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H2S Radar
H2S was the first airborne, ground scanning radar system. It was developed for the Royal Air Force's Bomber Command during World War II to identify targets on the ground for night and all-weather bombing. This allowed attacks outside the range of the various radio navigation aids like Gee or Oboe, which were limited to about 350 kilometres (220 mi). It was also widely used as a general navigation system, allowing landmarks to be identified at long range. In March 1941, experiments with an early Airborne Interception radar based on the 9.1 cm S band
S band
cavity magnetron revealed that different objects have very different radar signatures; water, open land and built up areas of cities and towns all produced distinct returns. In January 1942, a new team was set up to combine the magnetron with a new scanning antenna and plan-position indicator display
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Cologne
Cologne
Cologne
(English: /kəˈloʊn/; German: Köln, pronounced [kœln] ( listen), Ripuarian: Kölle [ˈkœɫə] ( listen)) is the largest city in the German federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
and the fourth most populated city in Germany
Germany
(after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich). It is located within the Rhine-Ruhr
Rhine-Ruhr
metropolitan region which is Germany's largest and one of Europe's major metropolitan areas. Cologne
Cologne
is about 45 kilometres (28 mi) southwest of North Rhine-Westphalia's capital of Dusseldorf
Dusseldorf
and 25 kilometres (16 mi) northwest of Bonn. Cologne
Cologne
is located on both sides of the Rhine, near Germany's borders with Belgium
Belgium
and the Netherlands
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Optical Resolution
Optical resolution
Optical resolution
describes the ability of an imaging system to resolve detail in the object that is being imaged. An imaging system may have many individual components including a lens and recording and display components
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Frederick Lindemann, 1st Viscount Cherwell
Frederick Alexander Lindemann, 1st Viscount Cherwell, CH, PC, FRS[1] (/ˈtʃɑːrwɛl/ CHAR-wel; 5 April 1886 – 3 July 1957) was a British physicist and an influential scientific adviser to the British government from the early 1940s to the early 1950s, particularly to Winston Churchill
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Reginald Victor Jones
Reginald Victor Jones
Reginald Victor Jones
CH, CB, CBE, FRS,[1] FRSE, LLD (29 September 1911 – 17 December 1997) was a British physicist and scientific military intelligence expert who played an important role in the defence of Britain in World War II.Contents1 Early life 2 Royal Signals and Radar Establishment 3 Beam guidance 4 Window 5 Postwar and awards 6 Death and legacy 7 Selected publications 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksEarly life[edit] Reginald Jones was born in Herne Hill, south London, on 29 September 1911. He was educated at Alleyn's School, Dulwich, and Wadham College, Oxford where he studied Natural Sciences. In 1932 he graduated with First Class honours in physics and then, working in the Clarendon Laboratory, completed his DPhil in 1934
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Hydrogen Sulphide
Hydrogen
Hydrogen
sulfide is the chemical compound with the formula H 2S. It is a colorless gas with the characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is very poisonous, corrosive, and flammable.[10] Hydrogen
Hydrogen
sulfide often results from the microbial breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen gas, such as in swamps and sewers; this process is commonly known as anaerobic digestion. H 2S also occurs in volcanic gases, natural gas, and in some sources of well water
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Sic
The Latin
Latin
adverb sic ("thus", "just as"; in full: sic erat scriptum, "thus was it written")[1] inserted after a quoted word or passage indicates that the quoted matter has been transcribed exactly as found in the source text, complete with any erroneous or archaic spelling, surprising assertion, faulty reasoning, or other matter that might otherwise be taken as an error of transcription. The usual usage is to inform the reader that any errors or apparent errors in quoted material do not arise from errors in the course of the transcription, but are intentionally reproduced, exactly as they appear in the source text
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Airborne Radar System
An airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) system is an airborne radar picket system designed to detect aircraft, ships and vehicles at long ranges and perform command and control of the battlespace in an air engagement by directing fighter and attack aircraft strikes. AEW&C units are also used to carry out surveillance, including over ground targets and frequently perform C2BM (command and control, battle management) functions similar to an Air Traffic Controller given military command over other forces
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Transponder
In telecommunication, a transponder can be one of two types of devices. In air navigation or radio frequency identification, a flight transponder is an automated transceiver in an aircraft that emits a coded identifying signal in response to an interrogating received signal. In a communications satellite, a satellite transponder receives signals over a range of uplink frequencies, usually from a satellite ground station
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Line-of-sight Propagation
Line-of-sight propagation
Line-of-sight propagation
is a characteristic of electromagnetic radiation or acoustic wave propagation which means waves travel in a direct path from the source to the receiver. Electromagnetic transmission includes light emissions traveling in a straight line. The rays or waves may be diffracted, refracted, reflected, or absorbed by the atmosphere and obstructions with material and generally cannot travel over the horizon or behind obstacles. In contrast to line-of-sight propagation, at low frequency (below approximately 3 MHz) due to diffraction radio waves can travel as ground waves, which follow the contour of the Earth. This enables AM radio stations to transmit beyond the horizon
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Falklands War
British victoryRelations severed until 1989 Argentine military government replaced with democratic government in October 1983Territorial changes Status quo ante bellum in South Georgia and the Falklands Argentine occupation of Southern Thule
Southern Thule
endedBelligerents United Kingdom  ArgentinaCommanders and leaders Margaret Thatcher Sir Terence Lewin S
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Ruhr
The Ruhr
Ruhr
(German pronunciation: [ˈʁuːɐ̯], German: Ruhrgebiet), or the Ruhr
Ruhr
district, Ruhr
Ruhr
region, Ruhr
Ruhr
area or Ruhr
Ruhr
valley, is a polycentric urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.[a] With a population density of 2,800/km² and a population of over 5 million (2011),[3] it is the largest urban area in Germany, and third-largest in the European Union.[4] It consists of several large, industrial cities bordered by the rivers Ruhr
Ruhr
to the south, Rhine
Rhine
to the west, and Lippe to the north. In the southwest it borders the Bergisches Land
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Philip Dee
Prof Philip Ivor Dee CBE FRS[1][2] FRSE
FRSE
(8 April 1904, Stroud – 17 April 1983, Glasgow) was a British nuclear physicist. He was responsible for the development of airborne radar during the Second World War. Glasgow
Glasgow
University named the Philip Ivor Dee Memorial Lecture after him.[3]Contents1 Life 2 Artistic Recognition 3 Family 4 Archives 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksLife[edit] He was born in Stroud in Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire
on 8 April 1904 the son of Albert John Dee a schoolmaster
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X Band
The X band
X band
is the designation for a band of frequencies in the microwave radio region of the electromagnetic spectrum. In some cases, such as in communication engineering, the frequency range of the X band is rather indefinitely set at approximately 7.0 to 11.2 GHz[citation needed]. In radar engineering, the frequency range is specified by the IEEE
IEEE
at 8.0 to 12.0 GHz
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Berlin
Berlin
Berlin
(/bɜːrˈlɪn/, German: [bɛɐ̯ˈliːn] ( listen)) is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states. With a steadily growing population of approximately 3.7 million,[4] Berlin
Berlin
is the second most populous city proper in the European Union
European Union
behind London
London
and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union.[5] Located in northeastern Germany
Germany
on the banks of the rivers Spree
Spree
and Havel, it is the centre of the Berlin- Brandenburg
Brandenburg
Metropolitan Region, which has roughly 6 million residents from more than 180 nations.[6][7][8][9] Due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin
Berlin
is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate
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Bristol Blenheim
The Bristol Blenheim
Bristol Blenheim
is a British light bomber aircraft designed and built by the Bristol Aeroplane Company
Bristol Aeroplane Company
(Bristol) which was used extensively in the first two years and in some cases throughout the Second World War. The aircraft was developed as Type 142, a civil airliner, in response to a challenge from Lord Rothermere to produce the fastest commercial aircraft in Europe. The Type 142 first flew in April 1935, and the Air Ministry, impressed by its performance, ordered a modified design as the Type 142M for the Royal Air Force (RAF) as a bomber. Deliveries of the newly named Blenheim to RAF squadrons commenced on 10 March 1937. A development of the Type 142M was the Type 149 which Bristol named the Bolingbroke, retrospectively changed by the Air Ministry
Air Ministry
to Blenheim Mk IV and the Type 142M to the Blenheim Mk I
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