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Hanged, Drawn And Quartered
To be hanged, drawn and quartered was from 1352 a statutory penalty in England for men convicted of high treason, although the ritual was first recorded during the reign of King Henry III (1216–1272). Convicts were fastened to a hurdle, or wooden panel, and drawn by horse to the place of execution, where they were hanged (almost to the point of death), emasculated, disembowelled, beheaded, and quartered (chopped into four pieces). Their remains were often displayed in prominent places across the country, such as London Bridge. For reasons of public decency, women convicted of high treason were instead burned at the stake. The severity of the sentence was measured against the seriousness of the crime. As an attack on the monarch's authority, high treason was considered a deplorable act demanding the most extreme form of punishment
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Realm
A realm /ˈrɛlm/ is a community or territory over which a sovereign rules; It is commonly used to describe a kingdom or other monarchical or dynastic state. A realm may also be a subdivision within an empire[1], if it has its own monarch, e.g., the German Empire. The Old French word reaume, modern French royaume, was the word first adopted in English; the fixed modern spelling does not appear until the beginning of the 17th century. The word supposedly derives from medieval Latin
Latin
regalimen, from regalis, of or belonging to a rex (king).[2] The word rex itself is derived from the Latin
Latin
verb regere, which means "to rule"
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Scottish People
 Scotland   4,446,000 (2011)(Scottish descent only)[2] United StatesB5,457,798[3](Scottish descent)3,056,848[3]Scotch-Irish descent) CanadaC4,799,005[4] Australia2,023,474[5] EnglandD795,000[6] Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
E760,620[citation needed] Argentina100,000[citation needed] Chile80,000[citation needed] Brazil45,000[citation needed] France45,000[citation needed] Poland15,000
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Froissart Of Louis Of Gruuthuse (BnF Fr 2643-6)
The Froissart of Louis of Gruuthuse
Louis of Gruuthuse
(BnF Fr 2643-6) is a heavily illustrated deluxe illuminated manuscript in four volumes, containing a French text of Froissart's Chronicles, written and illuminated in the first half of the 1470s in Bruges, Flanders, in modern Belgium. The text of Froissart's Chronicles
Froissart's Chronicles
is preserved in more than 150 manuscript copies
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William De Marisco
Lundy
Lundy
is the largest island in the Bristol
Bristol
Channel. It lies 12 miles (19 km) off the coast of Devon, England,[3] about a third of the distance across the channel from Devon
Devon
to South Wales. Lundy
Lundy
gives its name to a British sea area and is one of the islands of England.[4] Lundy
Lundy
has been designated by Natural England as national character area 159, one of England's natural regions.[5] Lundy
Lundy
is included in the district of Torridge
Torridge
with a resident population of 28 people in 2007; these include a warden, a ranger, an island manager, a farmer, bar and house-keeping staff and volunteers. Most live in and around the village at the south of the island
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High Middle Ages
Central Europe Guelf, Hohenstaufen, and Ascanian
Ascanian
domains in Germany about 1176         Duchy of Saxony          Margravate of Brandenburg          Duchy of Franconia         Duchy of Swabia          Duchy of BavariaThe High Middle Ages
Middle Ages
or High Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from AD 1000 to 1250
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Lundy Island
Lundy
Lundy
is the largest island in the Bristol
Bristol
Channel. It lies 12 miles (19 km) off the coast of Devon, England,[3] about a third of the distance across the channel from Devon
Devon
to South Wales. Lundy
Lundy
gives its name to a British sea area and is one of the islands of England.[4] Lundy
Lundy
has been designated by Natural England as national character area 159, one of England's natural regions.[5] Lundy
Lundy
is included in the district of Torridge
Torridge
with a resident population of 28 people in 2007; these include a warden, a ranger, an island manager, a farmer, bar and house-keeping staff and volunteers. Most live in and around the village at the south of the island
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Tower Of London
Coordinates: 51°30′29″N 00°04′34″W / 51.50806°N 0.07611°W / 51.50806; -0.07611Tower of LondonThe Tower of London, seen from the River Thames, with a view of the water-gate called "Traitors' Gate"Location London
London
Borough of Tower Hamlets London, EC3Area Castle: 12 acres (4.9 ha) Tower Liberties: 6 acres (2.4 ha)Height 27 metres (89 ft)Built White Tower: 1078 Inner Ward: 1190s Re-built: 1285
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Edward I Of England
Edward
Edward
I (17/18 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots (Latin: Malleus Scotorum), was King of England
King of England
from 1272 to 1307. Before his accession to the throne, he was commonly referred to as The Lord Edward.[1] He spent much of his reign reforming royal administration and common law. Through an extensive legal inquiry, Edward
Edward
investigated the tenure of various feudal liberties, while the law was reformed through a series of statutes regulating criminal and property law. Increasingly, however, Edward's attention was drawn towards military affairs. As the first son of Henry III, Edward
Edward
was involved early in the political intrigues of his father's reign, which included an outright rebellion by the English barons. In 1259, he briefly sided with a baronial reform movement, supporting the Provisions of Oxford
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Welsh People
The Welsh (Welsh: Cymry) are a nation and ethnic group native to, or otherwise associated with, Wales, Welsh culture, Welsh history, and the Welsh language. The language, which falls within the Insular Celtic family, has historically been spoken throughout Wales, with its predecessor Common Brittonic
Common Brittonic
once spoken throughout most of the island of Great Britain. Prior to the 20th century, large numbers of Welsh people spoke only Welsh, with little or no fluent knowledge of English.[13] Welsh remains the predominant language in parts of Wales, particularly in North Wales
Wales
and West Wales, but English is the predominant language in most parts of the country
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Prince Of Wales
Prince of Wales
Wales
(Welsh: Tywysog Cymru) was a title granted to princes born in Wales
Wales
from the 12th century onwards; the term replaced the use of the word king. One of the last Welsh princes, Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, was killed in battle in 1282 by Edward I, King of England, whose son Edward (born in Caernarfon Castle
Caernarfon Castle
in Wales) was invested as the first English Prince of Wales
Wales
in 1301. Since the 14th century, the title has been a dynastic title granted to the heir apparent to the English or British monarch, but the failure to be granted the title does not affect the rights to royal succession. The title is granted to the heir apparent as a personal honour or dignity, and is not heritable, merging with the Crown on accession to the throne
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Smithfield, London
Smithfield is a locality in the ward of Farringdon Without
Farringdon Without
situated at the City
City
of London's northwest in central London, England. The principal street of the area is West Smithfield.[1][2] A number of City
City
institutions are located in the area, such as St Bartholomew's Hospital, the Charterhouse, and Livery Halls, including those of the Butchers' and Haberdashers' Companies
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Crime And Disorder Act 1998
The Crime and Disorder Act 1998
Crime and Disorder Act 1998
(c.37) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The Act was published on 2 December 1997 and received Royal Assent in July 1998. Its key areas were the introduction of Anti-Social Behaviour Orders, Sex Offender Orders, Parenting Orders, granting local authorities more responsibilities with regards to strategies for reducing crime and disorder, and the introduction of law specific to 'racially aggravated' offences
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Newcastle Upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne
(RP: /ˌnjuːkɑːsəl əpɒn ˈtaɪn/ ( listen);[4] locally: /njuːˌkæsəl əpən ˈtaɪn/ ( listen)),[4] commonly known as Newcastle, is a city in Tyne and Wear, North East England, 103 miles (166 km) south of Edinburgh
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Berwick-upon-Tweed
Berwick-upon-Tweed
Berwick-upon-Tweed
(/ˈbɛrɪk əˌpɒn ˈtwiːd/ ( listen); Scots: Sooth Berwick, Scottish Gaelic: Bearaig a Deas) is a town in the county of Northumberland
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Stirling
Stirling
Stirling
(/ˈstɜːrlɪŋ/; Scots: Stirlin; Scottish Gaelic: Sruighlea [ˈs̪t̪ruʝlə]) is a city in central Scotland. The market town, surrounded by rich farmland, grew up connecting the royal citadel, the medieval old town with its merchants and tradesmen,[3] the bridge and the port. Located on the River Forth, Stirling
Stirling
is the administrative centre for the Stirling
Stirling
council area, and is traditionally the county town of Stirlingshire. Proverbially it is the strategically important "Gateway to the Highlands". It has been said that "Stirling, like a huge brooch clasps Highlands and Lowlands together".[4][5] Similarly "he who holds Stirling, holds Scotland" is often quoted
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