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Gupta Empire
The GUPTA EMPIRE was an ancient Indian empire founded by Sri Gupta . The empire existed at its zenith from approximately 320 to 550 CE and covered much of the Indian subcontinent . The peace and prosperity created under the leadership of the Guptas enabled the pursuit of scientific and artistic endeavors. This period is called the Golden Age of India
India
and was marked by extensive inventions and discoveries in science, technology , engineering , art , dialectic , literature , logic , mathematics , astronomy , religion , and philosophy that crystallized the elements of what is generally known as Hindu
Hindu
culture . Chandragupta I
Chandragupta I
, Samudragupta
Samudragupta
, and Chandragupta II
Chandragupta II
were the most notable rulers of the Gupta
Gupta
dynasty
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Talk
TALK may refer to: * Conversation , interactive communication between two or more people * Speech , the production of a spoken language * Interaction , face to face conversations * Compulsive talking , beyond the bounds of what is considered to be a socially acceptable amount of talking * Communication<
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Pataliputra
PATALIPUTRA ( IAST : Pāṭaliputra), adjacent to modern-day Patna
Patna
, was a city in ancient India, originally built by Magadha
Magadha
ruler Ajatashatru in 490 BCE as a small fort (Pāṭaligrāma) near the Ganges
Ganges
river
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Sanskrit
A few attempts at revival have been reported in Indian and Nepalese newspapers. India : 14135 Indians claimed Sanskrit to be their mother tongue in the 2001 Census of India : Nepal : 1669 Nepalis in 2011 Nepal census reported Sanskrit as their mother tongue. LANGUAGE FAMILY Indo-European * Indo-Iranian * Indo-Aryan * SANSKRIT EARLY FORM Vedic Sanskrit WRITING SYSTEM No native script. Written in various Brahmic scripts
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Prakrit
A PRAKRIT ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: प्राकृत _prākṛta_, Shauraseni : _pāuda_, Magadhi Prakrit : _pāua_) is any of several Middle Indo-Aryan languages . The Ardhamagadhi ("half-Magadhi ") Prakrit, which was used extensively to write the scriptures of Jainism
Jainism
, is often considered to be the definitive form of Prakrit, while others are considered variants thereof. Prakrit
Prakrit
grammarians would give the full grammar of Ardhamagadhi first, and then define the other grammars with relation to it. For this reason, courses teaching "Prakrit" are often regarded as teaching Ardhamagadhi
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Hinduism
HINDUISM is a religion, or a way of life, widely practiced in the Indian subcontinent . Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, and some practitioners and scholars refer to it as _Sanātana Dharma _, "the eternal tradition," or the "eternal way," beyond human history. Scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder. This " Hindu synthesis" started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE following the Vedic period (1500 BCE to 500 BCE). Although Hinduism contains a broad range of philosophies, it is linked by shared concepts, recognisable rituals, cosmology , shared textual resources , and pilgrimage to sacred sites . Hindu texts are classified into Shruti ("heard") and Smriti ("remembered")
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Buddhism
BUDDHISM ( /ˈbʊdɪzəm/ or /ˈbuːdɪzəm/ ) is a religion and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions , beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to the Buddha
Buddha
. Buddhism
Buddhism
originated in Ancient India sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia
Asia
, whereafter it declined in India
India
during the Middle Ages. Two major extant branches of Buddhism
Buddhism
are generally recognized by scholars: Theravada ( Pali
Pali
: "The School of the Elders") and Mahayana ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: "The Great Vehicle"). Buddhism
Buddhism
is the world\'s fourth-largest religion , with over 500 million followers or 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists
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Jainism
JAINISM (/ˈdʒeɪnɪzəm/ or /ˈdʒaɪnɪzəm/ ), traditionally known as JAIN DHARMA, is an ancient Indian religion . Jainism followers are called "Jains", a word derived from the Sanskrit word _jina _ (victor) and connoting the path of victory in crossing over life's stream of rebirths through an ethical and spiritual life. Jains trace their history through a succession of twenty-four victorious saviors and teachers known as _Tirthankaras _, with the first being Rishabhanatha , who is believed to have lived millions of years ago, and twenty-fourth being the Mahavira around 500 BCE. Jains believe that Jainism is an eternal _dharma _ with the Tirthankaras guiding every cycle of the Jain cosmology. The main religious premises of Jainism are _ahimsa _ ("non-violence"), _anekantavada _ ("many-sidedness"), _aparigraha _ ("non-attachment") and _asceticism _
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Monarchy
A MONARCHY is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty , embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch , exercises the role of sovereignty. The actual power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic (crowned republic ), to partial and restricted (_constitutional_ monarchy ), to completely autocratic (_absolute_ monarchy ). Traditionally the monarch's post is inherited and lasts until death or abdication. In contrast, elective monarchies require the monarch to be elected. Both types have further variations as there are widely divergent structures and traditions defining monarchy. For example, in some elected monarchies only pedigrees are taken into account for eligibility of the next ruler, whereas many hereditary monarchies impose requirements regarding the religion, age, gender, mental capacity, etc. Occasionally this might create a situation of rival claimants whose legitimacy is subject to effective election
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Maharajadhiraja
MAHāRāJA ( Sanskrit : महाराज, also spelled MAHARAJAH, MOHARAJA) is a Sanskrit title for a "great ruler", "great king " or "high king ". A few ruled mighty states informally called empires, including Ranjit Singh , founder of the Sikh empire , and Maharaja Sri Gupta , founder of the ancient Indian Gupta empire , but 'title inflation' soon led to most being rather mediocre or even petty in real power, while compound titles were among the attempts to distinguish some among their ranks. The Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir , was the last Maharaja to be an independent sovereign post the Indian independence , and ruled over the largest land area, being recognised as a hereditary 21-guns salute state by Britain
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Maharaja Śri Gupta
ŚRI GUPTA (r. 240 – 280 CE) was a pre-imperial Gupta king in northern India and the founder of the Gupta dynasty . Northern or central Bengal
Bengal
might have been the home of Guptas at that time, however little evidence is available. The Poona copper inscription of Prabhavati Gupta, a daughter of Chandragupta II , describes "Maharaja Sri-Gupta" as the founder of the Gupta dynasty . Sri Gupta is identified with the king Che-li-ki-to mentioned in the writings of the Chinese traveller Yijing , who wrote around 690 CE, and described the king as having ruled 500 years earlier. According to Yijing's account, Śri Gupta ordered the construction of a temple at Mṛgaśikhāvana for the use of Buddhist pilgrims coming from China, endowing it with the revenue from 40 villages. :35 RELIGIONHistorian A. K
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Chandragupta I
CHANDRAGUPTA I was a king of the Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
around 320 CE. As the ruler of the Gupta Empire, he is known for forging alliances with many powerful families in the Ganges
Ganges
region. DESCRIPTION Chandragupta I
Chandragupta I
was the son of Ghatotkacha and the grandson of Sri Gupta . Unlike his predecessors, who were known as Maharaja (king), he came to be known as Maharajadhiraja (king of kings). He came to power in 320 CE as his father Ghatotkacha died leaving him on the throne. However, it remains unknown how he expanded a "small principality to the status of an important kingdom" by annexing neighbouring kingdoms. He also married a Licchhavi princess, Kumaradevi , indicating that the matrimonial connections between the two led to the "political greatness" of the Gupta dynasty. The exact boundaries of his empire remains unknown. He had two main sons
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Samudragupta
SAMUDRAGUPTA (r. c. 335 – c. 380 CE) was the fourth ruler of the Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
and the son and successor of Chandragupta I
Chandragupta I
. His rule was one of expansion marked first by the conquest of his immediate neighbours and then by campaigns to the east and the south where chiefdoms and kingdoms were subdued and forced to pay tribute to him. Much of the knowledge of Samudragupta's military exploits comes from the Allahabad Pillar of Ashoka
Ashoka
which includes a prashasti (a eulogy) extolling the deeds and virtues of the Gupta emperor
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Chandragupta II
CHANDRAGUPTA II (also known as CHANDRAGUPTA VIKRAMADITYA) was one of the most powerful emperors of the Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
in India
India
. His rule spanned c. 380 – c. 415 CE during which the Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
reached its peak. Art, architecture, and sculpture flourished, and the cultural development of ancient India
India
achieved new heights. The period of prominence of the Gupta dynasty
Gupta dynasty
is often referred to as the "Golden Age" of India
India
. Chandragupta II
Chandragupta II
was the son of the previous ruler, Samudragupta
Samudragupta

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Vishnu Gupta (Gupta Empire)
VISHNUGUPTA CANDRADITYA (Sanskrit : विष्णुगुप्त) was one of the lesser known kings of the Gupta Dynasty . He is generally considered to be the last recognized king of the Gupta Empire . His reign lasted 10 years, from 540 to 550 CE. From the fragment of his clay sealing discovered at Nalanda
Nalanda
during the excavations of 1927-28, it is revealed that he was the son of Kumaragupta III and the grandson of Narasimhagupta
Narasimhagupta
. The last known inscription by a Gupta emperor is from the reign of Vishnugupta (the Damodarpur copper-plate inscription), in which he makes a land grant in the area of Kotivarsha ( Bangarh
Bangarh
in West Bengal ) in 542/543 CE. This follows the occupation of most of northern and central India by the Aulikara
Aulikara
ruler Yashodharman circa 532 CE
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Ancient India
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to ancient India: ANCIENT INDIA – India
India
as it existed from pre-historic times (c. 7000 BCE or earlier) to the start of the Middle Ages (c. 500 CE). CONTENTS * 1 Geography of ancient India
India
* 2 General history of ancient India
India
* 2.1 Periodisation of Indian history * 2.2 Indian pre-history * 2.3 Iron Age (c. 1200 – 272 BCE) * 2.4 Second Urbanisation * 2.5 Classical Age * 2.6 Middle Ages (c