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Hagiography
A HAGIOGRAPHY (/ˌhæɡiˈɒɡrəfi/ ; from Greek ἅγιος, hagios, meaning 'holy', and -γραφία, -graphia, meaning 'writing') is a biography of a saint or an ecclesiastical leader. The term hagiography may be used to refer to the biography of a saint or highly developed spiritual being in any of the world's spiritual traditions. Christian hagiographies focus on the lives, and notably the miracles of men and women canonized by the Roman Catholic church , the Anglican Communion , the Eastern Orthodox Church , the Oriental Orthodox churches , and the Church of the East . Other religions such as Buddhism , Hinduism , Islam , Sikhism and Jainism also create and maintain hagiographical texts (such as the Sikh Janamsakhis ) concerning saints, gurus and other individuals believed to be imbued with sacred power
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Menaion
The MENAION (Greek : Μηναῖον; Slavonic : Минеѧ, Minéya, "of the month") is the liturgical book used by the Eastern Orthodox Church containing the propers for fixed dates of the calendar year, i.e. entities not dependent of the date of Easter . The Menaion is the largest volume of the propers for the Byzantine Rite and is used at nearly all the daily services . CONTENTS * 1 Editions * 2 Calendar * 3 Icons * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links EDITIONS A Menaion in the Church Slavonic language , 12th century, Novgorod The complete MENAION is published in twelve volumes, one for each month; the first volume is for September which commences the Byzantine liturgical year . The FESTAL MENAION is an abridged version containing texts for those great feasts falling on the fixed cycle, some editions also containing feasts of the major saints
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Adjective
In linguistics , an ADJECTIVE (abbreviated ADJ) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase , giving more information about the object signified. Adjectives are one of the English parts of speech , although historically they were classed together with the nouns
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Grammatical Gender
In linguistics , GRAMMATICAL GENDER is a specific form of noun-class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs. This system is used in approximately one quarter of the world's languages . In these languages, most or all nouns inherently carry one value of the grammatical category called gender; the values present in a given language (of which there are usually two or three) are called the genders of that language. According to one definition: "Genders are classes of nouns reflected in the behaviour of associated words." Common gender divisions include masculine and feminine; masculine, feminine and neuter; or animate and inanimate. In a few languages, the gender assignment of nouns is solely determined by their meaning or attributes, like biological sex, humanness, animacy
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Sermon
A SERMON is an oration , lecture , or talk by a member of a religious institution or clergy . Sermons address a Biblical, theological, religious, or moral topic, usually expounding on a type of belief, law or behavior within both past and present contexts. Elements of the sermon often include exposition, exhortation and practical application. In Christianity, a sermon is usually delivered in a place of worship from an elevated architectural feature, variously known as a pulpit , a lectern , or an ambo . The word "sermon" comes from a Middle English word which was derived from Old French
Old French
, which in turn came from the Latin word sermō meaning "discourse". The word can mean "conversation", which could mean that early sermons were delivered in the form of question and answer, and that only later did it come to mean a monologue
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Christian
A CHRISTIAN (/ˈkrɪʃtʃən/ ( listen ), /ˈkrɪstiən/ ) is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity
Christianity
, an Abrahamic , monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus
Jesus
Christ . "Christian" derives from the Koine Greek
Koine Greek
word Christ ós (Χριστός), a translation of the Biblical Hebrew
Biblical Hebrew
term mashiach ( Biblical Hebrew
Biblical Hebrew
: מָשִׁיחַ). While there are diverse interpretations of Christianity
Christianity
which sometimes conflict, they are united in believing that Jesus
Jesus
has a unique significance
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Early Christian Church
EARLY CHRISTIANITY is the period of Christianity
Christianity
preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325. It is typically divided into the Apostolic Age and the Ante-Nicene Period (from the Apostolic Age
Apostolic Age
until Nicea). The first Christians, as described in the first chapters of the Acts of the Apostles , were all Jews
Jews
either by birth or conversion , for which the biblical term "proselyte " is used, and referred to by historians as Jewish Christians
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Tradition
A TRADITION is a belief or behavior passed down within a group or society with symbolic meaning or special significance with origins in the past. Common examples include holidays or impractical but socially meaningful clothes (like lawyers\' wigs or military officers' spurs ), but the idea has also been applied to social norms such as greetings. Traditions can persist and evolve for thousands of years—the word "tradition" itself derives from the Latin
Latin
tradere literally meaning to transmit, to hand over, to give for safekeeping. While it is commonly assumed that traditions have ancient history, many traditions have been invented on purpose, whether that be political or cultural, over short periods of time. Various academic disciplines also use the word in a variety of ways. One way tradition is used more simply, often in academic work but elsewhere also, is to indicate the quality of a piece of information being discussed
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Pejorative
A PEJORATIVE (also called a DEROGATORY TERM, a SLUR, a TERM OF ABUSE, or a TERM OF DISPARAGEMENT) is a word or grammatical form expressing a negative connotation or a low opinion of someone or something, showing a lack of respect for someone or something. It is also used as criticism, hostility, disregard or disrespect. A term can be regarded as pejorative in some social or cultural groups but not in others. Sometimes, a term may begin as a pejorative and eventually be adopted in a non-pejorative sense (or vice versa) in some or all contexts. NAME SLURS can also involve an insulting or disparaging innuendo , rather than being a direct pejorative
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Historian
A HISTORIAN is a person who studies and writes about the past, and is regarded as an authority on it. Historians are concerned with the continuous, methodical narrative and research of past events as relating to the human race; as well as the study of all history in time. If the individual is concerned with events preceding written history , the individual is an historian of prehistory . Although "historian" can be used to describe amateur and professional historians alike, it is reserved more recently for those who have acquired graduate degrees in the discipline. Some historians, though, are recognized by publications or training and experience. "Historian" became a professional occupation in the late nineteenth century as research universities were emerging in Germany and elsewhere
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Paterikon
PATERICON or PATERIKON (Greek : πατερικόν), a short form for πατερικόν βιβλίον ("father's book", usually LIVES OF THE FATHERS in English), is a genre of Byzantine literature of religious character, which were collections of sayings of saints , martyrs and hierarchs, and tales about them. Among the earliest collections of this kind are the Αποφθέγματα των άγίων γερόντων (Apophthegmata of Saint Elders, also known as the Alphabetical Patericon, Apophthegmata Patrum , Sayings of the Fathers of the Desert (Sayings of the Desert Fathers) ), the Egyptian Paterikon (Historia Monachorum in Aegypto, History of Monks in Egypt) and Λαυσαϊχόν (Historia Lausiaca , ) by Palladius - of the 4th century
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Western Europe
WESTERN EUROPE is the region comprising the western part of Europe
Europe
. Below, some different geographic, geopolitical and cultural definitions of the term are outlined
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Latin
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian
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Beowulf
BEOWULF (/ˈbeɪoʊwʊlf, ˈbiːoʊ-/ ; Old English: ) is an Old English epic poem consisting of 3,182 alliterative lines . It may be the oldest surviving long poem in Old English
Old English
and is commonly cited as one of the most important works of Old English
Old English
literature . A date of composition is a matter of contention among scholars; the only certain dating pertains to the manuscript, which was produced between 975 and 1025. The author was an anonymous Anglo-Saxon poet, referred to by scholars as the " Beowulf
Beowulf
poet". The poem is set in Scandinavia
Scandinavia
. Beowulf
Beowulf
, a hero of the Geats , comes to the aid of Hrothgar, the king of the Danes , whose mead hall in Heorot has been under attack by a monster known as Grendel
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Grendel
GRENDEL is a being originated from the Anglo-Saxon epic poem Beowulf (AD 700–1000). He is one of poem's three antagonists (along with Grendel\'s mother and the dragon ), all aligned in opposition against the protagonist Beowulf
Beowulf
. Grendel
Grendel
is feared by all but Beowulf
Beowulf
. Grendel
Grendel
is usually depicted as a monster or a giant , although his status is not clearly described in the poem and thus remains the subject of scholarly debate. In John Gardner 's book Grendel
Grendel
(1971), Grendel
Grendel
has more humanistic qualities and the book is narrated from his perspective
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Adalbert Of Prague
ADALBERT OF PRAGUE (Latin : Adalbertus; c. 956 – 23 April 997), known in Czech by his birth name VOJTěCH (Latin : Voitecus), was a Bohemian missionary and Christian saint . He was the Bishop of Prague and a missionary to the Hungarians, Poles, and Prussians, who was martyred in his efforts to convert the Baltic Prussians to Christianity
Christianity
. He was said to be the composer of Bogurodzica
Bogurodzica
, the oldest known Polish hymn, but this is now thought unlikely, as he did not know the language. St. Adalbert (or St. Vojtěch; Czech : Svatý Vojtěch pronunciation , Polish : Święty Wojciech) was later declared the patron saint of Bohemia
Bohemia
, Poland
Poland
, Hungary
Hungary
and the former polity of Prussia
Prussia

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