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Gupta Empire
The Gupta Empire
Empire
was an ancient Indian empire, which existed at its zenith from approximately 240 to 605 CE and covered much of the Indian subcontinent.[1] This period is called the Golden Age
Golden Age
of India.[2][note 1] The ruling dynasty of the empire was founded by Sri Gupta; the most notable rulers of the dynasty were Chandragupta I, Samudragupta, and Chandragupta II. The 5th-century CE Sanskrit
Sanskrit
poet Kalidasa
Kalidasa
credits the Guptas with having conquered about twenty-one kingdoms, both in and outside India, including the kingdoms of Parasikas, the Hunas, the Kambojas, tribes located in the west and east Oxus
Oxus
valleys, the Kinnaras, Kiratas, and others.[4][non-primary source needed] The high points of this period are the great cultural developments which took place during the reign of Chandragupta II
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Puranas
ArtsBharatanatyam Kathak Kathakali Kuchipudi Manipuri Mohiniyattam Odissi Sattriya Bhagavata Mela Yakshagana Dandiya Raas Carnatic musicRites of passageGarbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha AntyeshtiAshrama DharmaAshrama: Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha SannyasaFestivalsDiwali Holi Shivaratri Navaratri Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami-DussehraRaksha Bandhan Ganesh Chat
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Aryabhata
Aryabhata
Aryabhata
(IAST: Āryabhaṭa) or Aryabhata
Aryabhata
I[2][3] (476–550 CE)[4][5] was the first of the major mathematician-astronomers from the classical age of Indian mathematics
Indian mathematics
and Indian astronomy
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Golden Age
The term Golden Age
Golden Age
comes from Greek mythology, particularly the Works and Days of Hesiod, and is part of the description of temporal decline of the state of peoples through five Ages, Gold
Gold
being the first and the one during which the Golden Race of humanity (Greek: χρύσεον γένος chrýseon génos)[1] lived. Those living in the first Age were ruled by Kronos, after the finish of the first age was the Silver, then the Bronze, after this the Heroic age, with the fifth and current age being Iron.[2] By extension "Golden Age" denotes a period of primordial peace, harmony, stability, and prosperity. During this age peace and harmony prevailed, people did not have to work to feed themselves, for the earth provided food in abundance. They lived to a very old age with a youthful appearance, eventually dying peacefully, with spirits living on as "guardians"
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Kalidasa
Kālidāsa
Kālidāsa
was a Classical Sanskrit
Classical Sanskrit
writer, widely regarded as the greatest poet and dramatist in the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language of India. His plays and poetry are primarily based on the Vedas, the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
and the Puranas.[1] Much about his life is unknown, only what can be inferred from his poetry and plays.[2] His works cannot be dated with precision, but they were most likely authored within the 4th-5th century CE.[3][4]Contents1 Early life1.1 Period 1.2 Theory of multiple Kalidasas2 Works2.1 Plays 2.2 Poems2.2.1 Epics 2.2.2 Minor poems 2.2.3 Translations3 Later culture 4 Influences 5 Further reading 6 See also 7 References 8 Notes 9 Citations 10 External linksEarly life[edit] Scholars have speculated that Kalidasa may have lived near the Himalayas, in the vicinity of Ujjain, and in Kalinga
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Bharshiva Dynasty
The Bharshiva dynasty (c. 170–350 CE) was the most powerful dynasty of the pre-Bhar period. The Nagas of Vidisha
Vidisha
moved to Mathura
Mathura
and start annexing other kingdoms under Virasena. They made Padmavati Pawaya, Kantipuri and Vidisha
Vidisha
their capitals and placed their family members as rulers of the states. The Nagas of Mathura
Mathura
were the head of the Bharshiva dynasty according to Chandrama Bhardwaj.[1][full citation needed] Nagas of Mathura[edit] Due to the decline of Kushans, Nagas of Mathura
Mathura
under King Virasena gained Independence and establish Bharshiva Dynasty
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Parasika
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze Age Terramare Tumulus Urnfield LusatianSouth-AsiaBMAC Yaz Gandhara graveIron AgeSteppeChernolesEuropeThraco-Cimmerian Hallstatt JastorfCaucasusColchianIndiaPainted Grey Ware Northern Black Polished WarePeoples and societiesBronze AgeAnatolians Armenians Mycenaean Greeks Indo-Ir
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Kambojas
The Kambojas
Kambojas
were a tribe of Iron Age
Iron Age
India, frequently mentioned in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Pali literature
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Oxus River
The Amu Darya, also called the Amu or Amo River, and historically known by its Latin name Oxus, is a major river in Central Asia. It is formed by the junction of the Vakhsh and Panj rivers, in the Tigrovaya Balka Nature Reserve on the border between Tajikistan
Tajikistan
and Afghanistan, and flows from there north-westwards into the southern remnants of the Aral Sea
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List Of Countries And Outlying Territories By Area
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area. Entries in this list, include, but are not limited to, those in the ISO standard 3166-1, which includes sovereign states and dependent territories
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Kinnara Kingdom
In the Mahabharata, Kinnara Kingdom refers to the territory of a tribe called Kinnaras, who were one among the exotic tribes. They, along with others, were inhabitants of the Himalaya mountains. The people of the Gangetic Plain looked upon them with wonder and considered them as super-human. Kinnaras were mysteriously linked with horses. The Puranas mention them as being horse-necked beings. The epic Mahabharata mentions Kinnaras, not as horse-headed beings but as beings who were half-man and half-horse (similar to the Centaur from Greek Mythology). The Mahabharata and the Puranas describe regions north of the Himalayas as the abode of Kinnaras. This region was also the abode of a tribe of people called Kambojas. They were fierce warriors skilled in horse riding and horse warfare. Some of them were robber-tribes who invaded village-settlements, by raiding them using their skilled cavalry-forces. The myth of Kinnaras probably came from these horsemen
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Kiratas
The Kirāta (Kirat) (Sanskrit: किरात) is a generic term in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
literature for people who had territory in the mountains, particularly in the Himalayas and North-East India
North-East India
and who are believed to have been
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Varahamihira
Vārāhamihira  pronunciation (help·info) (505[citation needed]–587 CE), also called Vārāha or Mihira, was an Indian astronomer, mathematician, and astrologer who lived in Ujjain. He was born in the Avanti region, roughly corresponding to modern-day Malwa, to Adityadasa, who was himself an astronomer
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Pushyabhuti
The Pushyabhuti dynasty (IAST: Puṣyabhūti), also known as the Vardhana dynasty, ruled parts of northern India during 6th and 7th centuries. The dynasty reached its zenith under its last ruler Harsha-Vardhana. At the height of Harsha's power, his Empire covered much of North and Northwestern India, extended East till Kamarupa, and South until Narmada River; and eventually made Kannauj (in present Uttar Pradesh state) his capital, and ruled till 647 CE.[1]Contents1 Origins 2 History 3 Rulers 4 References4.1 BibliographyOrigins[edit] No concrete information is available about the origins of the dynasty. Harshacharita by the 7th century poet Bana gives a legendary account of their origin, naming Pushyabhuti as the dynasty's founder. According to this legend, Pushyabhuti lived in the Srikantha janapada (modern Kurukshetra district), whose capital was Sthanvishvara (modern Thanesar)
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Vishnu Sharma
Vishnu Sharma
Vishnu Sharma
(Sanskrit: विष्णुशर्मन् / विष्णुशर्मा) was an Indian scholar and author who is believed to have written the Panchatantra
Panchatantra
collection of fables.[1] The exact period of the composition of the Panchatantra
Panchatantra
is uncertain, and estimates vary from 1200 BCE to 300 CE.[1] Some scholars place him in the 3rd century BCE.[2] Panchatantra
Panchatantra
is one of the most widely translated non-religious books in history
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Vatsyayana
Vātsyāyana is the name of an ancient Indian philosopher, whose name appears as the author of the Kama Sutra. His date is uncertain: estimates range widely, from 600 BCE.[1] He is not to be confused with Pakṣilasvāmin Vātsyāyana, the author of Nyāya Sutra Bhāshya, the first preserved commentary on Gotama's Nyāya Sutras.[2][3] His name is sometimes erroneously confused with Mallanaga, the prophet of the Asuras, to whom the origin of erotic science is attributed.[4]Contents1 Biography 2 See also 3 Notes 4 References 5 External linksBiography[edit] Hardly anything is known about Vātsyāyana, although it is believed that his disciples went on his instructions, on the request of the Hindu Kings in the Himalayan range to influence the hill tribals to give up the pagan cult of sacrifices. He is said to have created the legend of Tara among the hill tribes as a tantric goddess
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