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Hardpoint
A HARDPOINT (more formally known as a STATION or WEAPON STATION) is a location on an airframe designed to carry an external or internal load. This includes a station on the wing or fuselage of a civilian aircraft or military aircraft where external jet engine , ordnance , countermeasures , gun pods , targeting pods or drop tanks can be mounted. CONTENTS * 1 Aircraft * 2 Pylon * 3 Military * 3.1 Racks * 3.2 Guided missile launchers * 3.3 Rotary launcher * 3.4 Bomb rack * 3.5 Store release control * 3.6 Example station designation * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links AIRCRAFTIn aeronautics, the term _station_ is used to refer to a point of carriage on the frame of an aircraft. A station is usually rated to carry a certain amount of payload. It is a design number which already has taken the rated g-forces of the frame into account. Therefore, point loads on the structure from externally or internally mounted stores, engines, equipment, passengers, and payload are simply the weight of the item and any pylons, seats, mounting brackets, etc. multiplied by the maximum load factor which the aircraft will sustain when these items are carried. In civilian aviation a station is usually used to carry an external engine or a fuel tank. As engines are usually a fixed installation, operators usually refer to them with the designation of the engine. Therefore, the term is mostly being used for load points meant for non-fixed installation
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Workbench (woodworking)
A WORKBENCH is a table used by woodworkers to hold workpieces while they are worked by other tools. There are many styles of woodworking benches, each reflecting the type of work to be done or the craftsman's way of working. Most benches have two features in common: they are heavy and rigid enough to keep still while the wood is being worked, and there is some method for holding the work in place at a comfortable position and height so that the worker is free to use both hands on the tools. The main thing that distinguishes benches is the way in which the work is held in place. Most benches have more than one way to do this, depending on the operation being performed
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A-10 Thunderbolt II
The FAIRCHILD REPUBLIC A-10 THUNDERBOLT II is a single-seat, twin turbofan engine , straight wing jet aircraft developed by Fairchild-Republic for the United States Air Force
United States Air Force
(USAF). Commonly referred to by the nicknames "Warthog" or "Hog", its official name comes from the Republic P-47 Thunderbolt
Republic P-47 Thunderbolt
, a World War II
World War II
fighter that was effective at attacking ground targets. The A-10 was designed for close air support (CAS) of friendly ground troops, attacking armored vehicles and tanks, and providing quick-action support against enemy ground forces. It entered service in 1976 and is the only production-built aircraft that has served in the USAF that was designed solely for CAS. Its secondary mission is to provide forward air controller – airborne (FAC-A) support, by directing other aircraft in attacks on ground targets. Aircraft used primarily in this role are designated OA-10. The A-10 was intended to improve on the performance of the A-1 Skyraider and its lesser firepower. The A-10 was designed around the 30 mm GAU-8 Avenger rotary cannon . Its airframe was designed for durability, with measures such as 1,200 pounds (540 kg) of titanium armor to protect the cockpit and aircraft systems, enabling it to absorb a significant amount of damage and continue flying
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Airframe
The AIRFRAME of an aircraft is its mechanical structure . It is typically considered to include fuselage , wings and undercarriage and exclude the propulsion system . Airframe
Airframe
design is a field of aerospace engineering that combines aerodynamics , materials technology and manufacturing methods to achieve balances of performance, reliability and cost. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 First World War * 1.2 Between World wars * 1.3 Second World War * 1.4 Postwar * 1.5 Modern era * 2 Safety * 3 See also * 4 Notes and references HISTORY 4 types of Airframe
Airframe
construction 1. Truss with canvas 2. Truss with corrugate plate 3. Monocoque construction 4. Semi-monocoque construction Modern airframe history began in the United States
United States
when a 1903 wood biplane made by Orville and Wilbur Wright showed the potential of fixed-wing designs . In 1912 the Deperdussin Monocoque pioneered the light, strong and streamlined monocoque fuselage formed of thin plywood layers over a circular frame, achieving 210 km/h (130 mph). FIRST WORLD WARMany early developments were spurred by military needs during World War I . Well known aircraft from that era include the Dutch designer Anthony Fokker 's combat aircraft for the German Empire
German Empire
's Luftstreitkräfte , and U.S
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Wing
A WING is a type of fin that produces lift , while moving through air or some other fluid. As such, wings have streamlined cross-sections that are subject to aerodynamic forces and act as an airfoils . A wing's aerodynamic efficiency is expressed as its lift-to-drag ratio . The lift a wing generates at a given speed and angle of attack can be one to two orders of magnitude greater than the total drag on the wing . A high lift-to-drag ratio requires a significantly smaller thrust to propel the wings through the air at sufficient lift. Lifting structures used in water, include various foils , including hydrofoils . Hydrodynamics is the governing science, rather than aerodynamics. Applications of underwater foils occur in hydroplanes , sailboats and submarines . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology and usage * 2 In nature * 3 Aerodynamics * 3.1 Cross-sectional shape * 4 Design features * 5 Applications * 6 Tensile structures * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links ETYMOLOGY AND USAGEThe word "wing" from the Old Norse _vængr_ for many centuries referred mainly to the foremost limbs of birds (in addition to the architectural aisle). But in recent centuries the word's meaning has extended to include lift producing appendages of insects , bats , pterosaurs , boomerangs , some sail boats and aircraft , or the inverted airfoil on a race car that generates a downward force to increase traction
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Fuselage
The FUSELAGE (/ˈfjuːzəlɑːʒ/ ; from the French _fuselé_ "spindle-shaped") is an aircraft 's main body section. It holds crew, passengers, and cargo . In single-engine aircraft it will usually contain an engine, as well, although in some amphibious aircraft the single engine is mounted on a pylon attached to the fuselage, which in turn is used as a floating hull . The fuselage also serves to position control and stabilization surfaces in specific relationships to lifting surfaces, which is required for aircraft stability and maneuverability. CONTENTS* 1 Types of structures * 1.1 Truss
Truss
structure * 1.2 Geodesic construction * 1.3 Monocoque
Monocoque
shell * 1.4 Semi-monocoque * 2 Materials * 3 Windows * 4 Wing integration * 5 Gallery * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links TYPES OF STRUCTURES Piper PA-18welded tube truss fuselage structure TRUSS STRUCTURE Main article: Truss
Truss
This type of structure is still in use in many lightweight aircraft using welded steel tube trusses. A box truss fuselage structure can also be built out of wood—often covered with plywood. Simple box structures may be rounded by the addition of supported lightweight stringers, allowing the fabric covering to form a more aerodynamic shape, or one more pleasing to the eye
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Civilian Aircraft
CIVIL AVIATION is one of two major categories of flying, representing all non-military aviation , both private and commercial. Most of the countries in the world are members of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and work together to establish common standards and recommended practices for civil aviation through that agency. Civil aviation includes two major categories: * Scheduled air transport , including all passenger and cargo flights operating on regularly scheduled routes; and * General aviation (GA), including all other civil flights, private or commercialAlthough scheduled air transport is the larger operation in terms of passenger numbers, GA is larger in the number of flights (and flight hours, in the U.S. ) In the U.S., GA carries 166 million passengers each year, more than any individual airline, though less than all the airlines combined. Since 2004, the US Airlines combined have carried over 600 million passengers each year, and in 2014, they carried a combined 662,819,232 passengers
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Military Aircraft
A MILITARY AIRCRAFT is any fixed-wing or rotary-wing aircraft that is operated by a legal or insurrectionary armed service of any type. Military aircraft can be either combat or non-combat: * Combat aircraft are designed to destroy enemy equipment using their own aircraft ordnance . Combat aircraft are normally developed and procured only by military forces . * Non-combat aircraft are not designed for combat as their primary function, but may carry weapons for self-defense. These mainly operate in support roles, and may be developed by either military forces or civilian organizations.CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Combat aircraft * 2.1 Fighter aircraft * 2.2 Bomber aircraft * 2.3 Attack aircraft * 2.4 Electronic warfare aircraft * 2.5 Maritime patrol aircraft * 2.6 Multirole combat aircraft * 3 Non-combat aircraft * 3.1 Military transport aircraft * 3.2 Airborne early warning and control * 3.3 Reconnaissance and surveillance aircraft * 3.4 Experimental aircraft * 4 See also * 5 References HISTORY _ THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (July 2017)_In 1783, when the first practical aircraft (hot-air and hydrogen balloons) were established, they were quickly adopted for military duties. COMBAT AIRCRAFT _ THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION
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Jet Engine
A JET ENGINE is a reaction engine discharging a fast-moving jet that generates thrust by jet propulsion . This broad definition includes airbreathing jet engines (turbojets , turbofans , ramjets , and pulse jets ) and non-airbreathing jet engines (such as rocket engines ). In general, jet engines are combustion engines. In common parlance, the term jet engine loosely refers to an internal combustion airbreathing jet engine . These typically feature a rotating air compressor powered by a turbine , with the leftover power providing thrust via a propelling nozzle — this process is known as the Brayton thermodynamic cycle . Jet aircraft use such engines for long-distance travel. Early jet aircraft used turbojet engines which were relatively inefficient for subsonic flight. Modern subsonic jet aircraft usually use more complex high-bypass turbofan engines . These engines offer high speed and greater fuel efficiency than piston and propeller aeroengines over long distances. The thrust of a typical jetliner engine went from 5,000 lbf (22,000 N) (de Havilland Ghost turbojet ) in the 1950s to 115,000 lbf (510,000 N) ( General Electric GE90 turbofan) in the 1990s, and their reliability went from 40 in-flight shutdowns per 100,000 engine flight hours to less than one in the late 1990s
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Aircraft Ordnance
AIRCRAFT ORDNANCE or ORDNANCE (in the context of military aviation ) is weapons (e.g. bombs , missiles , rockets and gun ammunition) used by aircraft. The term is often used when describing the weight of air-to-ground weaponry that can be carried by an aircraft or the weight that has been dropped. Aircraft ordnance
Aircraft ordnance
also includes air-to-air , anti-ship and anti-submarine weapons. Some aircraft types can carry a wide variety of ordnance - for example the Fairchild AU-23 Peacemaker could use forward-firing gun pods , 500 and 250 pound bombs, napalm units, cluster bomb units, flares, rockets, smoke grenades and propaganda leaflet dispensers . Ordnance can be carried in a bomb bay or hung from a hardpoint . For many weapons there is a limit to the length of time they can be flown (e.g. because of vibration damage); after this their safety or effectiveness is not guaranteed. This can be a problem if weapons designed for high intensity conflict are carried on multiple missions in a long counter-insurgency campaign. REFERENCES * ^ "Factsheets : Fairchild AU-23A". Nationalmuseum.af.mil. Archived from the original on 2014-01-05. Retrieved 2013-11-16
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Countermeasure
A COUNTERMEASURE is a measure or action taken to counter or offset another one. As a general concept it implies precision, and is any technological or tactical solution or system (often for a military application) designed to prevent an undesirable outcome in the process. The first known use of the term is in 1923. Countermeasures can refer to the following disciplinary spectrum: * Defense * Medicine * Materials engineering * Electro-magnetic engineering * Policing * Information technology * Law * Diplomatic security * Pollution preventionDefense countermeasures are often subdivided into "active" and "passive" countermeasures. CONTENTS * 1 Active * 2 Passive * 3 See also * 4 References ACTIVEIn military applications, "active" countermeasures which alter the electromagnetic, acoustic or other signature(s) of a target thereby altering the tracking and sensing behavior of an incoming threat (e.g., guided missile ) are designated SOFT-KILL measures. Measures that physically counterattack an incoming threat thereby destroying/altering its payload/warhead in such a way that the intended effect on the target is majorly impeded are designated HARD-KILL measures. Both are further described in active protection systems
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Gun Pod
A GUN POD is a detachable pod or pack containing machine guns or automatic cannon and ancillaries, mounted externally on a vehicle such as a military aircraft which may or may not also have its own guns. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 World War II
World War II
* 3 Common Gun Pods * 3.1 US * 3.2 USSR/ Russia
Russia
DESCRIPTIONA gun pod typically contains one or more guns, a supply of ammunition, and, if necessary, a power source. Electrically powered cannon, such as the M61 Vulcan
M61 Vulcan
, may be powered from the aircraft's electrical system or by a ram-air turbine . Gun pods increase a vehicle's firepower without occupying internal volume. When not required for a specific mission they can be omitted to save weight. On some vehicles they isolate delicate internal components such as radar from the weapon's recoil and gases, and for jet aircraft allow the weapons to be mounted away from the intakes of the engines, reducing problems of gun-gas ingestion, which may cause the engine to stall. When designed to be suspension-mounted on a hardpoint on a typical post-WW II aircraft, gun pods are inherently less accurate than integral guns, or the type of "conformal" gun pods that are faired smoothly into or onto the nearby surfaces of an aircraft, because the "hardpoint" mounting is necessarily less rigid, so that the weapon's recoil produces more deflection
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Targeting Pod
TARGETING PODS are target designation tools used by ground-attack aircraft for identifying targets and guiding precision guided munitions (PGM) such as laser-guided bombs to those targets. The first targeting pods were developed in conjunction with the earliest generation of PGMs in the mid-1960s. CONTENTS* 1 Categories * 1.1 Laser designators * 1.2 Electro-optics * 1.3 Radar * 2 List of targeting pods * 2.1 Laser spot tracker pods * 2.2 Laser designator
Laser designator
pods * 2.3 FLIR
FLIR
pods * 2.4 FLIR
FLIR
and laser designator pods * 3 References CATEGORIESLASER DESIGNATORS Main article: Laser designator
Laser designator
The design of laser-guided bombs requires a "laser spot tracker" that locates reflected pulses of laser light from a designated target. This enables an aircraft's targeting system to home in on that specific target. The simplest spot trackers (like the Pave Penny pod) have no laser at all, just a laser sensor. Some targeting systems incorporate a LASER RANGEFINDER , a laser beam that can calculate the precise range to a target and communicate that information to the nav/attack system
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Drop Tank
In aviation , a DROP TANK (EXTERNAL TANK, WING TANK, or BELLY TANK) is used to describe auxiliary fuel tanks externally carried by aircraft . A drop tank is expendable and often jettisonable. External tanks are commonplace on modern military aircraft and occasionally found in civilian ones, although the latter are less likely to be discarded except in the event of emergency. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Paper-based drop tanks * 2 Overview * 3 Automotive use * 4 References HISTORY A standard 300 litre capacity drop tank of the German WW II Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
A Bf 110 of 9./ ZG 26 with the rarely used, fin-stabilized 900 litre drop tanks The drop tank was used during the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
to allow fighter aircraft to carry additional fuel for long-range escort flights without requiring a dramatically larger, heavier, less maneuverable fuselage . During World War II
World War II
, the German Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
began using external fuel tanks with the introduction of a 300-liter (80 US gallon) light alloy model for the Ju 87R , a long-range version of the Stuka dive bomber , in early 1940. The Messerschmitt Bf 109 fighter also used this type of drop tank, starting with the Bf 109E-7 variant introduced in August 1940
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McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle
The MCDONNELL DOUGLAS F-15 EAGLE is an American twin-engine , all-weather tactical fighter aircraft designed by McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing ) to gain and maintain air supremacy in aerial combat. Following reviews of proposals, the United States Air Force selected McDonnell Douglas' design in 1967 to meet the service's need for a dedicated air superiority fighter. The Eagle first flew in July 1972, and entered service in 1976. It is among the most successful modern fighters, with over 100 victories and no losses in aerial combat, with the majority of the kills scored by the Israeli Air Force . The Eagle has been exported to Israel, Japan, and Saudi Arabia. The F-15 was originally envisioned as a pure air superiority aircraft. Its design included a secondary ground-attack capability that was largely unused. The aircraft design proved flexible enough that an all-weather strike derivative , the F-15E Strike Eagle , an improved and enhanced version, which was later developed entered service in 1989. As of 2017 the aircraft is being produced in different variants with production line set to end in 2022, 50 years after the type's first flight
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F-14 Tomcat
The GRUMMAN F-14 TOMCAT is an American supersonic , twin-engine , two-seat, variable-sweep wing fighter aircraft . The Tomcat was developed for the United States Navy 's Naval Fighter Experimental (VFX) program after the collapse of the F-111B project. The F-14 was the first of the American teen-series fighters, which were designed incorporating air combat experience against MiG fighters during the Vietnam War . The F-14 first flew in December 1970 and made its first deployment in 1974 with the U.S. Navy aboard USS _Enterprise_ (CVN-65) , replacing the McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II . The F-14 served as the U.S. Navy's primary maritime air superiority fighter , fleet defense interceptor , and tactical aerial reconnaissance platform into the 1990s. The Low Altitude Navigation and Targeting Infrared for Night ( LANTIRN ) pod system were added in the 1990s and the Tomcat began performing precision ground-attack missions. In the 1980s F-14s were used as land-based interceptors by the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force during the Iran–Iraq War , where they saw combat against Iraqi warplanes. Iranian F-14s reportedly shot down at least 160 Iraqi aircraft during the war, while only 12 to 16 Tomcats were lost; at least half of these losses were due to accidents. The Tomcat was retired from the U.S
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