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HMS Formidable (67)
HMS FORMIDABLE was an Illustrious-class aircraft carrier ordered for the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
before the Second World War. After being completed in late 1940, she was briefly assigned to the Home Fleet
Home Fleet
before being transferred to the Mediterranean Fleet as a replacement for her crippled sister ship Illustrious . Formidable's aircraft played a key role in the Battle of Cape Matapan
Battle of Cape Matapan
in early 1941, and they subsequently provided cover for Allied ships and attacked Axis forces until their carrier was badly damaged by German dive bombers in May. Assigned to the Eastern Fleet
Eastern Fleet
in the Indian Ocean in early 1942, Formidable covered the invasion of Diego Suarez in Vichy Madagascar
Madagascar
in mid-1942 against the possibility of a sortie by the Japanese into the Indian Ocean
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Axis Powers
The AXIS POWERS (German : Achsenmächte, Japanese : 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku, Italian : Potenze dell'Asse), also known as the AXIS and the ROME–BERLIN–TOKYO AXIS, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces. The Axis powers
Axis powers
agreed on their opposition to the Allies, but did not completely coordinate their activity. The Axis grew out of the diplomatic efforts of Germany, Italy, and Japan to secure their own specific expansionist interests in the mid-1930s. The first step was the treaty signed by Germany and Italy in October 1936. Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
declared on 1 November that all other European countries would from then on rotate on the Rome– Berlin
Berlin
axis, thus creating the term "Axis". The almost simultaneous second step was the signing in November 1936 of the Anti-Comintern Pact , an anti-communist treaty between Germany and Japan
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Dive Bomber
A DIVE BOMBER is a bomber aircraft that dives directly at its targets in order to provide greater accuracy for the bomb it drops. Diving towards the target simplifies the bomb's trajectory and allows the pilot to keep visual contact throughout the bomb run. This allows attacks on point targets and ships, which were difficult to attack with conventional "level" bombers, even en-masse. CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 Bombing accuracy * 2.1 Horizontal bombing * 2.2 Dive bombing * 3 History * 3.1 Origins * 3.2 World War I
World War I
* 3.3 Interwar era * 3.4 World War II
World War II
* 3.4.1 European theater * 3.4.2 Pacific theater * 4 Decline * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links DEFINITIONA dive bomber dives at a steep angle, normally between 45 and 60 degrees or even up to a near vertical dive of 80 degrees with Ju-87 , and thus requires an abrupt pull-up after dropping its bombs
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Eastern Fleet
The British EASTERN FLEET (also known after 1944 as the EAST INDIES FLEET and the FAR EAST FLEET) was a fleet of the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
which existed between 1941 and 1971. In 1904, the British First Sea Lord
First Sea Lord
, Sir John Fisher , ordered that in the event of war the three main commands in the Far East
Far East
, the East Indies Squadron , the China
China
Squadron , and the Australian Squadron , should all come under one command called the Eastern Fleet
Eastern Fleet
based in Singapore
Singapore
. The Commander-in-Chief on the China Station would then take command. During the First World War , the squadrons retained their distinct identities and 'Eastern Fleet' was used only as a general term
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Operation Ironclad
British Commonwealth * United Kingdom * India * Northern Rhodesia * Southern Rhodesia * Tanganyika * Australia (naval only) * South Africa Netherlands (naval only) NON-COMBATANT SUPPORT: Belgium * Belgian Congo Poland Vichy France * Madagascar ------------------------- Japan (naval only) NON-COMBATANT SUPPORT: Germany COMMANDERS AND LEADERS * Robert Sturges * Edward Syfret * Armand Annet * Ishizaki Noboru STRENGTH 10,000–15,000 soldiers (land forces) VICHY FRANCE: 8,000 troops 6 tanks 35 aircraft 4 warships CASUALTIES AND LOSSES * 620 casualties in total (107 killed in action; 280 wounded; 108 died from disease) * 1 battleship heavily damaged * 1 oil tanker sunk * 150 killed in action; 500 wounded (does not include any casualties caused by disease) * 1,000~ POW
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Sister Ship
A SISTER SHIP is a ship of the same class and/or of virtually identical design to another ship. Such vessels share a nearly identical hull and superstructure layout, similar size, and roughly comparable features and equipment. Often, sisters become more differentiated during their service as their equipment (in the case of naval vessels, their armament) are separately altered. For instance, the U.S. warships USS Iowa , USS New Jersey , USS Missouri , and USS Wisconsin are all sister ships, each being an Iowa-class battleship . The most famous sister ships were the White Star Line
White Star Line
's RMS Olympic , RMS Titanic
RMS Titanic
and HMHS Britannic
HMHS Britannic
. As with some other liners, the sisters worked as running mates. Other sister ships include the Royal Caribbean International 's Explorer of the Seas and Adventure of the Seas
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Mediterranean Fleet
The British MEDITERRANEAN FLEET was part of the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
. The Fleet was one of the most prestigious commands in the navy for the majority of its history, defending the vital sea link between the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the majority of the British Empire
British Empire
in the Eastern Hemisphere. The first Commander-in-Chief
Commander-in-Chief
for the Mediterranean Fleet may have been named as early as 1665 and the Fleet was in existence until 1967
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Flight Deck
The FLIGHT DECK of an aircraft carrier is the surface from which its aircraft take off and land, essentially a miniature airfield at sea. On smaller naval ships which do not have aviation as a primary mission, the landing area for helicopters and other VTOL
VTOL
aircraft is also referred to as the flight deck. The official U.S. Navy term for these vessels is "air-capable ships". CONTENTS* 1 Evolution * 1.1 Early flight decks * 1.2 Full length decks * 1.3 Armoured decks * 2 Landing on flight decks * 3 Modern innovations * 3.1 Angled flight deck * 3.2 Ski-jump * 3.3 Flexible decks * 4 Other * 5 See also * 6 References EVOLUTION Eugene Ely's first landing, on the armored cruiser USS Pennsylvania EARLY FLIGHT DECKSThe first flight decks were inclined wooden ramps built over the forecastle of warships
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Bulkhead (partition)
A BULKHEAD is an upright wall within the hull of a ship or within the fuselage of an aeroplane . Other kinds of partition elements within a ship are decks and deckheads . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 3 Purpose * 4 Requirements of bulkheads * 4.1 Fire-resistance * 4.2 Prevention of damage from EMI and EMP * 5 Other uses of the term * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links ETYMOLOGYThe word bulki meant "cargo" in Old Norse
Old Norse
. Sometime in the 15th century sailors and builders in Europe realized that walls within a vessel would prevent cargo from shifting during passage. In shipbuilding, any vertical panel was called a "head". So walls installed abeam (side-to-side) in a vessel's hull were called "bulkheads." Now, the term BULKHEAD applies to every vertical panel aboard a ship, except for the hull itself
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Aircraft Catapult
An AIRCRAFT CATAPULT is a device used to launch aircraft from ships , most commonly used on aircraft carriers , as a form of assisted take off . It consists of a track built into the flight deck , below which is a large piston or shuttle that is attached through the track to the nose gear of the aircraft, or in some cases a wire rope , called a catapult bridle , is attached to the aircraft and the catapult shuttle. Different means have been used to propel the catapult, such as weight and derrick , gunpowder , flywheel , air pressure , hydraulic , and steam power . The U.S. Navy is developing the use of Electromagnetic Aircraft
Aircraft
Launch Systems with the construction of the Gerald R. Ford class aircraft carrier. Catapulted aircraft land like conventional aircraft, sometimes with the help of arresting gear
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Home Fleet
The HOME FLEET was a fleet of the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
that operated in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
's territorial waters from 1902 with intervals until 1967. Before the First World War , it consisted of the four Port Guard ships; during the First World War, it comprised some of the older ships of the Royal Navy; and during the Second World War , it was the Royal Navy's main battle force in European waters. CONTENTS * 1 Pre-First World War * 2 Inter-war period * 3 Second World War * 4 Post-Second World War * 5 Notes * 6 Sources * 7 External links PRE-FIRST WORLD WAROn 1 October 1902, the Admiral Superintendent Naval Reserves, then Vice-Admiral Gerard Noel , was given the additional appointment of Commander-in-Chief, Home Fleet, and allotted a rear-admiral to serve under him as commander of the Home Squadron. "..
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Vichy France
VICHY FRANCE (French : Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the FRENCH STATE (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II
World War II
. It represents the unoccupied "Free Zone" (zone libre ) in the southern part of metropolitan France
France
and French North Africa . From 1940 to 1942, while the Vichy
Vichy
regime was the nominal government of France
France
as a whole, Germany militarily occupied northern France
France
. Thus, while Paris remained the de jure capital of France, the de facto capital of southern, "unoccupied" France
France
was the town of Vichy
Vichy
, 360 km (220 mi) to the south. Following the Allied landings in French North Africa
North Africa
in November 1942, southern France
France
was also militarily occupied by Germany and Italy
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Madagascar
MADAGASCAR (/ˌmædəˈɡæskər/ ; Malagasy : Madagasikara), officially the REPUBLIC OF MADAGASCAR (Malagasy: Repoblikan'i Madagasikara ; French : République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic , is an island country in the Indian Ocean , off the coast of East Africa . The nation comprises the island of Madagascar (the fourth-largest island in the world), and numerous smaller peripheral islands. Following the prehistoric breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana , Madagascar split from the Indian peninsula around 88 million years ago, allowing native plants and animals to evolve in relative isolation. Consequently, Madagascar is a biodiversity hotspot ; over 90% of its wildlife is found nowhere else on Earth. The island's diverse ecosystems and unique wildlife are threatened by the encroachment of the rapidly growing human population and other environmental threats
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Japanese Home Islands
The JAPANESE ARCHIPELAGO (日本列島, Nihon Rettō) is the group of islands that forms the country of Japan
Japan
, and extends roughly from northeast to southwest along the northeastern coast of the Eurasia mainland, washing upon the northwestern shores of the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
. It consists of islands from the Sakhalin island arc and the Northeastern Japan
Japan
arc . The term Home Islands was used at the end of World War II
World War II
to define the area of Japan
Japan
to which its sovereignty and the constitutional rule of the Emperor would be restricted. The term is also commonly used today to distinguish the archipelago from Japan's colonies and other territories in the first half of the 20th century
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Prisoners Of War
A PRISONER OF WAR (POW, POW, PW, P/W, WP, PSW, ENEMY PRISONER OF WAR (EPW) or "MISSING-CAPTURED" ) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant , who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict . The earliest recorded usage of the phrase "prisoner of war" dates to 1660. Belligerents hold prisoners of war in custody for a range of legitimate and illegitimate reasons, such as isolating them from enemy combatants still in the field (releasing and repatriating them in an orderly manner after hostilities), demonstrating military victory, punishing them, prosecuting them for war crimes , exploiting them for their labour, recruiting or even conscripting them as their own combatants, collecting military and political intelligence from them, or indoctrinating them in new political or religious beliefs
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Japanese Surrender
The SURRENDER OF IMPERIAL JAPAN was announced on August 15 and formally signed on September 2, 1945, bringing the hostilities of World War II to a close . By the end of July 1945, the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) was incapable of conducting major operations and an Allied invasion of Japan was imminent. Together with the British Empire and China , the United States called for the unconditional surrender of the Japanese armed forces in the Potsdam Declaration on July 26, 1945—the alternative being "prompt and utter destruction". While publicly stating their intent to fight on to the bitter end, Japan's leaders (the Supreme Council for the Direction of the War , also known as the "Big Six") were privately making entreaties to the still-neutral Soviet Union to mediate peace on terms more favorable to the Japanese
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