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Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Romanization
Romanization
(simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
in mainland China
China
and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang,[1] based on earlier form romanizations of Chinese
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Wenzhounese
Wenzhounese (simplified Chinese: 温州话; traditional Chinese: 溫州話; pinyin: wēnzhōuhuà), also known as Oujiang (simplified Chinese: 瓯江话; traditional Chinese: 甌江話; pinyin: ōujiānghuà), Tong Au (simplified Chinese: 东瓯片; traditional Chinese: 東甌片; pinyin: dōngōupiàn) or Auish (simplified Chinese: 瓯语; traditional Chinese: 甌語; pinyin: ōuyŭ), is the language spoken in Wenzhou, the southern prefecture of Zhejiang, China. Nicknamed the "Devil's Language" for its complexity and difficulty, it is the most divergent division of Wu Chinese, with little to no mutual intelligibility with other Wu dialects or any other variety of Chinese. It features noticeable elements in common with Min Chinese, which is spoken to the south in Fujian
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Amoy Dialect
The Amoy
Amoy
dialect or Xiamen
Xiamen
dialect (Chinese: 廈門話; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Ē-mn̂g-ōe), also known as Amoynese, Amoy
Amoy
Hokkien, Xiamenese or Xiamen
Xiamen
Hokkien, is a dialect of Hokkien
Hokkien
spoken in the city of Xiamen (historically known as "Amoy") and its surrounding metropolitan area, in the southern part of Fujian
Fujian
province
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Unicode
Unicode
Unicode
is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems. The latest version contains a repertoire of 136,755 characters covering 139 modern and historic scripts, as well as multiple symbol sets
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International Phonetic Alphabet
The International
International
Phonetic Alphabet
Alphabet
(IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet
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Traditional Chinese Characters
Traditional Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字; simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字; Pinyin: Zhèngtǐzì/Fántǐzì) are Chinese characters
Chinese characters
in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau
Macau
or in the Kangxi Dictionary
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Sichuanese Dialect
Sichuanese (simplified Chinese: 四川话; traditional Chinese: 四川話; Sichuanese Pinyin: Si4cuan1hua4; pinyin: Sìchuānhuà; Wade–Giles: Szŭ4-ch'uan1-hua4), or Sichuanese/Szechwanese Mandarin, (simplified Chinese: 四川官话; traditional Chinese: 四川官話; pinyin: Sìchuān Guānhuà) commonly known as Sichuanese, or Szechwanese is a branch of Southwestern Mandarin, spoken mainly in Sichuan
Sichuan
and Chongqing, which was part of Sichuan
Sichuan
Province until 1997, and the adjacent regions of their neighboring provinces, such as Hubei, Guizhou, Yunnan, Hunan
Hunan
and Shaanxi. Although "Sichuanese" is often synonymous with the Chengdu- Chongqing
Chongqing
dialect, there is still a great amount of diversity among the Sichuanese dialects, some of which are mutually unintelligible with each other
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Pinyin (other)
Pinyin (Hànyǔ Pīnyīn) is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in China, Singapore and (since 2009) Taiwan. Pinyin can also refer to other transcription systems used in China:For varieties of Chinese:Tongyong Pinyin, a derivative of Hanyu Pinyin used officially in Taiwan between 2002 and 2008 Wēituǒmǎ Pīnyīn, the Chinese name for the Wade–Giles system of Mandarin language romanization Cantonese Pinyin, a standard romanization of Cantonese used in Hong Kong Yēlǔ pīnyīn, romanization systems of Asian languages developed at Yale:Yale romanisation of Cantonese Yale romanisation of Mandarin Yale romanisation of KoreanFor other languages of China:Tibetan pinyin, the official transcription system for Standard Tibetan in China Uyghur pinyin, one of the official transcription systems for the Uyghur language in ChinaOther[edit]Pinyin language, a Niger–Congo language spoken by some 27,000 people in the Northwest reg
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Lessing-Othmer
Lessing-Othmer is a romanisation of Mandarin Chinese that was once used by Germans written by F. Lessing and Dr. W
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Legge Romanization
Legge romanization is a transcription system for Mandarin Chinese, used by the prolific 19th century sinologist James Legge. It was replaced by the Wade–Giles system, which itself has been mostly supplanted by Pinyin. The Legge system is still to be found in Legge's widely available translation of the Yijing, and in some derivative works such as Aleister Crowley's version of the Yijing
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Simplified Wade
Simplified Wade, abbreviated SW, is a modification of the Wade–Giles romanization system for writing Standard Mandarin Chinese. It was devised by the Swedish linguist Olov Bertil Anderson (1920–1993),[1] who first published the system in 1969.[2] Simplified Wade uses tonal spelling: in other words it modifies the letters in a syllable in order to indicate tone differences. It is one of only two Mandarin romanization systems that indicate tones in such a way (the other being Gwoyeu Romatzyh)
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Comparison Of Chinese Transcription Systems
This comparison of Chinese transcription systems[1] comprises a list of all syllables which are considered phonemically distinguishable within Standard Mandarin. Gwoyeu Romatzyh
Gwoyeu Romatzyh
employs a different spelling for each tone, whereas other systems employ tone marks or superscript numerals.Zhuyin Wade- Giles MPS II Yale Tong- yong Hanyu Pinyin Gwoyeu Romatzyh IPATone 1 Tone 2 Tone 3 Tone 4ㄚ a a a a a a ar aa ah aㄞ ai ai ai ai ai ai air ae ay aiㄢ an an an an an an arn aan ann anㄤ ang ang ang ang ang ang arng
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Hong Kong Government Cantonese Romanisation
The Hong Kong Government uses an unpublished system of Romanisation of Cantonese
Cantonese
for public purposes which is based on the 1888 standard described by Roy T Cowles in 1914 as Standard Romanisation.[1]:iv The primary need for Romanisation of Cantonese
Cantonese
by the Hong Kong Government is in the assigning of names to new streets and places
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Wenzhounese Romanisation
Romanisation
Romanisation
of the Wenzhou dialect of Wu Chinese, part of the greater Ōu (simplified Chinese: 瓯; traditional Chinese: 甌) grouping of Wu dialects centred on the city, refers to the use of the Latin alphabet to represent the sounds of the dialect group.Contents1 Early romanisation 2 Contemporary2.1 Rhymes 2.2 Initials3 Native perspectives 4 See also 5 ReferencesEarly romanisation[edit] The first instance of Wenzhounese romanisation begins with the language documentation efforts of Christian missionaries who translated the Bible into many varieties of Chinese in both Chinese characters and in phonetic romanisation systems based largely on the Wade-Giles system
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Spelling In Gwoyeu Romatzyh
The spelling of Gwoyeu Romatzyh
Gwoyeu Romatzyh
(GR) can be divided into its treatment of initials, finals and tones. GR uses contrasting unvoiced/voiced pairs of consonants to represent aspirated and unaspirated initials in Chinese: for example b and p represent IPA
IPA
[p] and [pʰ]. The letters j, ch and sh represent two different series of initials: the alveolo-palatal and the retroflex sounds. Although these spellings create no ambiguity in practice, readers more familiar with Pinyin should pay particular attention to them: GR ju, for example, corresponds to Pinyin
Pinyin
zhu, not ju (which is spelled jiu in GR). Many of the finals in GR are similar to those used in other romanizations. Distinctive features of GR include the use of iu for the close front rounded vowel spelled ü or simply u in Pinyin
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Macau Government Cantonese Romanization
The Macau
Macau
Government Cantonese
Cantonese
Romanization
Romanization
refers to the mostly consistent system for romanizing Cantonese
Cantonese
as employed by the Government of Macau
Government of Macau
and other non-governmental organizations based in Macau. The system has been employed by the Macau
Macau
Government since the Portuguese colonial period and continues to be used after the 1999 handover of the territory
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