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Hardcore Punk
HARDCORE PUNK (often abbreviated to HARDCORE) is a punk rock music genre and subculture that originated in the late 1970s. It is generally faster, harder, and more aggressive than other forms of punk rock. Its roots can be traced to earlier punk scenes in San Francisco and Southern California which arose as a reaction against the still predominant hippie cultural climate of the time and was also inspired by New York punk rock and early proto-punk . New York punk had a harder-edged sound than its San Francisco counterpart, featuring anti-art expressions of masculine anger, energy and subversive humor. Hardcore punk generally disavows commercialism, the established music industry and "anything similar to the characteristics of mainstream rock " and often addresses social and political topics with "confrontational, politically-charged lyrics". Hardcore sprouted underground scenes across the United States in the early 1980s, particularly in Washington, D.C. , New York , New Jersey , and Boston —as well as in Australia , Canada and the United Kingdom . Hardcore has spawned the straight edge movement and its associated submovements, hardline and youth crew . Hardcore was heavily involved with the rise of the independent record labels in the 1980s, and with the DIY ethics in underground music scenes
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Punk Rock
PUNK ROCK (or simply "PUNK") is a rock music genre that developed in the early to mid-1970s in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia. Rooted in 1960s garage rock and other forms of what is now known as "proto-punk " music, punk rock bands rejected perceived excesses of mainstream 1970s rock. Punk
Punk
bands typically produced short or fast-paced songs, with hard-edged melodies and singing styles, stripped-down instrumentation, and often political, anti-establishment lyrics. Punk
Punk
embraces a DIY ethic ; many bands self-produce recordings and distribute them through informal channels. The term "punk" was first used in relation to rock music by some American critics in the early 1970s, to describe garage bands and their devotees. By late 1976, bands such as the New York Dolls , Television , and the Ramones
Ramones
in New York City
New York City
, and the Sex Pistols
Sex Pistols
, the Clash , and the Damned in London
London
were recognized as the vanguard of a new musical movement. The following year saw punk rock spreading around the world, and it became a major cultural phenomenon in the United Kingdom. For the most part, punk took root in local scenes that tended to reject association with the mainstream
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Southern California
SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA, often abbreviated as SOCAL, is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises California 's 10 southernmost counties . The region is traditionally described as eight counties, based on demographics and economic ties: Imperial , Los Angeles , Orange , Riverside , San Bernardino , San Diego , Santa Barbara , and Ventura . The more extensive 10-county definition, which includes Kern and San Luis Obispo counties, is also used and is based on historical political divisions. The 8-county and 10-county definitions are not used for the greater SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA MEGAREGION, one of the 11 megaregions of the United States . The megaregion is more expansive, extending east into Las Vegas , Nevada and south across the Mexican border into Tijuana
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Washington, D.c.
WASHINGTON, D.C., formally the DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA and commonly referred to as "WASHINGTON", "THE DISTRICT", or simply "D.C.", is the capital of the United States
United States
. The signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast . The U.S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Congress and the District is therefore not a part of any state. The states of Maryland and Virginia
Virginia
each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria . Named in honor of President George Washington
George Washington
, the City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land originally ceded by Virginia
Virginia
; in 1871, it created a single municipal government for the remaining portion of the District. Washington had an estimated population of 681,170 as of July 2016. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland
Maryland
and Virginia
Virginia
suburbs raise the city's population to more than one million during the workweek
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San Francisco
California
California
------------------------- CSA San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland METRO San Francisco–Oakland–Hayward MISSION June 29, 1776 INCORPORATED April 15, 1850 FOUNDED BY José Joaquin Moraga Francisco Palóu NAMED FOR St. Francis of Assisi
Francis of Assisi
GOVERNMENT • TYPE Mayor-council • BODY Board of Supervisors • MAYOR Edwin M. Lee (D ) • SUPERVISORS List * Sandra Lee Fewer (D) * Mark Farrell (D) * Aaron Peskin (D) * Katy Tang (D) * London Breed (D) * Jane Kim (D) * Norman Yee (D) * Jeff Sheehy (D) * Hillary Ronen
Hillary Ronen
(D) * Malia Cohen (D) * Ahsha Safaí (D) • ASSEMBLY MEMBERS David Chiu (D ) Phil Ting (D ) • STATE SENATOR Scott Wiener (D ) • UNITED STATES REPRESENTATIVES Nancy Pelosi (D ) Jackie Speier (D ) AREA • CITY AND COUNTY 231.89 sq mi (600.59 km2) • LAND 46.89 sq mi (121.46 km2) • WATER 185.00 sq mi (479.14 km2) 80.00% • METRO 3,524.4 sq mi (9,128 km2) ELEVATION 52 ft (16 m) HIGHEST ELEVATION 934 ft (285 m) LOWEST ELEVATION 0 ft (0 m) POPULATION (2016) • CITY AND COUNTY 870,887 • RANK 13th, U.S
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Vancouver
VANCOUVER (/vænˈkuːvər/ ( listen ), locally /væŋ-/ ) is a coastal seaport city in Canada , located in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia . As the most populous city in the province, the 2016 census recorded 631,486 people in the city, up from 603,502 in 2011. The Greater Vancouver area had a population of 2,463,431 in 2016, making it the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada. Vancouver has the highest population density in Canada with over 5,400 people per square kilometre. With over 250,000 residents, Vancouver is the fourth most densely populated city in North America behind New York City , San Francisco , and Mexico City according to the 2011 census. Vancouver is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse cities in Canada according to that census; 52% of its residents have a first language other than English. Vancouver is classed as a Beta global city . Vancouver is consistently named as one of the top five worldwide cities for livability and quality of life , and the Economist Intelligence Unit acknowledged it as the first city ranked among the top-ten of the world's most well-living cities for five consecutive years
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Singing
SINGING is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality , rhythm , and a variety of vocal techniques. A person who sings is called a SINGER or VOCALIST. Singers perform music (arias , recitatives , songs , etc.) that can be sung with or without accompaniment by musical instruments . Singing is often done in an ensemble of musicians, such as a choir of singers or a band of instrumentalists. Singers may perform as soloists, or accompanied by anything from a single instrument (as in art song or some jazz styles) up to a symphony orchestra or big band . Different singing styles include art music such as opera and Chinese opera , Hindustani music , and religious music styles such as gospel , traditional music styles, world music , jazz , blues , gazal and popular music styles such as pop , rock , electronic dance music , and filmi . American jazz singer and songwriter Billie Holiday in New York City in 1947 Singing can be formal or informal, arranged or improvised. It may be done as a form of religious devotion, as a hobby, as a source of pleasure, comfort, or ritual, as part of music education , or as a profession. Excellence in singing requires time, dedication, instruction, and regular practice . If practice is done on a regular basis then the sounds can become more clear and strong
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Electric Guitar
An ELECTRIC GUITAR is a fretted stringed instrument with a neck and body that uses a pickup to convert the vibration of its strings into electrical signals. The vibration occurs when a guitarist strums , plucks or fingerpicks the strings. It is sensed by a pickup , most commonly by a magnetic pickup that uses the principle of direct electromagnetic induction . The signal generated by an electric guitar is too weak to drive a loudspeaker , so it is plugged into a guitar amplifier before being sent to a loudspeaker, which makes a sound loud enough to hear. The output of an electric guitar is an electric signal, and the signal can easily be altered by electronic circuits to add "color" to the sound or change the sound. Often the signal is modified using effects such as reverb and distortion and "overdrive" , with the growling sound of the latter being a key element of the sound of the electric guitar as it is used in blues and rock music . Invented in 1931, the amplified electric guitar was adopted by jazz guitarists , who sought to be able to do single-note guitar solos in large big band ensembles. Early proponents of the electric guitar on record included Les Paul , Lonnie Johnson , Sister Rosetta Tharpe , T-Bone Walker , and Charlie Christian
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Bass Guitar
The BASS GUITAR (also called ELECTRIC BASS, or simply BASS) is a stringed instrument played primarily with the fingers or thumb, by plucking, slapping , popping, strumming, tapping, thumping, or picking with a plectrum , often known as a pick. The bass guitar is similar in appearance and construction to an electric guitar , but with a longer neck and scale length , and four to six strings or courses . The four-string bass, by far the most common, is usually tuned the same as the double bass , which corresponds to pitches one octave lower than the four lowest pitched strings of a guitar (E, A, D, and G). The bass guitar is a transposing instrument , as it is notated in bass clef an octave higher than it sounds (as is the double bass) to avoid excessive ledger lines . Like the electric guitar, the bass guitar has pickups and needs to be connected to an amplifier and speaker , which makes a sound loud enough to hear. Since the 1960s, the bass guitar has largely replaced the double bass in popular music as the bass instrument in the rhythm section . While types of basslines vary widely from one style of music to another, the bassist usually plays a similar role: anchoring the harmonic framework and establishing the beat. Many styles of music include the bass guitar, including rock , heavy metal , pop , punk rock , country , reggae , gospel , blues , symphonic rock, and jazz
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Drum Kit
A DRUM KIT — also called a DRUM SET, TRAP SET, or simply DRUMS — is a collection of drums and other percussion instruments , typically cymbals , which are set up on stands to be played by a single player, with drumsticks held in both hands, and the feet operating pedals that control the hi-hat cymbal and the beater for the bass drum . A drum kit consists of a mix of drums (categorized classically as membranophones , Hornbostel-Sachs high-level classification 2) and idiophones - most significantly cymbals , but can also include the woodblock and cowbell (classified as Hornbostel-Sachs high-level classification 1). In the 2000s, some kits also include electronic instruments ( Hornbostel-Sachs classification 53). Also, both hybrid (mixing acoustic instruments and electronic drums ) and entirely electronic kits are used
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Alternative Rock
ALTERNATIVE ROCK (also called ALTERNATIVE MUSIC, ALT-ROCK or simply ALTERNATIVE) is a style of rock music that emerged from the independent music underground of the 1980s and became widely popular in the 1990s. In this instance, the word "alternative" refers to the genre's distinction from mainstream rock music. The term's original meaning was broader, referring to a generation of musicians unified by their collective debt to either the musical style or simply the independent, DIY ethos of punk rock , which in the late 1970s laid the groundwork for alternative music. At times, "alternative" has been used as a catch-all description for music from underground rock artists that receives mainstream recognition, or for any music, whether rock or not, that is seen to be descended from punk rock (including some examples of punk itself, as well as new wave , and post-punk ). Alternative rock is a broad umbrella term consisting of music that differs greatly in terms of its sound, its social context, and its regional roots. By the end of the 1980s magazines and zines , college radio airplay, and word of mouth had increased the prominence and highlighted the diversity of alternative rock, helping to define a number of distinct styles (and music scenes) such as noise pop , indie rock , grunge , and alternative hip hop
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Black Metal
BLACK METAL is a style of extreme metal music. Common traits include fast tempos , a shrieking vocal style, heavily distorted guitars played with tremolo picking , raw (lo-fi ) recording, unconventional song structures , and an emphasis on atmosphere. Artists often appear in corpse paint and adopt pseudonyms. During the 1980s, several thrash and death metal bands formed a prototype for black metal. This so-called first wave included bands such as Venom , Bathory , Mercyful Fate , Hellhammer and Celtic Frost . A second wave arose in the early 1990s, spearheaded by Norwegian bands such as Mayhem , Darkthrone , Burzum , Immortal , Emperor , Satyricon and Gorgoroth . The early Norwegian black metal scene developed the style of their forebears into a distinct genre. Norwegian-inspired black metal scenes emerged throughout Europe and North America, although some other scenes developed their own styles independently. Some prominent Swedish bands spawned during this second wave, such as Marduk , Nifelheim and Dark Funeral . Initially a synonym for "Satanic metal," black metal is often met with hostility from mainstream culture, due to the actions and ideologies associated with it. Many artists express extreme anti-Christian and misanthropic views, advocating various forms of Satanism or ethnic paganism
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Death Metal
DEATH METAL is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal music . It typically employs heavily distorted and low-tuned guitars, played with techniques such as palm muting and tremolo picking , deep growling vocals and screams , aggressive, powerful drumming featuring double kick or blast beat techniques, minor keys or atonality , abrupt tempo , key , and time signature changes and chromatic chord progressions. The lyrical themes of death metal may invoke slasher film -stylized violence, religion (sometimes Satanism ), occultism , Lovecraftian horror , nature , mysticism , mythology , philosophy, science fiction, and politics, and they may describe extreme acts, including mutilation , dissection , torture , rape , cannibalism , and necrophilia . Building from the musical structure of thrash metal and early black metal , death metal emerged during the mid-1980s. Bands such as Venom , Celtic Frost , Slayer , and Kreator were important influences on the genre's creation. Possessed and Death , along with bands such as Obituary , Autopsy and Morbid Angel , are often considered pioneers of the genre. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, death metal gained more media attention as popular genre niche record labels like Combat , Earache , and Roadrunner , began to sign death metal bands at a rapid rate
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Emo
EMO /ˈiːmoʊ/ is a loosely categorized rock music genre characterized by expressive, often confessional, lyrics. It emerged as a style of post-hardcore from the mid-1980s hardcore punk movement of Washington, D.C., where it was known as EMOTIONAL HARDCORE or EMOCORE and pioneered by bands such as Rites of Spring and Embrace . However, as emo was echoed by contemporary American punk rock bands, its sound and meaning shifted and changed and it was reinvented as a style of indie rock and pop punk encapsulated in the early 1990s by bands such as Jawbreaker and Sunny Day Real Estate . By the mid-1990s, numerous emo acts formed in the Midwestern and Central United States , and several independent record labels began to specialize in the genre. Meanwhile, a more aggressive style of emo, screamo , had also emerged. Emo broke into mainstream culture in the early 2000s with the platinum-selling success of Jimmy Eat World and Dashboard Confessional . In the wake of this success, many emo bands were signed to major record labels and the style became a marketable product. By the early 2010s, the popularity of emo began to decrease. Some bands moved away from their emo roots and some bands disbanded. An underground "emo revival" emerged in the 2010s, with bands drawing on the sounds and aesthetics of emo of the 1990s and early 2000s
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Grunge
GRUNGE (sometimes referred to as the SEATTLE SOUND) is a subgenre of alternative rock and a subculture that emerged during the mid-1980s in the Pacific Northwest U.S. state of Washington , particularly in Seattle and nearby towns. The early grunge movement revolved around Seattle's independent record label Sub Pop and that region's underground music scene. By the early 1990s its popularity had spread, with grunge acts appearing in California, then surfacing towards other parts of the United States and in Australia, building strong followings and signing major record deals. Grunge became commercially successful in the early 1990s, due to releases such as Nirvana 's _ Nevermind _, Pearl Jam 's _Ten _, Soundgarden 's _ Superunknown _, Alice in Chains ' _Dirt _ and Stone Temple Pilots ' _Core _. The success of these bands boosted the popularity of alternative rock and made grunge the most popular form of rock music at the time. Although most grunge bands had disbanded or faded from view by the late 1990s, they influenced modern rock music, as their lyrics brought socially conscious issues into pop culture and added introspection and an exploration of what it means to be true to oneself . Grunge was also an influence on subsequent genres such as post-grunge (a derivative of grunge) and nu metal
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Industrial Metal
INDUSTRIAL METAL is a musical genre that draws from industrial dance music , thrash metal and hardcore punk , using repeating metal guitar riffs , sampling , synthesizer or sequencer lines, and distorted vocals. Founding industrial metal acts include Ministry , Godflesh , and KMFDM . Industrial metal developed in the late 1980s, as industrial and heavy metal began to fuse into a common genre. In the early years of the 21st century, groups from the black metal scene began to incorporate elements of industrial music. Industrial metal did well in the early 1990s, particularly in North America, with the success of groups such as Nine Inch Nails . The industrial metal movement began to fade in the latter half of the 1990s. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Early innovators * 1.2 Industrial thrash and death metal * 1.3 Industrial black metal * 1.4 Commercial rise * 2 Film and video * 3 Controversy * 4 See also * 5 References * 5.1 Notes * 5.2 Bibliography * 6 External links HISTORYEARLY INNOVATORSThough electric guitars had been used by industrial artists since the early days of the genre, archetypal industrial groups such as Throbbing Gristle displayed a strong anti-rock stance
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