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Haptodus BW
Haptodus
Haptodus
is an extinct genus of basal sphenacodonts, a clade that includes therapsids and hence, mammals. It was at least 1.5 metres (5 ft) in length. It lived from Latest Carboniferous
Carboniferous
to Early Permian. It was a medium-sized predator, feeding on insects and small vertebrates. H. garnettensis is currently the basalmost sphenacodontian.[1]Discovery and history[edit] Restoration of H. garnettensis Haptodus
Haptodus
baylei, the type species of Haptodus, is known only from a single, badly preserved specimen hosted in the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle of Paris. It was collected at Les Télots, near Autun
Autun
of France, from a terrestrial horizon dating to the Asselian stage of the Cisuralian
Cisuralian
series, about 299-296.4 million years old.[1][2] H. garnettensis is the best known species of the genus
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Late Carboniferous
The Pennsylvanian (also known as Upper Carboniferous
Carboniferous
or Late Carboniferous) is in the ICS geologic timescale, the younger of two subperiods (or upper of two subsystems) of the Carboniferous
Carboniferous
Period. It lasted from roughly 323.2 million years ago to 298.9 million years ago Ma (million years ago). As with most other geochronologic units, the rock beds that define the Pennsylvanian are well identified, but the exact date of the start and end are uncertain by a few hundred thousand years. The Pennsylvanian is named after the U.S. state of Pennsylvania, where the coal-productive beds of this age are widespread.[1] The division between Pennsylvanian and Mississippian comes from North American stratigraphy
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Redpath Museum
The Redpath Museum
Museum
is a museum of natural history belonging to McGill University and located on the university's campus at 859 Sherbrooke Street West in Montreal, Quebec. It was built in 1882 as a gift from the sugar baron Peter Redpath.[1] It houses collections of interest to ethnology, biology, paleontology, and mineralogy/geology. The collections were started by some of the same individuals who founded the Smithsonian
Smithsonian
and Royal Ontario Museum collections. The current director is Hans Larsson. Commissioned by Redpath to mark the 25th anniversary of Sir John William Dawson's appointment as Principal, the Museum
Museum
was designed by A.C. Hutchison and A.D. Steele
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Insects
See text.SynonymsEctognatha EntomidaInsects or Insecta (from Latin
Latin
insectum) are by far the largest group of hexapod invertebrates within the arthropod phylum. Definitions and circumscriptions vary; usually, insects comprise a class within the Phylum
Phylum
Arthropoda. As used here, the term is synonymous with Ectognatha. Insects have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body (head, thorax and abdomen), three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes and one pair of antennae
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Vertebrates
Fire salamander
Fire salamander
(Amphibia), saltwater crocodile (Reptilia), southern cassowary (Aves), black-and-rufous giant elephant shrew (Mammalia), ocean sunfish (Osteichthyes)Scientific classification Kingdom:AnimaliaPhylum:ChordataClade:OlfactoresSubphylum:VertebrataJ-B
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Muséum National D'histoire Naturelle
The French National Museum of Natural History, known in French as the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle
Muséum national d'histoire naturelle
(abbreviation MNHN), is the national natural history museum of France
France
and a grand établissement of higher education part of Sorbonne
Sorbonne
Universities. The main museum is located in Paris, France, on the left bank of the River Seine. It was founded in 1793 during the French Revolution, but was established earlier in 1635
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Autun
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Autun
Autun
(French pronunciation: ​[otœ̃]) is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire
Saône-et-Loire
department in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté
Bourgogne-Franche-Comté
in eastern France
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France
France
France
(French: [fʁɑ̃s]), officially the French Republic (French: République française [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France
France
in western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France
France
extends from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the English Channel
English Channel
and the North Sea, and from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Atlantic Ocean. The overseas territories include French Guiana
French Guiana
in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans
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Asselian
In the geologic timescale, the Asselian is the earliest geochronologic age or lowermost chronostratigraphic stage of the Permian. It is a subdivision of the Cisuralian
Cisuralian
epoch or series. The Asselian lasted between 298.9 and 295 million years ago (Ma). It was preceded by the Gzhelian (the latest or uppermost subdivision in the Carboniferous) and followed by the Sakmarian.[2]Contents1 Stratigraphy 2 Palaeontology2.1 Amphibians 2.2 Synapsids3 References 4 External linksStratigraphy[edit] The Asselian stage was introduced into scientific literature in 1954, when the Russian stratigrapher V.E. Ruzhenchev split it from the Artinskian. At that moment the Artinskian
Artinskian
still encompassed most of the lower Permian
Permian
- its current definitions are more restricted
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Cisuralian
The Permian
Permian
is a geologic period and system which spans 46.7 million years from the end of the Carboniferous
Carboniferous
Period 298.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Triassic
Triassic
period 251.902 Mya. It is the last period of the Paleozoic
Paleozoic
era; the following Triassic
Triassic
period belongs to the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
era. The concept of the Permian
Permian
was introduced in 1841 by geologist Sir Roderick Murchison, who named it after the city of Perm. The Permian
Permian
witnessed the diversification of the early amniotes into the ancestral groups of the mammals, turtles, lepidosaurs, and archosaurs. The world at the time was dominated by two continents known as Pangaea
Pangaea
and Siberia, surrounded by a global ocean called Panthalassa
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Series (stratigraphy)
Series are subdivisions of rock layers based on the age of the rock and formally defined by international conventions of the geological timescale. A series is therefore a sequence of strata defining a chronostratigraphic unit
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Million Years Ago
The abbreviation myr, "million years", is a unit of a quantity of 7006100000000000000♠1,000,000 (i.e. 7006100000000000000♠1×106) years, or 31.6 teraseconds.Contents1 Usage 2 Debate 3 See also 4 ReferencesUsage[edit] Myr
Myr
is in common use where the term is often written, such as in Earth science and cosmology. Myr
Myr
is seen with mya, "million years ago". Together they make a reference system, one to a quantity, the other to a particular place in a year numbering system that is time before the present. Myr
Myr
is deprecated in geology, but in astronomy myr is standard
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Holotype
A holotype is a single physical example (or illustration) of an organism, known to have been used when the species (or lower-ranked taxon) was formally described. It is either the single such physical example (or illustration) or one of several such, but explicitly designated as the holotype. Under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN), a holotype is one of several kinds of name-bearing types. In the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) and ICZN the definitions of types are similar in intent but not identical in terminology or underlying concept. For example, the holotype for the butterfly Lycaeides idas
Lycaeides idas
longinus is a preserved specimen of that species, held by the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University
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Skeleton
The skeleton is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism. There are several different skeletal types: the exoskeleton, which is the stable outer shell of an organism, the endoskeleton, which forms the support structure inside the body, the hydroskeleton, and the cytoskeleton. The term comes from Greek σκελετός(skeletós), meaning 'dried up'.[1])Contents1 Types of skeletons1.1 Exoskeleton 1.2 Endoskeleton 1.3 Pliant skeletons 1.4 Rigid skeletons 1.5 Cytoskeleton 1.6 Fluid skeletons1.6.1 Hydrostatic skeleton (hydroskeleton)2 Organisms with skeletons2.1 Invertebrates2.1.1 Sponges 2.1.2 Echinoderms2.2 Vertebrates2.2.1 Fish 2.2.2 Birds 2.2.3 Marine mammals 2.2.4 Humans3 Bones and cartilage3.1 Bone 3.2 Cartilage4 In popular culture 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksTypes of skeletons[edit] There are two major types of skeletons: solid and fluid
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Therapsid
Therapsida
Therapsida
is a group of synapsids that includes mammals and their ancestors.[1][2] Many of the traits today seen as unique to mammals had their origin within early therapsids, including having their four limbs extend vertically beneath the body, as opposed to the sprawling posture of other reptiles. The earliest fossil attributed to Therapsida
Therapsida
is Tetraceratops
Tetraceratops
insignis from the Lower Permian.[3][4] Therapsids evolved from pelycosaurs (specifically sphenacodonts) 275 million years ago
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Cranium
The skull is a bony structure that forms the head in most vertebrates. It supports the structures of the face and provides a protective cavity for the brain.[1] The skull is composed of two parts: the cranium and the mandible. In the human these two parts are the neurocranium and the viscerocranium or facial skeleton that includes the mandible as its largest bone. The skull forms the anterior most portion of the skeleton and is a product of cephalisation—housing the brain, and several sensory structures such as the eyes, ears, nose, and mouth.[2] In humans these sensory structures are part of the facial skeleton. Functions of the skull include protection of the brain, fixing the distance between the eyes to allow stereoscopic vision, and fixing the position of the ears to enable sound localisation of the direction and distance of sounds
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