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H. Neanderthalensis
Homo
Homo
mousteriensis[1] Palaeoanthropus neanderthalensis[2] Neanderthals
Neanderthals
(UK: /niˈændərˌtɑːl/, also US: /neɪ-, -ˈɑːn-, -ˌtɔːl, -ˌθɔːl/),[3][4] more rarely known as Neandertals,[a] were archaic humans that became extinct about 40,000 years ago.[8][9][10][11][12][13] They seem to have appeared in Europe and later expanded into Southwest, Central and Northern Asia. There, they left hundreds of stone tool assemblages. Almost all of those younger than 160,000 years are of the so-called Mousterian
Mousterian
techno-complex, which is characterised by tools made out of stone flakes.[14] Neanderthals
Neanderthals
are considered either a distinct species, Homo neanderthalensis,[15][16][17] or more rarely[18] a subspecies of Homo sapiens (H. s
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Middle Pleistocene
For the Holocene, dates are relative to the year 2000 (e.g. Greenlandian began 11,700 years before 2000). For the begin of the Northgrippian a date of 8,236 years before 2000 has been set.[2] The Meghalayan has been set to begin 4,250 years before 2000, apparently from a calibrated radio-carbon date of 4,200 years BP i.e. before 1950.[3][clarification needed] 'Chibanian' and 'Tarantian' are informal, unofficial names proposed to replace the also informal, unofficial 'Middle Pleistocene' and 'Upper Pleistocene' subseries/subepochs respectively. In Europe and North America, the Holocene
Holocene
is subdivided into Preboreal, Boreal, Atlantic, Subboreal, and Subatlantic
Subatlantic
stages of the Blytt–Sernander time scale
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DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid (/diˈɒksiˌraɪboʊnjʊˈkliːɪk, -ˈkleɪ.ɪk/ ( listen);[1] DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses. DNA
DNA
and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids; alongside proteins, lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), they are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life. Most DNA
DNA
molecules consist of two biopolymer strands coiled around each other to form a double helix. The two DNA
DNA
strands are called polynucleotides since they are composed of simpler monomer units called nucleotides.[2][3] Each nucleotide is composed of one of four nitrogen-containing nucleobases (cytosine [C], guanine [G], adenine [A] or thymine [T]), a sugar called deoxyribose, and a phosphate group
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Neanderthals In Southwest Asia
Southwest Asian Neanderthals
Neanderthals
are Neanderthals
Neanderthals
that lived in Turkey, Lebanon, Israel, Syria, Iraq, and Iran, the southernmost expanse of their known range. Although their arrival in Asia is not well-dated, early Neanderthals
Neanderthals
occupied the region apparently until about 100,000 years ago. At this time, Homo sapiens
Homo sapiens
seems to have replaced them in one of the first anatomically modern expansions out of Africa. In their turn, starting around 80,000 years ago, Neanderthals
Neanderthals
seem to have replaced Homo sapiens
Homo sapiens
in Southwest Asia. They inhabited the region until about 55,000 years ago.[1] In Southwest Asia, Neanderthals
Neanderthals
left well-preserved skeletal remains in Israel, Syria, and Iraq
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name,[1] although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature.[2] For example, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name, Picea abies. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription, position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature)
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British English
British English
British English
is the standard dialect of English language
English language
as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.[3] Variations exist in formal, written English in the United Kingdom. For example, the adjective wee is almost exclusively used in parts of Scotland
Scotland
and Ireland, and occasionally Yorkshire, whereas little is predominant elsewhere. Nevertheless, there is a meaningful degree of uniformity in written English within the United Kingdom, and this could be described by the term British English. The forms of spoken English, however, vary considerably more than in most other areas of the world where English is spoken,[4] so a uniform concept of British English
British English
is more difficult to apply to the spoken language
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American English
American English
American English
(AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US),[3] sometimes called United States
United States
English or U.S. English,[4][5] is the set of dialects of the English language
English language
native to the United States
United States
of America.[6] English is the most widely spoken language in the United States
United States
and is the common language used by the federal government, to the extent that all laws and compulsory education are practiced in English
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Stone Tool
PaleolithicLower Paleolithic Late Stone AgeHomo Control of fire Stone toolsMiddle Paleolithic Middle Stone Age Homo
Homo
neanderthalensis Homo
Homo
sapiens Recent African origin of modern humansUpper Paleolithic Late Stone AgeBehavioral modernity, Atlatl, Origin of the domestic dogEpipaleolithic MesolithicMicroliths, Bow, CanoeNatufian Khiamian Tahunian Heavy Neolithic Shepherd Neolithic Trihedral Neolithic Pre- Pottery
Pottery
NeolithicNeolithic Neolithic
Neolithic
Revolution, Domestication Pottery
Pottery
NeolithicPottery↓ Chalcolithicv t eA stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool made either partially or entirely out of stone
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Assemblage (archaeology)
An assemblage is an archaeological term meaning a group of different artifacts found in association with one another, that is, in the same context. As defined by one of the standard contemporary archaeological textbooks (Renfrew and Bahn), an assemblage is a "group of artifacts recurring together at a particular time and place, and representing the sum of human activities."[1] As defined in the archaeology text Linking to the Past (Feder), "One can speak of the artifact assemblage for a particular site and by that mean all the artifacts. One can also refer to a specific type of artifact. For example, one can refer to the stone tool assemblage or ceramic assemblage, that is, the array of stone tools or ceramic objects found at a site, in a region, or dating to a particular time period." Assemblages of sites being destroyed was an issue in early archaeology
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Mousterian
The Mousterian
Mousterian
(or Mode III) is a techno-complex (archaeological industry) of flint lithic tools associated primarily with Neanderthals, as well as with the earliest anatomically modern humans in Eurasia. The Mousterian
Mousterian
largely defines the latter part of the Middle Paleolithic, the middle of the West Eurasian Old Stone Age. It lasted roughly from 160,000 BP to 40,000 BP.Contents1 Naming 2 Characteristics 3 Locations 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksNaming[edit] The culture was named after the type site of Le Moustier, a rock shelter in the Dordogne
Dordogne
region of France.[3] Similar flintwork has been found all over unglaciated Europe
Europe
and also the Near East
Near East
and North Africa
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Flake Tool
In archaeology, a flake tool is a type of stone tool that was used during the Stone Age that was created by striking a flake from a prepared stone core. People during prehistoric times often preferred these flake tools as compared to other tools because these tools were often easily made, could be made to be extremely sharp and could easily be repaired. Flake tools could be sharpened by retouch to create scrapers or burins. These tools were either made by flaking off small particles of flint or by breaking off a large piece and using that as a tool itself. These tools were able to be made by this "chipping" away effect due to the natural characteristic of stone. Stone is able to break apart when struck near the edge. Flake tools are created through flint knapping, a process of producing stone tools using lithic reduction. Lithic reduction
Lithic reduction
is the removal of a lithic flake from a larger stone in order to reach the desired tool shape and size
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Chimpanzee
Pan troglodytes Pan paniscusDistribution of Pan troglodytes
Pan troglodytes
(common chimpanzee) and Pan paniscus (bonobo, in red)SynonymsTroglodytes E. Geoffroy, 1812 (preoccupied) Mimetes Leach, 1820 (preoccupied) Theranthropus Brookes, 1828 Chimpansee Voight, 1831 Anthropopithecus Blainville, 1839[2] Hylanthropus Gloger, 1841 Pseudanthropus Reichenbach, 1862 Engeco Haeckel, 1866 Fsihego DePauw, 1905The taxonomical genus Pan (often referred to as chimpanzees or chimps) consists of two extant species: the common chimpanzee and the bonobo. Together with humans, gorillas, and orangutans they are part of the family Hominidae
Hominidae
(the great apes). Native to sub-Saharan Africa, common chimpanzees and bonobos are currently both found in the Congo jungle, while only the common chimpanzee is also found further north in West Africa
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Late Pleistocene
The Late Pleistocene
Pleistocene
is a geochronological age of the Pleistocene Epoch and is associated with Upper Pleistocene
Pleistocene
or Tarantian stage Pleistocene
Pleistocene
series rocks. The beginning of the stage is defined by the base of the Eemian interglacial
Eemian interglacial
phase before the final glacial episode of the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
126,000 ± 5,000 years ago. Its end is defined at the end of the Younger Dryas, some 11,700 years ago.[2][3] The age represents the end of the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
epoch and is followed by the Holocene
Holocene
epoch. Much of the Late Pleistocene
Pleistocene
age was dominated by glaciation (the Wisconsin glaciation
Wisconsin glaciation
in North America
North America
and corresponding glacial periods in Eurasia)
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Bergmann's Rule
Bergmann's rule
Bergmann's rule
is an ecogeographical rule that states that within a broadly distributed taxonomic clade, populations and species of larger size are found in colder environments, and species of smaller size are found in warmer regions. Although originally formulated in terms of species within a genus, it has often been recast in terms of populations within a species. It is also often cast in terms of latitude. It is possible that the rule also applies to some plants, such as Rapicactus. The rule is named after nineteenth century German biologist Carl Bergmann, who described the pattern in 1847, although he was not the first to notice it. Bergmann's rule
Bergmann's rule
is most often applied to mammals and birds which are endotherms, but some researchers have also found evidence for the rule in studies of ectothermic species.[2][3] such as the ant Leptothorax acervorum
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Adaptation
In biology, adaptation has three related meanings. Firstly, it is the dynamic evolutionary process that fits organisms to their environment, enhancing their evolutionary fitness. Secondly, it is a state reached by the population during that process. Thirdly, it is a phenotypic or adaptive trait, with a functional role in each individual organism, that is maintained and has evolved through natural selection. Organisms face a succession of environmental challenges as they grow, and show adaptive plasticity as traits develop in response to the imposed conditions
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Cranial Cavity
The cranial cavity, or intracranial space, is the space formed inside the skull. It is part of the dorsal body cavity. The brain occupies the cranial cavity, which is lined by the meninges and which contains cerebrospinal fluid to cushion blows. The cranial cavity is the cavity present in the brain . Eight fused cranial bones together form the cranial cavity: the frontal, occipital, sphenoid and ethmoid bones, and two each of the parietal and temporal bones.[1] The capacity of an adult human cranial cavity is 1,200–1,700 cm3.[2] See also[edit] Neurocranium
Neurocranium
Intracranial pressure References[edit]^ Martini R, Ober W, Garrison C, Welch K, and Hutchings RT. 2001. Fundamentals of Anatomy
Anatomy
and Physiology, 5th ed. Prentice Hall, New Jersey. p. 195. ^ Turchin VF. The Phenomenon of Science. Chapter 5
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