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Haplogroup L1 (mtDNA)
Haplogroup L1 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. It is most common in Central Africa
Central Africa
and West Africa.Contents1 Origin 2 Distribution 3 Subclades3.1 Tree4 See also 5 References 6 Notes 7 External linksOrigin[edit]Projected spatial distribution of haplogroup L1 in Africa.Haplogroup L1 is believed to have appeared approximately 110,000 to 170,000 years ago.[citation needed] Haplogroup L1 is a daughter of L1-6 and genetic marker changes are 3666, 7055, 7389, 13789, 14178 and 14560. Although it is typically used to denote a group of lineages found within Africa, L1 is sometimes referred to as haplogroup L1-6. The latter is the macrohaplogroup that includes the majority of Africa-based clades and all haplogroups centered outside of the continent. Haplogroup L1-6 is the macrohaplogroup that includes subclades L1, L2, L4, L5, L6, and also L3, which gave rise to the two non-African haplogroups M and N
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Central Africa
Central Africa
Africa
is the core region of the African continent which includes Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Rwanda
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Gabon
Coordinates: 1°S 12°E / 1°S 12°E / -1; 12This article is about the country
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Nigeria
The Federal Republic
Republic
of Nigeria, commonly referred to as Nigeria (/naɪˈdʒɪəriə/ ( listen)), is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin
Benin
in the west, Chad
Chad
and Cameroon
Cameroon
in the east, and Niger
Niger
in the north. Its coast in the south lies on the Gulf of Guinea
Guinea
in the Atlantic Ocean. It comprises 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory, where the capital, Abuja
Abuja
is located. Nigeria
Nigeria
is officially a democratic secular country.[6] Nigeria
Nigeria
has been home to a number of kingdoms and tribal states over the millennia
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Morocco
Coordinates: 32°N 6°W / 32°N 6°W / 32; -6Kingdom of Moroccoالمملكة المغربية (Arabic) ⵜⴰⴳⵍⴷⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ (Berber)FlagCoat of armsMotto:  لله، الوطن، الملك  (Arabic) Allah, Al Watan, Al Malik ⴰⴽⵓⵛ, ⴰⵎⵓⵔ, ⴰⴳⵍⵍⵉⴷ (Berber)"God, Homeland, King"Anthem:  النشيد الوطني المغربي  (Arabic) ⵉⵣⵍⵉ ⴰⵏⴰⵎⵓⵔ ⵏ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ  (Berber) Cherifian AnthemDark green: Internationally recognized territory of Morocco. Lighter green: Western Sahara, a territory claimed and mostly controlled by Morocco
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Algeria
Coordinates: 28°N 2°E / 28°N 2°E / 28; 2People's Democratic Republic
Republic
of Algeriaالجمهورية الجزائرية الديمقراطية الشعبية (Arabic)République Algérienne Démocratique et Populaire  (French) Flag Emblem Motto: بالشّعب وللشّعب("By the people and for the people")[1][2]Anthem: Kassaman(English: "We Pledge")Location of Algeria (dark green)Capitaland largest cityAlgiers36°42′N 3°13′E / 36.700°N 3.21
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Pygmy
A pygmy is a member of an ethnic group whose average height is unusually short; anthropologists define pygmy as a member of any group where adult men are on average less than 150 cm (4 feet 11 inches) tall.[1] A member of a slightly taller group is termed "pygmoid".[2] The term is most associated with peoples of Central Africa, such as the Aka, Efé and Mbuti.[3] If the term pygmy is defined as a group's men having an average height below 1.55 meters (5 feet 1 inch), then there are also pygmies in Australia, Thailand, Malaysia, India,[4] Indonesia, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Bolivia, and Brazil,[5] including some Negritos of Southeast Asia.[citation needed]Contents1 Etymology 2 Origins 3 Africa3.1 Groups 3.2 Origins 3.3 Abuse by non-Pygmies3.3.1 Reported genocide
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Gyele Language
The Kwasio language, also known as Ngumba / Mvumbo, Bujeba, and Gyele / Kola, is a language of Cameroon, spoken in the south along the coast and at the border with Equatorial Guinea
Equatorial Guinea
by some 70 000[citation needed] members of the Ngumba, Kwasio, Gyele and Mabi peoples.[citation needed] Many authors[4][5][6] view Kwasio and the Gyele/Kola language as distinct. In the Ethnologue, the languages therefore receive different codes: Kwasio has the ISO 639-3 code nmg,[7] while Gyele has the code gyi.[8] The Kwasio, Ngumba, and Mabi are village farmers; the Gyele (also known as the Kola or Koya) are nomadic Pygmy hunter-gatherers living in the rain forest. Dialects are Kwasio (also known as Kwassio, Bisio), Mvumbo (also known as Ngumba, Ngoumba, Mgoumba, Mekuk), and Mabi (Mabea)
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Aka People
The Aka or Bayaka[1] (also BiAka, Babenzele) are a nomadic Mbenga pygmy people. They live in southwestern Central African Republic
Central African Republic
and the Brazzaville
Brazzaville
region of the Republic of the Congo. An ecologically diverse people, they occupy 11 different ecological zones of the Western Congo Basin. They are related to the Baka people of Cameroon, Gabon, northern Congo, and southwestern Central African Republic. Unlike the Mbuti
Mbuti
pygmies of the eastern Congo (who speak only the language of the tribes with whom they are affiliated), the Aka speak their own language along with whichever of the approximately 15 Bantu peoples they are affiliated. In 2003, the oral traditions of the Aka were proclaimed one of the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity
Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity
by UNESCO
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Bedzan People
The Bedzan people (singular Medzan), also known as the Tikar (not to be confused with the Bantoid
Bantoid
Tikar people), are a Pygmy
Pygmy
(or perhaps pygmoid) people of Cameroon. The Bedzan community is primarily located in the village of Yoko, on the Tikar Plain, in the Mbam-et-Kim department of Centre Region, and is estimated at between 250[1] and 1,200.[2] They live at the interface of the forest and the savannah, and their language is a dialect of Tikar, which is related to the Bantu languages. Although not particularly short in stature—at least any longer—the Bedzan are considered Pygmies because of their historical ties to the forest and cultural features such as their music.[3] References[edit]^ Hewlett & Fancher (2011) "Central African Hunter-Gatherer Research Traditions". In Cummings, Jordan, & Zvelebil, eds, Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology and Anthropology of Hunter-Gatherers. ^ Barbier, J.-C
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Baka (Cameroon And Gabon)
The Baka people, known in the Congo as Bayaka (Bebayaka, Bebayaga, Bibaya),[1] are an ethnic group inhabiting the southeastern rain forests of Cameroon, northern Republic of Congo, northern Gabon, and southwestern Central African Republic
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Cameroon
Coordinates: 6°N 12°E / 6°N 12°E / 6; 12Republic of Cameroon République du Cameroun  (French)FlagCoat of armsMotto:  "Paix – Travail – Patrie" (French) "Peace – Work – Fatherland"Anthem:  Ô Cameroun, Berceau de nos Ancêtres  (French) (English: "O Cameroon, Cradle of our Forefathers")Capital Yaoundé[1] 3°52′N 11°31′E / 3.867°N 11.517°E / 3.867; 11.517Largest city Douala[1]Official languages French EnglishEthnic groups31% Cameroon
Cameroon
Highlanders
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Senegal
Coordinates: 14°N 14°W / 14°N 14°W / 14; -14 Republic
Republic
of Senegal République du Sénégal  (French)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Un Peuple, Un But, Une Foi" (French) "One People, One Goal, One Faith"Anthem:  Pincez Tous vos Koras, Frappez les Balafons Everyone strum your koras, strike the balafonsLocation of  Senegal  (dark blue) in the African Union  (light blue)Capital and largest city Dakar 14°40′N 17°25′W / 14.667°N 17.417°W / 14.667; -17.417Official language
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Bakoya
The Bakoya are pygmies, earlier known as Négrilles or Babinga,[1] who inhabitant the rainforest between Cameroon
Cameroon
and the Great Lake
Great Lake
region of the Congo Basin
Congo Basin
in Central Africa. Since the 1930s, the Bakoya, in particular, have settled in Gabon
Gabon
in the Ogooue-Ivindo Province,[1] in the northeastern region of the country.[2] Similar minority groups are the Babongo and the Baka pygmies. Before they adapted to the agricultural practices in the new settlements in Gabon
Gabon
along the flanks of the road, Bakoya were “semi-nomadic hunter-gatherers” like the other forest-dwelling pygmies; they resided in small huts.[1] The word 'Pygmee' is a French coinage, adopted by the Gabonese
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Bongo People (Gabon)
The Bongo people, or Babongo, are an agricultural people of Gabon
Gabon
in equatorial Africa
Africa
who are known as "forest people" due to their recent foraging economy. Though considered Mbenga Pygmies, they are not particularly short. They are originators of the Bwiti religion, based on consumption of the intoxicating hallucinogenic iboga plant. There is no one Bongo language. They speak the languages of their Bantu neighbors, with some dialectical differentiation due to their distinct culture and history; among these are Tsogo (the Babongo-Tsogho), Nzebi (the Babongo-Nzebi), West Téké (the Babongo-Iyaa), Punu (the Babongo-Rimba), and Lumbu (the Babongo-Gama), and Myene (the Babongo-Akoa). Yasa in Gabon
Gabon
is reportedly spoken by "Pygmies"; Yasa-speakers speak a different language than their patrons, unlike any other group in Gabon
Gabon
apart from the Baka
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São Tomé
São Tomé
São Tomé
is the capital city of the African Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe
Príncipe
and is by far the nation's largest town. Its name is Portuguese for "Saint Thomas". The population of its agglomeration is 71,868 (2015 est.).[1]Contents1 History 2 Geography and location 3 Population history 4 Transport 5 Climate 6 Education 7 Health 8 Points of interest 9 Sports 10 Notable people10.1 Sports11 Twin towns and Sister cities 12 References 13 External linksHistory[edit] São Tomé
São Tomé
was founded by Alvaro Caminha in 1493. The Portuguese came to São Tomé
São Tomé
in search of land to grow sugar. The island was uninhabited before the arrival of the Portuguese sometime around 1470. São Tomé
São Tomé
was right on the equator and wet enough to grow sugar in wild abundance
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