of Adepts
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Jain Symbols
Jain symbols
Jain symbols
are symbols based on the Jain philosophy.Contents1 Swastika 2 Symbol
Symbol
of Ahimsa 3 Jain emblem3.1 Fundamental concepts 3.2 Usage4 Jain flag 5 Om 6 Ashtamangala6.1 Other symbols7 Photo gallery 8 See also 9 Notes 10 ReferencesSwastika[edit] Main article: Swastika The swastika is an important Jain symbol. The four arms of the swastika symbolize the four states of existence as per Jainism:[1][2]Heavenly beings (devas encantadia") Human Benefits Hellish being Tiryancha (subhuman like flora or fauna)It represents the perpetual nature of the universe in the material world, where a creature is destined to one of those states based on their karma
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