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Gun-howitzer
Gun-howitzer (also referred to as gun howitzer) is a type of artillery weapon that is intended to fulfill both the role of ordinary cannon or field gun, and that of a howitzer.[1] It is thus able to convey both direct and indirect fire.[1] To be able to serve as a howitzer, gun-howitzers are typically built to achieve up to 60—70° of elevation. For effective direct fire, the gun-howitzers typically employ a fairly long barrel, usually not shorter than 30 calibres. Its ammunition also has a high muzzle velocity and often large calibre (often exceeding 120 mm).[1] Historically the first gun-howitzer was the French canon obusier of 19th century
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Artillery
Artillery
Artillery
is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms. Early artillery development focused on the ability to breach fortifications, and led to heavy, fairly immobile siege engines. As technology improved, lighter, more mobile field artillery developed for battlefield use. This development continues today; modern self-propelled artillery vehicles are highly mobile weapons of great versatility providing the largest share of an army's total firepower. In its earliest sense, the word artillery referred to any group of soldiers primarily armed with some form of manufactured weapon or armour. Since the introduction of gunpowder and cannon, the word "artillery" has largely meant cannon, and in contemporary usage, it usually refers to shell-firing guns, howitzers, mortars, rockets and guided missiles
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Cannon
A cannon (plural: cannon or cannons) is a type of gun classified as artillery that launches a projectile using propellant. In the past, gunpowder was the primary propellant before the invention of smokeless powder in the 19th century. Cannon
Cannon
vary in caliber, range, mobility, rate of fire, angle of fire, and firepower; different forms of cannon combine and balance these attributes in varying degrees, depending on their intended use on the battlefield. The word cannon is derived from several languages, in which the original definition can usually be translated as tube, cane, or reed
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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10.5 Cm LeFH 18
The 10.5 cm leFH 18 (German: leichte Feldhaubitze "light field howitzer") was a German light howitzer used in World War II
World War II
and the standard artillery piece of the Wehrmacht, adopted for service in 1935 and used by all divisions and artillery battalions. At least 22,133 examples were produced. Designed in the late 1920s, it represented a major advance on its predecessor the 10.5 cm leFH 16. It was superior in caliber to its early opponents in the war, with adequate range and firepower, but the modern split trail gun carriage that provided it with more stability and traverse also rendered it too heavy for a mobile role in the largely horse-drawn artillery battalions of the German army, particularly in the mud and snow of the Eastern Front. The leFH 18 was further developed as the leFH 18M and leFH 18/40. Beginning in 1942, self-propelled versions were created by fitting the howitzer on a Panzer II, a H35, Char B1 or 37L chassis
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World War II
Allied victoryCollapse of Nazi Germany Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires Dissolution of the League of Nations Creation of the United Nations Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more...)ParticipantsAllied Powers Axis PowersCommanders and leadersMain Allied leaders Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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American Civil War
Union victoryDissolution of the Confederate States U.S. territorial integrity preserved Slavery abolished Beginning of the Reconstruction EraBelligerents United States  Confederate StatesCommanders and leaders Abraham Lincoln Ulysses S. Grant William T. Sherman David Farragut George B. McClellan Henry Halleck George Meade and others Jefferson Davis Robert E. Lee  J. E. Johnston  G. T. Beauregard  A. S
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Canon Obusier De 12
The Canon obusier de 12
Canon obusier de 12
(French:"Canon obusier de campagne de 12 livres, modèle 1853", USA: 12-pounder Napoleon), also known as the "Canon de l’Empereur" was a type of canon-obusier (literally "Shell-gun cannon", "gun-howitzer") developed by France in 1853. Its performance and versatility (it was able to fire either ball, shell, canister or grapeshot) allowed it to replace all the previous field guns, especially the Canon de 8 and the Canon de 12 as well as the two howitzers of the Valée system. The cannon owes its alias to French president and emperor Napoleon III.Contents1 Characteristics 2 American career 3 Succession 4 See also 5 NotesCharacteristics[edit] Canon-obusier
Canon-obusier
Le Lassaigne, modèle 1853.The "canon obusier" was a smoothbore cannon firing either shells, balls, or canister. This was an improvement over previous cannon firing only balls, such as those of the Gribeauval system
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Canon Obusier
The Canon-obusier (literally "Shell-gun cannon", "gun-howitzer") was a type of cannon developed by France in the 1850s. The canon-obusier was a smoothbore cannon using either explosive shells, solid shot, or canister, and was therefore a vast improvement over previous cannon firing only solid shot, such as the Gribeauval system. The very first canon-obusiers were naval shell guns, invented in 1823 by Paixhans and introduced in the French Navy in 1842.[1] This invention was related to the origin of the development of the Dahlgren shell gun in the United States in 1849. The French Army introduced the canon-obusier de 12 in 1853
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Muzzle Velocity
Muzzle velocity
Muzzle velocity
is the speed of a projectile at the moment it leaves the muzzle of a gun.[1] Muzzle velocities range from approximately 120 m/s (390 ft/s) to 370 m/s (1,200 ft/s) in black powder muskets,[2] to more than 1,200 m/s (3,900 ft/s)[3] in modern rifles with high-performance cartridges such as the .220 Swift
.220 Swift
and .204 Ruger, all the way to 1,700 m/s (5,600 ft/s)[4] for tank guns firing kinetic energy penetrator ammunition
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Calibre
In guns, particularly firearms, caliber or calibre is the approximate internal diameter of the gun barrel, or the diameter of the projectile it shoots. It is measured in hundredths or thousandths of an inch or in millimetres. For example, a ".45 caliber" firearm has a barrel diameter of roughly 0.45 inches (11 mm). Barrel diameters can also be expressed using metric dimensions. For example, a "9mm pistol" has a barrel diameter of about 9 millimetres (it is rare for the actual barrel diameter to precisely match the designation however, and the bullet itself is yet another dimension). When the barrel diameter is given in inches, the abbreviation "cal" (for "caliber") can be used
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Barrel
A barrel, cask, or tun is a hollow cylindrical container, traditionally made of wooden staves bound by wooden or metal hoops. Traditionally, the barrel was a standard size of measure referring to a set capacity or weight of a given commodity. For example, in the UK a barrel of beer refers to a quantity of 36 imperial gallons (160 L; 43 US gal). Wine
Wine
was shipped in barrels of 119 litres (31 US gal; 26 imp gal). Modern wooden barrels for wine-making are either made of French common oak (Quercus robur) and white oak (Quercus petraea) or from American white oak (Quercus alba) and have typically these standard sizes: "Bordeaux type" 225 litres (59 US gal; 49 imp gal), "Burgundy type" 228 litres (60 US gal; 50 imp gal) and " Cognac
Cognac
type" 300 litres (79 US gal; 66 imp gal)
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Elevation (ballistics)
In ballistics, the elevation is the angle between the horizontal plane and the direction of the barrel of a gun, mortar or heavy artillery. Originally, elevation was a linear measure of how high the gunners had to physically lift the muzzle of a gun up from the gun carriage to hit targets at a certain distance.Contents1 Pre-WWI and WWI 2 WWII and beyond 3 See also 4 ReferencesPre-WWI and WWI[edit] Though early 20th-century firearms were relatively easy to fire, artillery was not. Before and during World War I, the only way to effectively fire artillery was plotting points on a plane. Most artillery units seldom employed their cannons in small numbers. Instead of using pin-point artillery firing they used old means of "fire for effect" using artillery en masse. This tactic was employed successfully by past armies. But changes have been made since past wars and in World War I, artillery was more accurate than before, although not as accurate as artillery one century newer
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Indirect Fire
Indirect fire
Indirect fire
is aiming and firing a projectile without relying on a direct line of sight between the gun and its target, as in the case of direct fire. Aiming is performed by calculating azimuth and elevation angles, and may include correcting aim by observing the fall of shot and calculating new angles.Contents1 Description 2 History 3 Related issues 4 See also 5 Footnotes 6 ReferencesDescription[edit] There are two dimensions in aiming a weapon:In the horizontal plane (azimuth); and In the vertical plane (elevation), which is governed by the distance (range) to the target and the energy of the propelling charge.The projectile trajectory is affected by atmospheric conditions, the velocity of the projectile, the difference in altitude between the firer and the target, and other factors. Direct fire
Direct fire
sights may include mechanisms to compensate for some of these
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Direct Fire
Direct fire
Direct fire
refers to the launching of a projectile directly at a target within the line-of-sight of the firer.[1] The firing weapon must have a sighting device and an unobstructed view to the target, which means no objects or friendly units can be between it and the target. A weapon engaged in direct fire exposes itself to return fire from the target.[2] This is in contrast to indirect fire, which refers to firing a projectile on a ballistic trajectory or delivering munitions by guided or unguided missiles. Indirect fire
Indirect fire
does not need a direct line of sight to the target because the shots are normally directed by a forward observer
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