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Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
(/ˈheɪʃən ˈkriːoʊl/; Haitian Creole: kreyòl ayisyen,[4][5] Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
pronunciation: [kɣejɔl]; French: créole haïtien) is a French-based creole language spoken by 9.6–12 million people worldwide, and the only language of most Haitians.[6][7] It is a creole language based largely on 18th century French with influences from Portuguese, Spanish, English, Taíno, and West African languages.[8] Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
emerged from contact between French settlers and African slaves during the Atlantic slave trade
Atlantic slave trade
in the French colony of Saint-Domingue
Saint-Domingue
(now Haiti)
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Fon Language
Fon (native name Fon gbè, pronounced [fɔ̃̄ɡ͡bè]) is part of the Gbe language cluster and belongs to the Volta–Niger branch of the Niger–Congo languages. Fon is spoken mainly in Benin
Benin
by approximately 1.7 million speakers, by the Fon people. Like the other Gbe languages, Fon is an analytic language with an SVO basic word order.Contents1 Dialects 2 Phonology 3 Orthography 4 References 5 External linksDialects[edit] Capo (1988) considers Maxi and Gun to be part of the Fon dialect cluster
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Langues D'oïl
The langues d'oïl (/ˈdɔɪ(l), dɔːˈiːl/[2][3][4] French: [lɑ̃ɡdɔjl])[5] or oïl languages (also in French: langues d'oui [lɑ̃ɡdwi]) are a dialect continuum that includes standard French and its closest autochthonous relatives historically spoken in the northern half of France, southern Belgium, and the Channel Islands. These belong to the larger Gallo-Romance languages, which also include the historical languages of east-central France
France
and western Switzerland
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Indo-European Languages
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze Age Terramare Tumulus
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Languages Of Africa
The languages of Africa
Africa
are divided into six major language families: Afroasiatic languages
Afroasiatic languages
are spread throughout Western Asia, North Africa, the
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Engagé
From the 18th century, an engagé (French: [ɑ̃ɡaʒe], engagee) was a French-Canadian man employed to canoe in the fur trade, usually as an indentured servant. He was expected to handle all transportation aspects of frontier river and lake travel: maintenance, loading and unloading, propelling, steering, portaging, camp set-up, navigation, interaction with indigenous people, etc. The term was also applied to the men who staffed the pirogues on the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Their role can be contrasted with the free, licensed voyageurs, the independent merchant coureurs des bois, as well as seafaring sailors. Can also refer to a person socially or politically engaged, especially in the arts and culture.This job-, occupation-, or vocation-related article is a stub
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Niger–Congo Languages
The Niger–Congo languages
Niger–Congo languages
constitute one of the world's major language families and Africa's largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers and number of distinct languages.[1] It is generally considered to constitute the world's largest language family in terms of distinct languages,[2][3] although this is complicated by the ambiguity about what constitutes a distinct language. It is the third largest language family in the world by number of native speakers. One of the characteristics common to most Niger–Congo languages
Niger–Congo languages
is the use of a noun class system.[4] The most widely spoken Niger–Congo languages
Niger–Congo languages
by number of native speakers are Yoruba, Igbo, Fula and Shona
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Kwa Languages
The Kwa languages, often specified as New Kwa, are a proposed but as-yet-undemonstrated family of languages spoken in the south-eastern part of Ivory Coast, across southern Ghana, and in central Togo
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Central Tano Languages
The Central Tano or Akan languages are languages of the Niger-Kongo family (or perhaps the theorised Kwa languages[2]) spoken in Ghana
Ghana
and Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
by the Akan people. Akan language (Akan proper) BiaNorth BiaAnyin Baoulé Chakosi (Anufo) Sefwi (Sehwi)South BiaNzema Ahanta Jwira-PepesaAll have written forms in the Latin script. References[edit]^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Central Tano". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Ameka, Felix K.; Dakubu, Mary Esther Kropp (2008). Aspect and Modality in Kwa Languages. John Benjamins Publishing. ISBN 90-272-0567-1. , p
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Bantu Languages
The Bantu languages
Bantu languages
(/ˈbæntuː/)[2] (technically the Narrow Bantu languages, as opposed to "Wide Bantu", a loosely defined categorization which includes other Bantoid languages) constitute a traditional branch of the Niger–Congo languages. There are about 250 Bantu languages
Bantu languages
by the criterion of mutual intelligibility,[3] though the distinction between language and dialect is often unclear, and Ethnologue
Ethnologue
counts 535 languages.[4][not in citation given] Bantu languages are largely spoken east and south of present-day Cameroon, that is, in the regions commonly known as Central Africa, Southeast Africa
Africa
and Southern Africa
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Classical French
French is a Romance language
Romance language
(meaning that it is descended primarily from Vulgar Latin) that evolved out of the Gallo-Romance
Gallo-Romance
spoken in northern France. The discussion of the history of a language is typically divided into "extern
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Norman Language
Previously used:Alderney, Herm England
England
(see Norman England) Ireland
Ireland
(see: Norman Ireland)
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Taíno Language
Taíno
Taíno
is an extinct and poorly-attested Arawakan language
Arawakan language
that was spoken by the Taíno people
Taíno people
of the Caribbean. At the time of Spanish contact, it was the principal language throughout the Caribbean. Classic Taíno
Taíno
( Taíno
Taíno
proper) was the native language of the northern Leeward Islands, Puerto Rico, the Turks and Caicos
Turks and Caicos
Islands, and most of Hispaniola, and it was expanding into Cuba
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Poitevin Dialect
Poitevin (Poetevin) is a language spoken in Poitou, France. It is one of the regional languages of France
France
and is not as commonly spoken as it once was, as the standard form of French now predominates. Poitevin is now classified as one of the langues d'oïl but is distinguished by certain features of the langue d'oc. The language is spoken on what was the border between the two language families of oïl and oc (placenames in the region clearly show historical settlement of oc speakers). The langue d’oïl subsequently spread south, absorbing oc features. Poitevin is also widely referred to as parlanjhe (the language). François Rabelais
François Rabelais
wrote that he learned this dialect, along with many other languages and dialects, since he was educated in Fontenay-le-Comte
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Saintongeais Dialect
Saintongeais (saintonjhais) is a dialect of Poitevin spoken halfway down the western coast of France in the former provinces of Saintonge, Aunis and Angoumois, all of which have been incorporated into the current departments of Charente and Charente-Maritime as well as in parts of their neighbouring departments of Gironde and a town in Dordogne. Although many of the same words are used in both Charente departments, they differ in what they mean or in how they are pronounced. Saintongeais has significantly influenced the Acadian and Cajun dialects of French spoken in the United States and Canada
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Gallo Language
Gallo is a regional language of France. It is not as commonly spoken as it once was, as the standard form of French now predominates. Gallo is classified as one of the Oïl languages. Gallo was originally spoken in the Marches of Neustria, which now corresponds to the border lands of Brittany
Brittany
and Normandy
Normandy
and its former heart in Le Mans, Maine. Gallo was the shared spoken language of several of those who took part in the Norman conquest of England, most of whom originated in Lower Brittany
Lower Brittany
and Lower Normandy
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