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Han Feizi
Huang-LaoHuangdi Sijing HuainanziEarly figuresGuan Zhong Zichan Deng Xi Li Kui Wu QiFounding figuresShen Buhai Duke Xiao of Qin Shang Yang Shen Dao Zhang Yi Xun Kuang Han Fei Li Si Qin Shi HuangHan figuresJia Yi Liu An Emperor Wen of Han Emperor Wu of Han Chao Cuo Gongsun Hong Zhang Tang Huan Tan Wang Fu Zhuge LiangLater figuresEmperor Wen of Sui Du You Wang Anshi Li Shanchang Zhang Juzheng Xu Guangqiv t eThe Han Feizi
Han Feizi
(Chinese: 韓非子) is an ancient
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Chinese Law
Chinese law is one of the oldest legal traditions in the world. In the 20th and 21st centuries, law in China inherits a large number of traditions. The core of modern Chinese law is based on Germanic-style civil law, socialist law, and traditional Chinese approaches. For most of the history of China, its legal system has been based on the Confucian philosophy of social control through moral education, as well as the Legalist emphasis on codified law and criminal sanction. Following the Revolution of 1911, the Republic of China
Republic of China
adopted a largely Western-style legal code[citation needed] in the civil law tradition (specifically German-influenced). The establishment of the People's Republic of China
Republic of China
in 1949 brought with it a more Soviet-influenced system of socialist law
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Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Southern MinAmoy TaiwaneseCreator Walter Henry Medhurst Elihu Doty John Van Nest TalmageTime periodsince the 1830sParent systemsEgyptian hieroglyphsProto-SinaiticPhoenician alphabetGreek alphabetLatin alphabetPe̍h-ōe-jīChild systemsTLPA Taiwanese Romanization SystemThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Pe̍h-ōe-jī
(pronounced [peʔ˩ ue˩ dzi˨] ( listen), abbreviated POJ, literally vernacular writing, also known as Church Romanization) is an orthography used to write variants of Southern Min
Southern Min
Chinese, particularly Taiwanese Southern Min
Southern Min
and Amoy Hokkien
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Xunzi (book)
The Xunzi ([ɕy̌n.tsɨ̀]; Chinese: 荀子; Wade–Giles: Hsün-tzu) is an ancient Chinese collection of philosophical writings attributed to Xun Kuang, a 3rd century BC philosopher usually associated with the Confucian
Confucian
tradition. The Xunzi is perhaps most famous for the emphasis it places on education and propriety,[1] as well as its striking assertion that “human nature is detestable.” The text is furthermore an important source of early theories of ritual,[2] cosmology, and governance. The ideas within the Xunzi are thought to have exerted a strong influence on Legalist thinkers, such as Han Fei, and laid the groundwork for much of Han Dynasty political ideology.[3] The text criticizes a wide range of other prominent early Chinese thinkers, including Laozi, Zhuangzi, Mozi, and Mencius. Some of the more significant chapters are[4]The "Discussion of Heaven (天 tiān)" rejects the notion that heaven has a moral will
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Annals Of Lü Buwei
The Lüshi Chunqiu, also known in English as Master Lü's Spring and Autumn Annals,[1][2] is an encyclopedic Chinese classic text compiled around 239 BC under the patronage of the Qin Dynasty
Qin Dynasty
Chancellor Lü Buwei. In the evaluation of Michael Carson and Michael Loewe,The Lü shih ch'un ch'iu is unique among early works in that it is well organized and comprehensive, containing extensive passages on such subjects as music and agriculture, which are unknown elsewhere. It is also one of the longest of the early texts, extending to something over 100,000 words. (1993:324)Contents1 Background 2 Contents2.1 Integrity of the text3 Reception 4 Major positions 5 References 6 External linksBackground[edit] The Shiji
Shiji
(chap. 85, p. 2510) biography of Lü Buwei has the earliest information about the Lüshi Chunqiu
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Duke Xiao Of Qin
Duke Xiao of Qin (Chinese: 秦孝公; pinyin: Qín Xiào Gōng, 381–338 BC), given name Quliang (Chinese: 渠梁; pinyin: Qúliáng), was the ruler of the Qin state from 361 to 338 BC during the Warring States period of Chinese history. Duke Xiao is best known for employing the Legalist statesman Shang Yang[1] from the State of Wey (衛),[2] and authorizing him to conduct a series of ground breaking political, military and economic reforms in Qin. Although the reforms were controversial and drew violent opposition from many Qin politicians, Duke Xiao supported Shang Yang fully and the reforms did help to transform Qin into a dominant superpower among the Seven Warring States.Contents1 Biography 2 Legacy 3 References 4 External linksBiography[edit] Duke Xiao ascended to the throne of the Qin state in 361 BC at the age of 21, succeeding his father, Duke Xian
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School Of Diplomacy
Diplomacy
Diplomacy
is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of states. It usually refers to international diplomacy, the conduct of international relations[2] through the intercession of professional diplomats with regard to a full range of topical issues. International treaties are usually negotiated by diplomats prior to endorsement by national politicians
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Huangdi Sijing
The Huangdi Sijing
Huangdi Sijing
(simplified Chinese: 黄帝四经; traditional Chinese: 黃帝四經; pinyin: Huángdì sìjīng; lit. "The Yellow Emperor's Four Classics") are long-lost Chinese manuscripts that were discovered among the Mawangdui Silk Texts
Mawangdui Silk Texts
in 1973. Also known as the Huang-Lao boshu (simplified Chinese: 黄老帛书; traditional Chinese: 黃老帛書; pinyin: Huáng-Lǎo bóshū; lit. "Huang-Lao Silk Texts"), they are thought by modern scholars to reflect a lost branch of early syncretist Daoism, referred to as the "Huang–Lao school of thought" named after the legendary Huangdi (黃帝 the "Yellow Emperor") and Laozi
Laozi
(老子 "Master Lao")
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Fengjian
Fēngjiàn (封建) was a political ideology during the later part of the Zhou dynasty
Zhou dynasty
of ancient China, its social structure forming a decentralized system of government[1] based on four occupations, or "four categories of the people." The Zhou kings enfeoffed their fellow warriors and relatives, creating large domains of land. The Fengjian system they created allocated a region or piece of land to an individual, establishing him as the ruler of that region. These eventually rebelled against the Zhou Kings,[2] and developed into their own kingdoms, thus ending the centralized rule of the Zhou dynasty.[3] As a result, Chinese history
Chinese history
from the Zhou or Chou dynasty (1046 BC–256 BC) to the Qin dynasty[4] has been termed a feudal period by many Chinese historians, due to the custom of enfeoffment of land similar to that in Europe
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Zichan
Gongsun Qiao (Chinese: 公孫僑; died 522 BC), better known by his courtesy name Zichan
Zichan
(Chinese: 子產), was a statesman of the State of Zheng during the Spring and Autumn period
Spring and Autumn period
of ancient China. His ancestral surname was Ji (姬), and clan name Guo (國). A grandson of Duke Mu of Zheng, Zichan
Zichan
served as prime minister of Zheng from 544 BC until his death. Under Zichan, Zheng managed to expand its territory, a difficult task for a small state surrounded by several large states. Zichan
Zichan
reformed the government to emphasise the rule of law. As a philosopher, Zichan
Zichan
separated the domains of heaven and the human world, arguing against superstition and believing that humans should be grounded in reality. Zichan
Zichan
was responsible for many reforms that strengthened the state of Zheng
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Traditional Chinese Law
Traditional Chinese law refers to the laws, regulations and rules used in China
China
up to 1911, when the last imperial dynasty fell. It has undergone continuous development since at least the 11th century BC. This legal tradition is distinct from the common law and civil law traditions of the West – as well as Islamic law and classical Hindu law – and to a great extent, is contrary to the concepts of contemporary Chinese law. It incorporates elements of both Legalist and Confucian
Confucian
traditions of social order and governance. To Westerners, perhaps the most striking feature of the traditional Chinese criminal procedure is that it was an inquisitorial system where the judge, usually the district magistrate, conducts a public investigation of a crime, rather than an adversarial system where the judge decides between attorneys representing the prosecution and defense
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Huainanzi
The Huainanzi
Huainanzi
is an ancient Chinese text that consists of a collection of essays that resulted from a series of scholarly debates held at the court of Liu An, King of Huainan, sometime before 139 BC
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Old Chinese
Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese, and the ancestor of all modern varieties of Chinese.[a] The earliest examples of Chinese are divinatory inscriptions on oracle bones from around 1250 BC, in the late Shang dynasty. Bronze inscriptions became plentiful during the following Zhou dynasty. The latter part of the Zhou period saw a flowering of literature, including classical works such as the Analects, the Mencius, and the Zuozhuan. These works served as models for Literary Chinese (or Classical Chinese), which remained the written standard until the early twentieth century, thus preserving the vocabulary and grammar of late Old Chinese. Old Chinese
Old Chinese
was written with an early form of Chinese characters, with each character representing a monosyllabic word. Although the script is not alphabetic, most characters were created by adapting a character for a similar-sounding word
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Middle Chinese
Middle Chinese
Middle Chinese
(formerly known as Ancient Chinese) or the Qieyun system (QYS) is the historical variety of Chinese recorded in the Qieyun, a rime dictionary first published in 601 and followed by several revised and expanded editions. The Swedish linguist Bernard Karlgren believed that the dictionaries recorded a speech standard of the capital Chang'an
Chang'an
of the Sui and Tang dynasties. However, based on the more recently recovered preface of the Qieyun, most scholars now believe that it records a compromise between northern and southern reading and poetic traditions from the late Northern and Southern dynasties period. This composite system contains important information for the reconstruction of the preceding system of Old Chinese phonology (1st millennium BC). The fanqie method used to indicate pronunciation in these dictionaries, though an improvement on earlier methods, proved awkward in practice
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Taiwanese Romanization System
The Taiwanese Romanization System
Taiwanese Romanization System
(Taiwanese Romanization: Tâi-uân Lô-má-jī Phing-im Hong-àn, Chinese: 臺灣閩南語羅馬字拼音方案; pinyin: Táiwān Mǐnnányǔ Luómǎzì Pīnyīn Fāng'àn; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tâi-ôan Lô-má-jī Pheng-im Hong-àn; often referred to as Tâi-lô) is a transcription system for Taiwanese Hokkien
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Hokkien
Hokkien
Hokkien
(/ˈhɒkiɛn, hɒˈkiɛn/;[a] from Chinese: 福建話; pinyin: Fújiànhuà; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Hok-kiàn-oē)[b] or Minnan Proper[citation needed] (閩南語/閩南話), is a Southern Min dialect group spoken in the Fujian
Fujian
Province in Southeastern China, Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines
Philippines
and other parts of Southeast Asia, and by other overseas Chinese. Hokkien originated in southern Fujian, the Min-speaking province. It is the mainstream form of Southern Min. It is closely related to Teochew, though it has limited mutual intelligibility with it, whereas it is more distantly related to other variants such as Hainanese
Hainanese
and Leizhou dialect
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