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Hanja
HANJA ( Hangul : 한자; Hanja: 漢字; Korean pronunciation: ) is the Korean name for Chinese characters (Chinese : 漢字; pinyin : _hànzì_). More specifically, it refers to those Chinese characters borrowed from Chinese and incorporated into the Korean language with Korean pronunciation . _Hanja-mal_ or _hanja-eo _ refers to words that can be written with hanja, and _hanmun_ (한문, 漢文) refers to Classical Chinese writing, although "hanja" is sometimes used loosely to encompass these other concepts. Because hanja never underwent major reform, they are almost entirely identical to traditional Chinese and _kyūjitai _ characters. Only a small number of hanja characters are modified or unique to Korean. By contrast, many of the Chinese characters currently in use in Japan and Mainland China have been simplified, and contain fewer strokes than the corresponding hanja characters
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Logographic
In written language , a LOGOGRAM or LOGOGRAPH is a written character that represents a word or phrase . Chinese characters and Japanese kanji are logograms; some Egyptian hieroglyphs and some graphemes in cuneiform script are also logograms. The use of logograms in writing is called _logography_. A writing system that is based on logograms is called a _logographic system_. In alphabets and syllabaries , individual written characters represent sounds rather than concepts. These characters are called _phonograms _. Unlike logograms, phonograms do not necessarily have meaning by themselves, but are combined to make words and phrases that have meaning. Writing language in this way is called _phonemic orthography _
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Korean Language
The Language Research Institute, Academy of Social Science 사회과학원 어학연구소 / 社會科學院 語學研究所 (Democratic People's Republic of Korea) National Institute of the Korean Language 국립국어원 / 國立國語院 (Republic of Korea) China Korean Language Regulatory Commission 중국조선어규범위원회 中国朝鲜语规范委员会 (People's Republic of China) LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 ko ISO 639-2 kor ISO 639-3 Variously: kor – Modern Korean jje – Jeju okm – Middle Korean oko – Old Korean oko – Proto Korean LINGUIST LIST okm Middle Korean oko Old Korean GLOTTOLOG kore1280 LINGUASPHERE 45-AAA-a Countries with native Korean-speaking populations (established immigrant communities in green). THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS
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Oracle Bone Script
ORACLE BONE SCRIPT (Chinese : 甲骨文) was the form of Chinese characters used on oracle bones —animal bones or turtle plastrons used in pyromantic divination—in the late 2nd millennium BCE, and is the earliest known form of Chinese writing and the earliest writing in East Asia. The vast majority were found at the Yinxu site (in modern Anyang , Henan Province ). They record pyromantic divinations of the last nine kings of the Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
, beginning with Wu Ding , whose accession is dated by different scholars at 1250 BCE or 1200 BCE. After the Shang were overthrown by the Zhou dynasty
Zhou dynasty
in c. 1046 BCE, divining with milfoil became more common, and very few oracle bone writings date from the early Zhou
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Seal Script
SEAL SCRIPT (Chinese : 篆書; pinyin : _zhuànshū_) is an ancient style of writing Chinese characters
Chinese characters
that was common throughout the latter half of the 1st millennium BC. It evolved organically out of the Zhou dynasty
Zhou dynasty
script . The Qin variant of seal script eventually became the standard, and was adopted as the formal script for all of China during the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
. It was still widely used for decorative engraving and seals (name chops, or signets) in the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
. The literal translation of the Chinese name for seal script, 篆書 (zhuànshū), is _decorative engraving script_, a name coined during the Han dynasty, which reflects the then-reduced role of the script for the writing of ceremonial inscriptions
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Clerical Script
The CLERICAL SCRIPT (traditional Chinese : 隸書; simplified Chinese : 隶书; pinyin : _lìshū_; Japanese: 隷書体, _Reishotai_), also formerly chancery script, is an archaic style of Chinese calligraphy which evolved in the Warring States period to the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
, was dominant in the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
, and remained in use through the Wei -Jin periods. Due to its high legibility to modern readers, it is still used for artistic flavor in a variety of functional applications such as headlines, signboards, and advertisements. This legibility stems from the highly rectilinear structure, a feature shared with modern regular script (kaishu)
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Regular Script
REGULAR SCRIPT (traditional Chinese : 楷書; simplified Chinese : 楷书; pinyin : _kǎishū_; Hepburn : _kaisho_), also called 正楷 (pinyin : _zhèngkǎi_), 真書 (_zhēnshū_), 楷體 (_kǎitǐ_) and 正書 (_zhèngshū_), is the newest of the Chinese script styles (appearing by the Cao Wei dynasty ca. 200 CE and maturing stylistically around the 7th century), hence most common in modern writings and publications (after the Ming and gothic styles, used exclusively in print). CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Characteristics * 2.1 Derivatives * 3 In computing * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORY _ Sheng Jiao Xu_ by Chu Suiliang: calligraphy of the Kaishu style. 其數然而天地苞/乎陰陽而易識者/以其有象也陰陽/處乎天地而難窮 Regular script Chinese characters of "Regular Script" in traditional characters (left) and in the simplified form (right)
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Kanji
KANJI (漢字; Japanese pronunciation: _ listen ), or kan'ji_, are the adopted logographic Chinese characters (_hànzì_) that are used in the modern Japanese writing system along with hiragana and katakana . The Japanese term _kanji_ for the Chinese characters literally means "Han characters" and is written using the same characters as the Chinese word _hànzì _
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Zhuyin
Egyptian hieroglyphs 32 c. BCE * Hieratic 32 c. BCE * Demotic 7 c. BCE * Meroitic 3 c. BCE* Proto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCE * Ugaritic 15 c. BCE* Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCE * Ge’ez 5–6 c. BCE* Phoenician 12 c. BCE * Paleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCE * Samaritan 6 c. BCE* Libyco-Berber 3 c. BCE * Tifinagh * Paleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE* Aramaic 8 c. BCE * Kharoṣṭhī 4 c. BCE* Brāhmī 4 c. BCE * Brahmic family (see) * E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE * Hangul (core letters only) 1443* Devanagari 13 c. CE * Canadian syllabics 1840 * Hebrew 3 c. BCE* Pahlavi 3 c. BCE * Avestan 4 c. CE * Palmyrene 2 c. BCE* Syriac 2 c. BCE * Nabataean 2 c. BCE * Arabic 4 c. CE * N\'Ko 1949 CE* Sogdian 2 c. BCE * Orkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CE * Old Hungarian c. 650 CE* Old Uyghur * Mongolian 1204 CE * Mandaic 2 c. CE* Greek 8 c
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Traditional Chinese
TRADITIONAL CHINESE CHARACTERS (traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字; simplified Chinese : 正体字/繁体字; Pinyin : Zhèngtǐzì/Fántĭzì) are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan , of Hong Kong and Macau or in the Kangxi Dictionary
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Chữ Nôm
CHữ NôM (字喃, IPA: , literally Southern characters, in earlier times also called 國音 "quốc âm" or 𡨸南 "chữ nam") is a logographic writing system formerly used to write the Vietnamese language . It used the standard set of classical Chinese characters to represent Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary and some native Vietnamese words, while new characters were created on the Chinese model to represent other words. Although formal writing in Vietnam was done in literary Chinese (Vietnamese: cổ văn 古文 or văn ngôn 文言 ) until the early 20th century (except for two brief interludes), chữ Nôm was widely used between the 15th and 19th centuries by Vietnam's cultured elite, including women, for popular works, many in verse. One of the best-known pieces of Vietnamese literature, The Tale of Kiều , was composed in chữ Nôm
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Khitan Script
The KHITAN SCRIPTS were the writing systems for the now-extinct para-Mongolian Khitan language used in the 10th-12th century by the Khitan people who had established the Liao dynasty
Liao dynasty
in Northeast China . There were two scripts, the large script and the small script . These were functionally independent and appear to have been used simultaneously. The Khitan scripts continued to be in use to some extent by the Jurchen people for several decades after the fall of the Liao dynasty
Liao dynasty
until the Jurchens fully switched to a script of their own . Examples of the scripts appeared most often on epitaphs and monuments , although other fragments sometimes surface. Many scholars recognize that the Khitan scripts have not been fully deciphered and that more research and discoveries would be necessary for a proficient understanding of them
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Jurchen Script
JURCHEN SCRIPT (Jurchen: /dʒu ʃə bitxə/ ) was the writing system used to write the Jurchen language , the language of the Jurchen people who created the Jin Empire in northeastern China in the 12th–13th centuries. It was derived from the Khitan script , which in turn was derived from Chinese (Han characters ). The script has only been decoded to a small extent. The Jurchens were the ancestors of the Manchu people and spoke a language related to the Manchu language . The Jurchen script, however, is not ancestral to the Manchu script . According to the Sino-Jurchen glossary, the Jurchen script contains 720 characters. These comprise a mixture of logograms, which represent whole words without any phonetic element, and phonograms, which represent sounds. Compound words consisting of two or more characters were also used
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International Phonetic Alphabet
The INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet . It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language . The IPA is used by lexicographers , foreign language students and teachers, linguists , speech-language pathologists , singers , actors , constructed language creators and translators . The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of oral language: phones , phonemes , intonation and the separation of words and syllables . To represent additional qualities of speech, such as tooth gnashing, lisping , and sounds made with a cleft lip and cleft palate , an extended set of symbols, the extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet , may be used
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Mojibake
MOJIBAKE (文字化け) (IPA: ; lit. "character transformation"), from the Japanese 文字 (moji) "character" + 化け (bake, pronounced "bah-keh") "transform", is the garbled text that is the result of text being decoded using an unintended character encoding . The result is a systematic replacement of symbols with completely unrelated ones, often from a different writing system . This display may include the generic replacement character � in places where the binary representation is considered invalid. A replacement can also involve multiple consecutive symbols, as viewed in one encoding, when the same binary code constitutes one symbol in the other encoding. This is either because of differing constant length encoding (as in Asian 16-bit encodings vs European 8-bitencodings), or the use of variable length encodings (notably UTF-8
UTF-8
and UTF-16)
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Unicode
UNICODE is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding , representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems . Developed in conjunction with the Universal Coded Character Set (UCS) standard and published as _The Unicode Standard_, the latest version of Unicode
Unicode
contains a repertoire of 136,755 characters covering 139 modern and historic scripts , as well as multiple symbol sets. The standard consists of a set of code charts for visual reference, an encoding method and set of standard character encodings , a set of reference data files , and a number of related items, such as character properties, rules for normalization , decomposition, collation , rendering, and bidirectional display order (for the correct display of text containing both right-to-left scripts, such as Arabic and Hebrew , and left-to-right scripts). As of June 2017 , the most recent version is _ Unicode
Unicode
10.0_
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