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Hard Disk Drive
A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive or fixed disk[b] is a data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital information using one or more rigid rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material. The platters are paired with magnetic heads, usually arranged on a moving actuator arm, which read and write data to the platter surfaces.[2] Data is accessed in a random-access manner, meaning that individual blocks of data can be stored or retrieved in any order and not only sequentially. HDDs are a type of non-volatile storage, retaining stored data even when powered off.[3][4][5] Introduced by IBM
IBM
in 1956,[6] HDDs became the dominant secondary storage device for general-purpose computers by the early 1960s. Continuously improved, HDDs have maintained this position into the modern era of servers and personal computers
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Pound (mass)
The pound or pound-mass is a unit of mass used in the imperial, United States customary and other systems of measurement. Various definitions have been used; the most common today is the international avoirdupois pound, which is legally defined as exactly 6999453592370000000♠0.45359237 kilograms, and which is divided into 16 avoirdupois ounces.[1] The international standard symbol for the avoirdupois pound is lb;[2] an alternative symbol is lbm[3] (for most pound definitions), # (chiefly in the U.S.), and ℔[4] or ″̶[5] (specifically for the apothecaries' pound). The unit is descended from the Roman libra (hence the abbreviation "lb"). The English word pound is cognate with, among others, German Pfund, Dutch pond, and Swedish pund
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BYTE
The byte (/baɪt/) is a unit of digital information that most commonly consists of eight bits. Historically, the byte was the number of bits used to encode a single character of text in a computer[1][2] and for this reason it is the smallest addressable unit of memory in many computer architectures. The size of the byte has historically been hardware dependent and no definitive standards existed that mandated the size – byte-sizes from 1[3] to 48 bits[4] are known to have been used in the past. Early character encoding systems often used six bits, and machines using six-bit and nine-bit bytes were common into the 1960s. These machines most commonly had memory words of 12, 24, 36, 48 or 60 bits, corresponding to two, four, six, eight or 10 six-bit bytes
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Revolutions Per Minute
Revolutions per minute (abbreviated rpm, RPM, rev/min, r/min) is a measure of the frequency of rotation, specifically the number of rotations around a fixed axis in one minute. It is used as a measure of rotational speed of a mechanical component. In the French language, tr/min (tours par minute) is the common abbreviation. The German language uses the abbreviation U/min or u/min (Umdrehungen pro Minute).Contents1 International System of Units 2 Examples 3 See also 4 ReferencesInternational System of Units[edit] According to the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI), rpm is not a unit. This is because the word revolution is a semantic annotation rather than a unit. The annotation is instead done as a subscript of the formula sign if needed. Because of the measured physical quantity, the formula sign has to be f for (rotational) frequency and ω or Ω for angular velocity
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Inch
The inch (abbreviation: in or ″) is a unit of length in the (British) imperial and United States customary systems of measurement now formally equal to ​1⁄36 yard but usually understood as ​1⁄12 of a foot. Derived from the Roman uncia ("twelfth"), inch is also sometimes used to translate related units in other measurement systems, usually understood as deriving from the width of the human thumb
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Serial Attached SCSI
In computing, Serial Attached SCSI
SCSI
(SAS) is a point-to-point serial protocol that moves data to and from computer-storage devices such as hard drives and tape drives. SAS replaces the older Parallel SCSI (Parallel Small Computer System Interface, usually pronounced "scuzzy" or "sexy"[2]) bus technology that first appeared in the mid-1980s. SAS, like its predecessor, uses the standard SCSI command set. SAS offers optional compatibility with Serial ATA
Serial ATA
(SATA), versions 2 and later. This allows the connection of SATA drives to most SAS backplanes or controllers
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Cubic Foot
The cubic foot (symbol ft3)[1] is an imperial and US customary (non-metric) unit of volume, used in the United States, and partially in Canada, and the United Kingdom. It is defined as the volume of a cube with sides of one foot (0.3048 m) in length
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Cubic Metre
The cubic metre (in British English and international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures) or cubic meter (in American English) is the SI derived unit
SI derived unit
of volume.[1] Its SI symbol is m3.[1] It is the volume of a cube with edges one metre in length. An alternative name, which allowed a different usage with metric prefixes, was the stère, still sometimes used for dry measure (for instance, in reference to wood)
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Cubic Inch
The cubic inch (symbol in3)[1] is a unit of measurement for volume in the Imperial units
Imperial units
and United States customary units
United States customary units
systems
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Server (computing)
In computing, a server is a computer program or a device that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called "clients". This architecture is called the client–server model, and a single overall computation is distributed across multiple processes or devices. Servers can provide various functionalities, often called "services", such as sharing data or resources among multiple clients, or performing computation for a client. A single server can serve multiple clients, and a single client can use multiple servers
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History Of General-purpose CPUs
The history of general-purpose CPUs is a continuation of the earlier history of computing hardware.Contents1 1950s: Early designs 2 1960s: Computer revolution and CISC 3 Late 1960s–early 1970s: LSI and microprocessors 4 1970s: Microprocessor
Microprocessor
revolution 5 Early 1980s–1990s: Lessons of RISC 6 Mid-to-late 1980s: Exploiting instruction level parallelism 7 1990 to today: Looking forward7.1 VLIW and EPIC 7.2 Multi-threading 7.3 Multi-core7.3.1 Intelligent RAM7.4 Reconfigurable logic 7.5 Open source processors 7.6 Asynchronous CPUs 7.7 Optical communication 7.8 Optical processors 7.9 Ionic processors 7.10 Belt machine architecture8 Timeline of events 9 See also 10 References 11 External links1950s: Early designs[edit]A Vacuum tube module from early 700 series IBM
IBM
computersIn the early 1950s, each computer design was unique
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Cubic Centimetre
A cubic centimetre (or cubic centimeter in US English) (SI unit symbol: cm3; non-SI abbreviations: cc and ccm) is a commonly used unit of volume that extends the derived SI-unit cubic metre, and corresponds to the volume of a cube that measures 1 cm × 1 cm × 1 cm. One cubic centimetre corresponds to a volume of 1/1,000,000 of a cubic metre, or 1/1,000 of a litre, or one millilitre; thus, 1 cm3 ≡ 1 ml. The mass of one cubic centimetre of water at 3.98 °C (the temperature at which it attains its maximum density) is closely equal to one gram. SI supports only the use of symbols and deprecates the use of any abbreviations for units.[1] Hence cm3 is preferred to cc or ccm. Many scientific disciplines have replaced cubic centimeter measurements with milliliters, but the medical and automotive fields in the United States still use the term cubic centimetre. Much of the automotive industry outside the U.S. has switched to litres
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Kilogram
The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram
Kilogram
(IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"),[2] a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures
International Bureau of Weights and Measures
at Saint-Cloud, France. The kilogram was originally defined as the mass of a litre (cubic decimetre) of water at its freezing point. That was an inconvenient quantity to precisely replicate, so in the late 18th century a platinum artefact was fashioned as a standard for the kilogram
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Latency (engineering)
Latency is a time interval between the stimulation and response, or, from a more general point of view, a time delay between the cause and the effect of some physical change in the system being observed.[1] Latency is physically a consequence of the limited velocity with which any physical interaction can propagate. The magnitude of this velocity is always less than or equal to the speed of light. Therefore, every physical system will experience some sort of latency, regardless of the nature of stimulation that it has been exposed to. The precise definition of latency depends on the system being observed and the nature of stimulation. In communications, the lower limit of latency is determined by the medium being used for communications. In reliable two-way communication systems, latency limits the maximum rate that information can be transmitted, as there is often a limit on the amount of information that is "in-flight" at any one moment
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Block (data Storage)
In computing (specifically data transmission and data storage), a block, sometimes called a physical record, is a sequence of bytes or bits, usually containing some whole number of records, having a maximum length, a block size.[1] Data thus structured are said to be blocked. The process of putting data into blocks is called blocking, while deblocking is the process of extracting data from blocks. Blocked data is normally stored in a data buffer and read or written a whole block at a time. Blocking reduces the overhead and speeds up the handling of the data-stream.[2] For some devices such as magnetic tape and CKD disk devices blocking reduces the amount of external storage required for the data
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Random-access
In computer science, random access (more precisely and more generally called direct access) is the ability to access any item of data from a population of addressable elements roughly as easily and efficiently as any other, no matter how many elements may be in the set. It is typically contrasted to sequential access. For example, data might be stored notionally in a single sequence like a row, in two dimensions like rows and columns on a surface, or in multiple dimensions. However, given all the coordinates, a program can access each record about as quickly and easily as any other. In this sense the choice of data item is arbitrary in the sense that no matter which item is sought, all that is needed to find it, is its address, that is to say, the coordinates at which it is located, such as its row and column (or its track and record number on a magnetic drum)
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