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Haitian Creole
HAITIAN CREOLE (/ˈheɪʃən ˈkriːoʊl/ ; Haitian Creole: KREYòL AYISYEN, Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
pronunciation: ; French : CRéOLE HAïTIEN) is a French-based creole language spoken by 9.6–12 million people worldwide, and the only language of most Haitians. It is a creole language based largely on 18th century French with influences from Portuguese , Spanish , English , Taíno , and West African languages. Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
emerged from contact between French settlers and African slaves during the Atlantic slave trade
Atlantic slave trade
in the French colony of Saint-Domingue
Saint-Domingue
(now Haiti
Haiti
). Haitians are the largest creole-speaking community in the world. Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
should not be confused with Haitian French , which is a variety of French spoken in Haiti
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Kwa Languages
The KWA LANGUAGES, often specified as NEW KWA, are a proposed but as-yet-undemonstrated family of languages spoken in the south-eastern part of Ivory Coast , across southern Ghana , and in central Togo . The name was introduced 1895 by Gottlob Krause and derives from the word for 'people' (Kwa) in many of these languages, as illustrated by Akan names . CONTENTS * 1 Languages * 2 History of the proposal * 3 See also * 4 References * 4.1 Footnotes * 4.2 Notations * 5 External links LANGUAGESSee the box at right for a current classification. The various clusters of languages included in Kwa are at best distantly related, and it has not been demonstrated that they are closer to each other than to neighboring Niger–Congo languages
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Central Tano Languages
The CENTRAL TANO or AKAN LANGUAGES are languages of the Niger-Kongo family (or perhaps the theorised Kwa languages ) spoken in Ghana and Ivory Coast by the Akan people . * Akan language (Akan proper)* Bia * North Bia * Anyin * Baoulé * Chakosi (Anufo) * Sefwi (Sehwi)* South Bia * Nzema * Ahanta * Jwira-Pepesa All have written forms in the Latin script . REFERENCES * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Central Tano". Glottolog 2.7 . Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ Ameka, Felix K.; Dakubu, Mary Esther Kropp (2008). Aspect and Modality in Kwa Languages. John Benjamins Publishing. ISBN 90-272-0567-1 . , p
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Bantu Languages
The BANTU LANGUAGES (/ˈbæntuː/ ), technically the NARROW BANTU LANGUAGES as opposed to "Wide Bantu", a loosely defined categorization which includes other Bantoid languages , constitute a traditional branch of the Niger–Congo languages . There are about 250 Bantu languages by the criterion of mutual intelligibility , though the distinction between language and dialect is often unclear, and Ethnologue counts 535 languages. Bantu languages are spoken largely east and south of present-day Cameroon
Cameroon
, that is, in the regions commonly known as Central Africa
Africa
, Southeast Africa
Africa
, and Southern Africa
Africa
. Parts of the Bantu area include languages from other language families (see map)
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Classical French
FRENCH is a Romance language
Romance language
(meaning that it is descended primarily from Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
) that evolved out of the Gallo-Romance spoken in northern France. The discussion of the history of a language is typically divided into "external history", describing the ethnic, political, social, technological, and other changes that affected the languages, and "internal history", describing the phonological and grammatical changes undergone by the language itself
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Niger–Congo Languages
The NIGER–CONGO LANGUAGES constitute one of the world's major language families , and Africa\'s largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers and number of distinct languages. It is generally considered to constitute the world's largest language family in terms of distinct languages, although this is complicated by the ambiguity about what constitutes a distinct language. It is the third largest language family in the world by number of native speakers. One of the characteristics common to most Niger–Congo languages
Niger–Congo languages
is the use of a noun class system. The most widely spoken Niger–Congo languages
Niger–Congo languages
by number of native speakers are Yoruba , Igbo , Fula and Shona . The most widely spoken by number of speakers is Swahili
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Engagé
From the 18th century, an ENGAGé (French: , engagee) was a French-Canadian man employed to canoe in the fur trade , usually as an indentured servant . He was expected to handle all transportation aspects of frontier river and lake travel: maintenance, loading and unloading, propelling, steering, portaging , camp set-up, navigation, interaction with indigenous people , etc. The term was also applied to the men who staffed the pirogues on the Lewis and Clark Expedition
Lewis and Clark Expedition
. Their role can be contrasted with the free, licensed voyageurs , the independent merchant coureurs des bois , as well as seafaring sailors . Can also refer to a person socially or politically engaged, especially in the arts and culture. This job-, occupation-, or vocation-related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Atlantic Slave Trade
The ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE or TRANSATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE involved the transportation by slave traders of enslaved African people, mainly from Africa
Africa
to the Americas
Americas
, and then their sale there. The slave trade used mainly the triangular trade route and its Middle Passage , and existed from the 16th to the 19th centuries. The vast majority of those who were enslaved and transported in the transatlantic slave trade were Africans from central and western Africa, who had been sold by other West Africans to Western European slave traders (with a small number being captured directly by the slave traders in coastal raids), who brought them to the Americas. The South Atlantic and Caribbean economies especially were dependent on the supply of secure labour for the production of commodity crops, making goods and clothing to sell in Europe
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Indo-European Languages
Pontic Steppe * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture Caucasus * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo Eastern Europe * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni Northern Europe* Corded ware * Bad
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Languages Of Africa
The LANGUAGES OF AFRICA comprise between 1,250 to 2,100, and by some counts over 3,000, languages spoken natively in Africa
Africa

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Langues D'oïl
The LANGUES D\'OïL (/ˈwiːl/ French : ), or OïL LANGUAGES (also in French: langues d'oui ), is a dialect continuum that includes standard French and its closest autochthonous relatives spoken today in the northern half of France
France
, southern Belgium
Belgium
, and the Channel Islands . They belong to the larger Gallo- Romance languages
Romance languages
, which also cover most of east-central ( Arpitania
Arpitania
) and southern France ( Occitania
Occitania
), northern Italy
Italy
, and eastern Spain
Spain

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Norman Language
Previously used: * Alderney , Herm * England (see Norman England ) * Ireland (see: Norman Ireland ) * Canada (formerly used to a certain degree in Eastern Canada and Quebec) * Kingdom of Sicily (used in a limited degree) * Principality of Antioch REGION Normandy and the Channel Islands NATIVE SPEAKERS ca
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French West Africa
FRENCH WEST AFRICA (French: Afrique occidentale française, AOF) was a federation of eight French colonial territories in Africa
Africa
: Mauritania
Mauritania
, Senegal
Senegal
, French Sudan
French Sudan
(now Mali
Mali
), French Guinea , Ivory Coast , Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
), Dahomey
Dahomey
(now Benin
Benin
) and Niger
Niger
. The capital of the federation was Dakar
Dakar
. The federation existed from 1895 until 1960
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Cognate
In linguistics , COGNATES are words that have a common etymological origin. In etymology , the cognate category excludes doublets and loanwords . The word cognate derives from the Latin
Latin
noun cognatus, which means "blood relative". CONTENTS * 1 Characteristics * 2 Across languages * 3 Within the same language * 4 False cognates * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links CHARACTERISTICSCognates do not need to have the same meaning, which may have changed as the languages developed separately. For example English starve and Dutch sterven or German sterben ("to die") all derive from the same Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic
root, *sterbaną ("die"). English dish and German Tisch ("table"), with their flat surfaces, both come from Latin
Latin
discus, but their later meanings are different
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Semantic Change
SEMANTIC CHANGE (also SEMANTIC SHIFT, SEMANTIC PROGRESSION, SEMANTIC DEVELOPMENT, or SEMANTIC DRIFT) is the evolution of word usage—usually to the point that the modern meaning is radically different from the original usage. In diachronic (or historical) linguistics , semantic change is a change in one of the meanings of a word . Every word has a variety of senses and connotations , which can be added, removed, or altered over time, often to the extent that cognates across space and time have very different meanings. The study of semantic change can be seen as part of etymology , onomasiology , semasiology , and semantics
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Fon Language
FON (native name Fon gbè, pronounced ) is part of the Gbe language cluster and belongs to the Volta–Niger branch of the Niger–Congo languages . Fon is spoken mainly in Benin
Benin
by approximately 1.7 million speakers, by the Fon people
Fon people
. Like the other Gbe languages, Fon is an analytic language with an SVO basic word order. CONTENTS * 1 Dialects * 2 Phonology * 3 Orthography * 4 References * 5 External links DIALECTSCapo (1988) considers Maxi and Gun to be part of the Fon dialect cluster. However, he does not include Alada or Toli (Tɔli) as part of Gun, as classified by Ethnologue, but as Phla–Pherá languages . PHONOLOGY "Welcome" (Kwabɔ) in Fon at a pharmacy at Cotonou Airport in Cotonou
Cotonou
, Benin
Benin
Fon has seven oral vowel phonemes and five nasal vowel phonemes
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