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Hanyu Pinyin
PINYIN, or HàNYǔ PīNYīN, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China , Malaysia , Singapore , and Taiwan . It is often used to teach Standard Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters . The system includes four diacritics denoting tones . Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet , and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang , based on earlier forms of romanization of Chinese . It was published by the Chinese government in 1958 and revised several times. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, followed by the United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for romanization alone (in part to make areas more English-friendly) rather than for educational and computer-input purposes. The word _Hànyǔ_ (simplified Chinese : 汉语; traditional Chinese : 漢語) means the spoken language of the Han people . _Pīnyīn_ (拼音) literally means "spelled sounds"
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Pinyin (other)
PINYIN (Hànyǔ Pīnyīn) is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in China, Singapore and (since 2009) Taiwan. PINYIN can also refer to other transcription systems used in China: * For varieties of Chinese: * Tongyong Pinyin , a derivative of Hanyu Pinyin used officially in Taiwan between 2002 and 2008 * Wēituǒmǎ Pīnyīn, the Chinese name for the Wade–Giles system of Mandarin language romanization * Cantonese Pinyin , a standard romanization of Cantonese used in Hong Kong* Yēlǔ pīnyīn, romanization systems of Asian languages developed at Yale: * Yale romanisation of Cantonese * Yale romanisation of Mandarin * Yale romanisation of Korean * For other languages of China: * Tibetan pinyin , the official transcription system for Standard Tibetan in China * Uyghur pinyin , one of the official transcription systems for the Uyghur language in ChinaOTHER * Pinyin language , a Niger–Congo language spoken by some 27,000 people in the Northwest region of Cameroon * Pinyin (village) , a village in Santa commune, Mezam department, Northwest region, Cameroon This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title PINYIN. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article
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Chinese Language
LEGEND: Countries identified Chinese as a primary, administrative, or native language Countries with more than 5,000,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 1,000,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 500,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 100,000 Chinese speakers Major Chinese-speaking settlements THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters
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Standard Chinese
STANDARD CHINESE, also known as MODERN STANDARD MANDARIN, STANDARD MANDARIN, or simply MANDARIN, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China
China
and Taiwan
Taiwan
, and also one of the four official languages of Singapore
Singapore
. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect , its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects , and its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese . Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order. It has more initial consonants but fewer vowels, final consonants and tones than southern varieties. Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is an analytic language , though with many compound words . There exist two standardised forms of the language, namely PUTONGHUA in Mainland China
China
and GUOYU in Taiwan. Aside from a number of differences in pronunciation and vocabulary, Putonghua is written using simplified Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(plus Hanyu Pinyin romanization for teaching), while Guoyu is written using traditional Chinese characters (plus Bopomofo for teaching). There are many characters that are identical between the two systems
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Hanyu Pinyin
PINYIN, or HàNYǔ PīNYīN, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China , Malaysia , Singapore , and Taiwan . It is often used to teach Standard Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters . The system includes four diacritics denoting tones . Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet , and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang , based on earlier forms of romanization of Chinese . It was published by the Chinese government in 1958 and revised several times. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, followed by the United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for romanization alone (in part to make areas more English-friendly) rather than for educational and computer-input purposes. The word _Hànyǔ_ (simplified Chinese : 汉语; traditional Chinese : 漢語) means the spoken language of the Han people . _Pīnyīn_ (拼音) literally means "spelled sounds"
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Bopomofo
_ Egyptian hieroglyphs _ 32 c. BCE * _ Hieratic _ 32 c. BCE * _Demotic _ 7 c. BCE * _Meroitic _ 3 c. BCE* _Proto-Sinaitic _ 19 c. BCE * _Ugaritic _ 15 c. BCE* _Epigraphic South Arabian _ 9 c. BCE * Ge’ez 5–6 c. BCE* _Phoenician _ 12 c. BCE * _Paleo-Hebrew _ 10 c. BCE * Samaritan 6 c. BCE* _ Libyco-Berber 3 c. BCE_ * Tifinagh * _Paleohispanic _ (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE* Aramaic 8 c. BCE * _ Kharoṣṭhī _ 4 c. BCE* _Brāhmī _ 4 c. BCE * Brahmic family _(see)_ * E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE * Hangul (core letters only) 1443* Devanagari 13 c. CE * Canadian syllabics 1840 * Hebrew 3 c. BCE* _Pahlavi _ 3 c. BCE * _Avestan _ 4 c. CE * _Palmyrene _ 2 c. BCE* Syriac 2 c. BCE * _Nabataean _ 2 c. BCE * Arabic 4 c. CE * N\'Ko 1949 CE* _Sogdian _ 2 c. BCE * _Orkhon (old Turkic)_ 6 c. CE * _Old Hungarian _ c. 650 CE* _Old Uyghur _ * Mongolian 1204 CE * Mandaic 2 c. CE* Greek 8 c. BCE * _Etruscan _ 8 c. BCE * Latin 7 c. BCE * Cherokee (syllabary; letter forms only) c. 1820 CE * _Runic _ 2 c. CE * _ Ogham _ (origin uncertain) 4 c. CE * _Coptic _ 3 c. CE * _Gothic _ 3 c. CE * Armenian 405 CE * Georgian (origin uncertain) c. 430 CE * _Glagolitic _ 862 CE* Cyrillic c. 940 CE * _Old Permic _ 1372 CE Thaana 18 c
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Wade–giles
WADE–GILES (/ˌweɪd ˈdʒaɪlz/ ), sometimes abbreviated WADE, is a Romanization system for Mandarin Chinese . It developed from a system produced by Thomas Wade , during the mid-19th century, and was given completed form with Herbert A. Giles 's _Chinese–English Dictionary _ of 1892. Wade–Giles was the system of transcription in the English-speaking world for most of the 20th century, used in standard reference books and in English language books published before 1979. It replaced the Nanking dialect -based romanization systems that had been common until the late 19th century, such as the Postal Romanization
Postal Romanization
(still used in some place-names). In mainland China it has been entirely replaced by the Hanyu Pinyin system approved in 1958. Outside mainland China, it has mostly been replaced by Pīnyīn, even though Taiwan
Taiwan
implements a multitude of Romanization systems in daily life. Additionally, its usage can be seen in the common English names of certain individuals and locations such as Chiang Ching-kuo
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Wu Chinese
WU ( Shanghainese : Wu Chinese
Wu Chinese
pronunciation: , Suzhou dialect : Wu Chinese pronunciation: , Wuxi dialect : Wu Chinese
Wu Chinese
pronunciation: ) is a group of linguistically similar and historically related varieties of Chinese primarily spoken in the whole city of Shanghai
Shanghai
, Zhejiang province, southern Jiangsu
Jiangsu
province and bordering areas. Major Wu varieties include those of Shanghai
Shanghai
, Suzhou
Suzhou
, Ningbo , Wuxi , Wenzhou/Oujiang , Hangzhou
Hangzhou
, Shaoxing , Jinhua and Yongkang. Wu speakers, such as Chiang Kai-shek , Lu Xun
Lu Xun
and Cai Yuanpei , occupied positions of great importance in modern Chinese culture and politics. Wu can also be found being used in Shaoxing opera , which is second only in national popularity to Peking opera
Peking opera
; as well as in the performances of the popular entertainer and comedian Zhou Libo . Wu is also spoken in a large number of diaspora communities, with significant centers of immigration originating from Shanghai
Shanghai
, Qingtian and Wenzhou
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Hakka Chinese
79-AAA-g > 79-AAA-ga (+ 79-AAA-gb transition to 79-AAA-h) THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA . THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS CHINESE TEXT. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters . Hakka TRADITIONAL CHINESE 客家話 SIMPLIFIED CHINESE 客家话 HAKKA Hak-kâ-fa or Hak-kâ-va TRANSCRIPTIONS STANDARD MANDARIN HANYU PINYIN Kèjiāhuà WU ROMANIZATION Kah-ka-ho GAN ROMANIZATION Khak-ka-ua HAKKA ROMANIZATION Hak-kâ-fa or Hak-kâ-va YUE: CANTONESE YALE ROMANIZATION haak gā wá JYUTPING haak3 gaa1 waa2 SOUTHERN MIN HOKKIEN POJ Kheh-oē (客話)HAKKA /ˈhækə/ , also rendered KEJIA, is one of the major groups of varieties of Chinese , spoken natively by the Hakka people throughout in southern China
China
, Taiwan
Taiwan
, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and throughout the diaspora areas of East Asia
East Asia
, Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
, and in overseas Chinese around the world
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Cantonese
CANTONESE, or STANDARD CANTONESE, is a variety of the Chinese language spoken within the city of Canton (Guangzhou) and its vicinity in southeastern China. It is the traditional prestige variety of Yue , one of the major subdivisions of Chinese. In mainland China , it is the main _lingua franca _ of the province of Guangdong and some neighbouring areas such as Guangxi , being the majority language of the Pearl River Delta . It is the dominant and official language of Hong Kong and Macau . Cantonese is also widely spoken amongst overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia (most notably in Vietnam and Malaysia , as well as in Singapore and Cambodia to a lesser extent) and throughout the Western world . While the term _Cantonese_ refers narrowly to the prestige variety , it is often used in a broader sense for the entire Yue subdivision of Chinese, including related but largely mutually unintelligible languages such as Taishanese . When Cantonese and the closely-related Yuehai dialects are classified together, there are about 80 million total speakers. Cantonese is viewed as vital part of the cultural identity for its native speakers across large swathes of southeastern China , Hong Kong and Macau
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Yale Romanization Of Cantonese
The YALE ROMANIZATION OF CANTONESE was developed by Gerard P. Kok for his and Parker Po-fei Huang's textbook _Speak Cantonese_ (1958). Unlike the Yale romanization of Mandarin , it is still widely used in books and dictionaries, especially for foreign learners of Cantonese
Cantonese
. It shares some similarities with Hanyu Pinyin in that unvoiced, unaspirated consonants are represented by letters traditionally used in English and most other European languages to represent voiced sounds. For example, is represented as _b_ in Yale, whereas its aspirated counterpart, is represented as _p_. Because of this, the Yale romanization is easy for English speakers to pronounce without much training. Students studying Cantonese
Cantonese
at the University of Hong Kong learn the Jyutping
Jyutping
system of romanization, while those who attend The Chinese University of Hong Kong 's New-Asia Yale-in-China Chinese Language Center are taught to use the Yale romanization
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Jyutping
JYUTPING (Chinese : 粵拼; Jyutping: _Jyut6ping3_; Cantonese pronunciation: ) is a romanisation system for Cantonese
Cantonese
developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK), an academic group, in 1993. Its formal name is _THE LINGUISTIC SOCIETY OF HONG KONG CANTONESE ROMANISATION SCHEME_. The LSHK promotes the use of this romanisation system. The name _Jyutping_ (itself the Jyutping
Jyutping
romanisation of its Chinese name, 粵拼) is a contraction consisting of the first Chinese characters of the terms _Jyut6jyu5_ (粵語, meaning "Cantonese speech") and _ping3jam1_ (拼音 "phonetic alphabet")
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Guangdong Romanization
GUANGDONG ROMANIZATION refers to the four romanization schemes published by the Guangdong Provincial Education Department in 1960 for transliterating Cantonese , Teochew , Hakka , and Hainanese . The schemes utilized similar elements with some differences in order to adapt to their respective spoken varieties. In certain respects, Guangdong romanization resembles pinyin in its distinction of the alveolar initials _z_, _c_, _s_ from the alveolo-palatal initials _j_, _q_, _x_, and in its use of _b_, _d_, _g_ to represent the unaspirated stop consonants /p t k/. In addition, it makes use of the medial _u_ before the rime rather than representing it as _w_ in the initial when it follows _g_ or _k_. Guangdong romanization makes use of diacritics to represent certain vowels. This includes the use of the circumflex , acute accent , and diaeresis in the letters _ê_, _é_, and _ü_, respectively. In addition, it uses _-b_, _-d_, _-g_ to represent the coda consonants /p t k/ rather than _-p_, _-t_, _-k_ like other romanization schemes in order to be consistent with their use as unaspirated plosives in the initial. Tones are marked by superscript numbers rather than by diacritics
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Southern Min
SOUTHERN MIN, or MINNAN (simplified Chinese : 闽南语; traditional Chinese : 閩南語), is a branch of Min Chinese
Min Chinese
spoken in certain parts of China
China
including southern Fujian
Fujian
(the Minnan region
Minnan region
), eastern Guangdong
Guangdong
, Hainan
Hainan
, and southern Zhejiang
Zhejiang
, and in Taiwan
Taiwan
. The Minnan dialects are also spoken by descendants of emigrants from these areas in diaspora , most notably the Philippines
Philippines
, Indonesia
Indonesia
, Malaysia
Malaysia
and Singapore
Singapore
. In common parlance, Southern Min
Southern Min
usually refers to Hokkien
Hokkien
, including Amoy and Taiwanese Hokkien
Hokkien
; both are combinations of Quanzhou
Quanzhou
and Zhangzhou speeches. The Southern Min
Southern Min
dialect group also includes Teochew , though Teochew has limited mutual intelligibility with Hokkien
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Hokkien
HOKKIEN /hɒˈkiɛn/ (from Chinese : 福建話; Pe̍h-ōe-jī : _Hok-kiàn-oē_) is a Southern Min dialect group spoken throughout Southeastern China , Taiwan and Southeast Asia , and by other overseas Chinese . Hokkien originated in southern Fujian , the Min-speaking province. It is closely related to Teochew , though there is limited mutual intelligibility , and is somewhat more distantly related to Hainanese and Leizhou dialect . Besides Hokkien, there are also other Min and Hakka dialects in Fujian province, most of which are not mutually intelligible with Hokkien. Hokkien historically served as the lingua franca amongst overseas Chinese communities of all dialects and subgroups in Southeast Asia, and remains today as the most spoken variety of Chinese in the region, including in Singapore , Malaysia , Indonesia , Philippines and some parts of Indochina (particularly Thailand, Laos and Cambodia)
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Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Southern Min Amoy Taiwanese CREATOR Walter Henry Medhurst Elihu Doty John Van Nest Talmage TIME PERIOD 1830s–present CHILD SYSTEMS TLPA Taiwanese Romanization System
Taiwanese Romanization System
THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters.PE̍H-ōE-Jī (pronounced ( listen ), abbreviated POJ, literally vernacular writing, also known as CHURCH ROMANIZATION) is an orthography used to write variants of Southern Min Chinese, particularly Taiwanese Southern Min and Amoy Hokkien
Hokkien
. Developed by Western missionaries working among the Chinese diaspora in Southeast Asia in the 19th century and refined by missionaries working in Xiamen and Tainan
Tainan
, it uses a modified Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
and some diacritics to represent the spoken language. After initial success in Fujian , POJ became most widespread in Taiwan
Taiwan
and, in the mid-20th century, there were over 100,000 people literate in POJ. A large amount of printed material, religious and secular, has been produced in the script, including Taiwan
Taiwan
's first newspaper, the Taiwan
Taiwan
Church News
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