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Gun Laying
Gun
Gun
laying is the process of aiming an artillery piece, such as a gun, howitzer or mortar, on land or at sea, against surface or air targets. It may be laying for direct fire, where the gun is aimed similarly to a rifle, or indirect fire, where firing data is calculated and applied to the sights. The term includes automated aiming using, for example, radar-derived target data and computer-controlled guns. Gun
Gun
laying means moving the axis of the bore of the barrel in two planes, horizontal and vertical
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Smokeless Powder
Smokeless powder
Smokeless powder
is the name given to a number of propellants used in firearms and artillery that produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the black powder they replaced
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Recoil
Recoil
Recoil
(often called knockback, kickback or simply kick) is the backward movement of a gun when it is discharged. In technical terms, the recoil momentum acquired by the gun exactly balances the forward momentum of the projectile and exhaust gases (ejecta), according to Newton's third law, known as conservation of momentum. In hand-held small arms, the recoil momentum is transferred to the ground through the body of the shooter; while in heavier guns such as mounted machine guns or cannons, recoil momentum is transferred to the ground through the mount. In order to bring the rearward moving gun to a halt, the momentum acquired by the gun is dissipated by a forward acting counter-recoil force applied to the gun over a period of time after the projectile exits the muzzle
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Plumb Bob
A plumb bob, or plummet, is a weight, usually with a pointed tip on the bottom, suspended from a string and used as a vertical reference line, or plumb-line. It is essentially the vertical equivalent of a "water level". The instrument has been used since at least the time of ancient Egypt[1] to ensure that constructions are "plumb", or vertical. It is also used in surveying, to establish the nadir with respect to gravity of a point in space
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In Vacuo
Vacuum is space devoid of matter. The word stems from the Latin adjective vacuus for "vacant" or "void". An approximation to such vacuum is a region with a gaseous pressure much less than atmospheric pressure.[1] Physicists often discuss ideal test results that would occur in a perfect vacuum, which they sometimes simply call "vacuum" or free space, and use the term partial vacuum to refer to an actual imperfect vacuum as one might have in a laboratory or in space. In engineering and applied physics on the other hand, vacuum refers to any space in which the pressure is lower than atmospheric pressure.[2] The Latin term in vacuo is used to describe an object that is surrounded by a vacuum. The quality of a partial vacuum refers to how closely it approaches a perfect vacuum. Other things equal, lower gas pressure means higher-quality vacuum. For example, a typical vacuum cleaner produces enough suction to reduce air pressure by around 20%.[3] Much higher-quality vacuums are possible
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William Eldred
William Eldred (1563?–1646?), was an English gunner, the master gunner of Dover Castle and author of a treatise on gunnery.Contents1 Life 2 Works 3 References 4 External linksLife[edit] Eldred was born about 1563, and lived to an old age, signing as a freeholder of Dover the Kentish petition for the reformation of the liturgy in 1641. It would appear possible that he was a relation of John Eldred and of Thomas Eldred, but no identification is possible. Works[edit] He was author of 'The Gunner's Glasse, wherein the diligent Practitioner may see his defects, and may from point to point reform and amend all errors that are commonly incident to unskilful gunners,' 1646. The book is an account of the great gun exercise as then in vogue. The dedication to the Earl of Warwick says that he had spent the greatest part of his time in Dover Castle; and that he had been a gunner for about sixty years
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Demiculverin
The demi-culverin was a medium cannon similar to but slightly larger than a saker and smaller than a regular culverin developed in the late 16th century.[1] Barrels of demi-culverins were typically about 11 feet (3.4 m) long, had a calibre of 4 inches (10 cm) and could weigh up to 3,400 pounds (1,500 kg). It required 6 pounds (2.7 kg) of black powder to fire an 8-pound (3.6 kg) round shot (though there were heavier variants firing 9-pound (4.1 kg) or 10-pound (4.5 kg) round shot). The demi-culverin had an effective range of 1,800 feet (550 m).[1][2] Demi-culverins were valued by generals for their range, accuracy and effectiveness. They were often used in sieges for wall and building demolition.[1] References[edit]^ a b c Artillery through the ages ^ English ordinance 1626 to 1643This artillery-related article is a stub
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Saker (cannon)
The saker was a medium cannon, slightly smaller than a culverin, developed during the early 16th century and often used by the English.[1] It was named after the saker falcon, a large falconry bird native to the Middle East.[2] A saker's barrel was approximately 9.5 ft (2.9m) long, had a calibre of 3.25 inches (8.26 cm), and weighed approximately 1,900 lb (860 kg)
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Propellant
A propellant or propellent is a chemical substance used in the production of energy or pressurized gas that is subsequently used to create movement of a fluid or to generate propulsion of a vehicle, projectile, or other object. Common propellants are energetic materials and consist of a fuel like gasoline, jet fuel, rocket fuel, and an oxidizer. Propellants are burned or otherwise decomposed to produce the propellant gas. Other propellants are simply liquids that can readily be vaporized. In rockets and aircraft, propellants are used to produce a gas that can be directed through a nozzle, thereby producing thrust. In rockets, rocket propellant produces an exhaust, and the exhausted material is usually expelled under pressure through a nozzle. The pressure may be from a compressed gas, or a gas produced by a chemical reaction. The exhaust material may be a gas, liquid, plasma, or, before the chemical reaction, a solid, liquid, or gel
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Barrel
A barrel, cask, or tun is a hollow cylindrical container, traditionally made of wooden staves bound by wooden or metal hoops. Traditionally, the barrel was a standard size of measure referring to a set capacity or weight of a given commodity. For example, in the UK a barrel of beer refers to a quantity of 36 imperial gallons (160 L; 43 US gal). Wine
Wine
was shipped in barrels of 119 litres (31 US gal; 26 imp gal). Modern wooden barrels for wine-making are either made of French common oak (Quercus robur) and white oak (Quercus petraea) or from American white oak (Quercus alba) and have typically these standard sizes: "Bordeaux type" 225 litres (59 US gal; 49 imp gal), "Burgundy type" 228 litres (60 US gal; 50 imp gal) and " Cognac
Cognac
type" 300 litres (79 US gal; 66 imp gal)
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Ballistic Pendulum
A ballistic pendulum is a device for measuring a bullet's momentum, from which it is possible to calculate the velocity and kinetic energy. Ballistic pendulums have been largely rendered obsolete by modern chronographs, which allow direct measurement of the projectile velocity. Although the ballistic pendulum is considered obsolete, it remained in use for a significant length of time and led to great advances in the science of ballistics. The ballistic pendulum is still found in physics classrooms today, because of its simplicity and usefulness in demonstrating properties of momentum and energy. Unlike other methods of measuring the speed of a bullet, the basic calculations for a ballistic pendulum do not require any measurement of time, but rely only on measures of mass and distance.[1] In addition its primary uses of measuring the velocity of a projectile or the recoil of a gun, the ballistic pendulum can be used to measure any transfer of momentum
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Benjamin Robins
Benjamin Robins
Benjamin Robins
(1707 – 29 July 1751) was a pioneering British scientist, Newtonian mathematician, and military engineer. He wrote an influential treatise on gunnery, for the first time introducing Newtonian science to military men, was an early enthusiast for rifled gun barrels, and his work had substantive influence on the development of artillery during the latter half of the eighteenth century – and directly stimulated the teaching of calculus in military academies.Contents1 Early life 2 Scientific gunnery 3 Mathematics 4 Politics 5 References 6 SourcesEarly life[edit] Benjamin Robins
Benjamin Robins
was born in Bath.[1] His parents were Quakers in poor circumstances, and as a result, he received very little formal education.[1] Having come to London on the advice of Dr
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Musket
A musket is a muzzle-loaded, smoothbore long gun that appeared in early 16th century Europe, at first as a heavier variant of the arquebus, capable of penetrating heavy armor.[1] By the mid-16th century, this type of musket went out of use as heavy armor declined, but as the matchlock became standard, the term musket continued as the name given for any long gun with a flintlock, and then its successors, all the way through the mid 1800s.[2] This style of musket was retired in the 19th century when rifled muskets (simply called rifles in modern terminology) became common as a result of cartridged breech-loading firearms introduced by Casimir Lefaucheux
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Gun
A gun is a tubular ranged weapon typically designed to pneumatically discharge projectiles[1] that are solid (most guns) but can also be liquid (as in water guns/cannons and projected water disruptors) or even charged particles (as in a plasma gun) and may be free-flying (as with bullets and artillery shells) or tethered (as with Taser
Taser
guns, spearguns and harpoon guns). The means of projectile propulsion vary according to designs, but are traditionally effected by a high gas pressure contained within a shooting tube (gun barrel), produced either through the rapid combustion of propellants (as with firearms), or by mechanical compression (as with air guns). The high-pressure gas is introduced behind the projectile, accelerating it down the length of the tube, imparting sufficient launch velocity to sustain its further travel towards the target once the propelling gas ceases acting upon it at the end of the tube
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Cannon
A cannon (plural: cannon or cannons) is a type of gun classified as artillery that launches a projectile using propellant. In the past, gunpowder was the primary propellant before the invention of smokeless powder in the 19th century. Cannon
Cannon
vary in caliber, range, mobility, rate of fire, angle of fire, and firepower; different forms of cannon combine and balance these attributes in varying degrees, depending on their intended use on the battlefield. The word cannon is derived from several languages, in which the original definition can usually be translated as tube, cane, or reed
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Napoleonic Wars
The Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
(1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon
Napoleon
I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom. The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution
French Revolution
and its resultant conflict. The wars are often categorised into five conflicts, each termed after the coalition that fought Napoleon; the Third Coalition
Third Coalition
(1805), the Fourth (1806–07), Fifth (1809), Sixth (1813), and the Seventh and final (1815). Napoleon, upon ascending to First Consul of France
France
in 1799, had inherited a chaotic republic; he subsequently created a state with stable finances, a strong bureaucracy, and a well-trained army
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