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Gums
The gums or gingiva (plural: gingivae), consist of the mucosal tissue that lies over the mandible and maxilla inside the mouth. Gum health and disease can have an effect on general health.[1]Contents1 Structure1.1 Marginal gums 1.2 Attached gum 1.3 Interdental gum2 Characteristics of healthy gums2.1 Color 2.2 Contour 2.3 Texture 2.4 Reaction to disturbance3 Clinical significance 4 See also 5 ReferencesStructure[edit] The gums are part of the soft tissue lining of the mouth. They surround the teeth and provide a seal around them. Unlike the soft tissue linings of the lips and cheeks, most of the gums are tightly bound to the underlying bone which helps resist the friction of food passing over them. Thus when healthy, it presents an effective barrier to the barrage of periodontal insults to deeper tissue
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Gingival Fibers
The gingival fibers are the connective tissue fibers that inhabit the gingival tissue adjacent to teeth and help hold the tissue firmly against the teeth.[1] They are primarily composed of type I collagen, although type III fibers are also involved. These fibers, unlike the fibers of the periodontal ligament, in general, attach the tooth to the gingival tissue, rather than the tooth to the alveolar bone.Contents1 Functions of the gingival fibers 2 Gingival fibers
Gingival fibers
and periodontitis 3 Types of gingival fibers 4 ReferencesFunctions of the gingival fibers[edit] The gingival fibers accomplish the followin
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Alveolar Bone
The alveolar process (/ælˈviːələr/[1]) (alveolar bone) is the thickened ridge of bone that contains the tooth sockets (dental alveoli) on bones that hold teeth. In humans, the tooth-bearing bones are the maxillae and the mandible.[2]Contents1 Structure1.1 Features2 Clinical significance2.1 Developmental disturbances 2.2 Pathology3 Additional images 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksStructure[edit] On the maxillae, the alveolar process is a ridge on the inferior surface, and on the mandible it is a ridge on the superior surface. It makes up the thickest part of the maxillae. The alveolar process contains a region of compact bone adjacent to the periodontal ligament (PDL), which is called the lamina dura when viewed on radiographs. It is this part which is attached to the cementum of the roots by the periodontal ligament. It is uniformly radiopaque (or lighter)
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Keratin
Keratin
Keratin
(/ˈkɛrətɪn/[1][2]) is one of a family of fibrous structural proteins. It is the key structural material making up hair, horns, claws, hooves, and the outer layer of human skin. Keratin
Keratin
is also the protein that protects epithelial cells from damage or stress. Keratin
Keratin
is extremely insoluble in water and organic solvents
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Chewing
Chewing
Chewing
or mastication is the process by which food is crushed and ground by teeth. It is the first step of digestion, and it increases the surface area of foods to allow a more efficient break down by enzymes. During the mastication process, the food is positioned by the cheek and tongue between the teeth for grinding. The muscles of mastication move the jaws to bring the teeth into intermittent contact, repeatedly occluding and opening. As chewing continues, the food is made softer and warmer, and the enzymes in saliva begin to break down carbohydrates in the food. After chewing, the food (now called a bolus) is swallowed. It enters the esophagus and via peristalsis continues on to the stomach, where the next step of digestion occurs.[1] Premastication is sometimes performed by human parents for infants who are unable to do so for themselves
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Col
In geomorphology, a col is the lowest point on a mountain ridge between two peaks.[1] It may also be called a gap.[1] Particularly rugged and forbidding cols in the terrain are usually referred to as notches. They are generally unsuitable as mountain passes, but are occasionally crossed by mule tracks or climbers' routes. The term col tends to be associated more with mountain rather than hill ranges.[2] The height of a summit above its highest col (called the key col) is effectively a measure of a mountain's topographic prominence. Cols lie on the line of the watershed between two mountains, often on a prominent ridge or arête
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Periodontal Probe
A periodontal probe is an instrument in dentistry commonly used in the dental armamentarium. It is usually long, thin, and blunted at the end. The primary purpose of a periodontal probe is to measure pocket depths around a tooth in order to establish the state of health of the periodontium. There are markings inscribed onto the head of the instrument for accuracy and readability.Contents1 Use 2 Types 3 References 4 Additional references 5 External linksUse[edit]Michigan O probe with Williams markings (left) and Naber's probe with shades alternating every 3 mm (right).Proper use of the periodontal probe is necessary to maintain accuracy. The tip of the instrument is placed with light pressure of 10-20 grams[1] into the gingival sulcus, which is an area of potential space between a tooth and the surrounding tissue. It is important to keep the periodontal probe parallel to the contours of the root of the tooth and to insert the probe down to the base of the pocket
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Embrasure (dental)
In dentistry, embrasures are V-shaped valleys between adjacent teeth. They provide a spill way for food to escape during chewing[1] which essentially aids in the self-cleansing process. They also prevent food from being forced through the contact area which might cause food packing and periodontal pain and permit a slight amount of stimulation to the gingiva. When two teeth in the same arch are in contact, their curvatures adjacent to the contact areas form spillway spaces which are called as embrasures. See also[edit]Angularis Nigra ("black triangle")References[edit]^ "TheFreeDictionary". 2014 Farlex, Inc. Retrieved 13 April 2014. Nelson, Stanley J.; Major M. Ash, Jr. (2010). Wheeler's Dental Anatomy, Physiology, and Occlusion (9th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Saunders. ISBN 978-1-4160-6209-7. OCLC 723253410. This dentistry article is a stub
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Stippling (dentistry)
The gingiva often possess a textured surface that is referred to as being stippled (engraved points).[1] Stippling only presents on the attached gingiva bound to underlying alveolar bone, not the freely moveable alveolar mucosa. Stippling used to be thought to indicate health, but it has since been shown that smooth gingiva is not an indication of disease, unless it is smooth due to a loss of previously existing stippling. Stippling is a consequence of the microscopic elevations and depressions of the surface of the gingival tissue due to the connective tissue projections within the tissue.[1] "The degree of keratinization and the prominence of stippling appear to be related."[1] To be more specific, stippling occurs at sites of fusion of the epithelial ridges (also known as rete pegs) and correspond to the fusion of the valleys created by the connective tissue papillae.[2] References[edit]^ a b c Itoiz, ME; Carranza, FA: The Gingiva
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Mucogingival Junction
A mucogingival junction is an anatomical feature found on the intraoral mucosa. The mucosa of the cheeks and floor of the mouth are freely moveable and fragile, whereas the mucosa around the teeth and on the palate are firm and keratinized. Where the two tissue types meet is known as a mucogingival junction. There are three mucogingival junctions: on the facial of the maxilla and on both the facial and lingual of the mandible. The palatal gingiva of the maxilla is continuous with the tissue of the palate, which is bound down to the palatal bones
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Cementoenamel Junction
The cementoenamel junction, frequently abbreviated as the CEJ, is a slightly visible anatomical border identified on a tooth. It is the location where the enamel, which covers the anatomical crown of a tooth, and the cementum, which covers the anatomical root of a tooth, meet. Informally it is known as the neck of the tooth.[1] The border created by these two dental tissues has much significance as it is usually the location where the gingiva attaches to a healthy tooth by fibers called the gingival fibers. Active recession of the gingiva reveals the cementoenamel junction in the mouth and is usually a sign of an unhealthy condition. There exists a normal variation in the relationship of the cementum and the enamel at the cementoenamel junction. In about 60–65% of teeth, the cementum overlaps the enamel at the CEJ, while in about 30% of teeth, the cementum and enamel abut each other with no overlap
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Bleeding On Probing
Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.[1] Bleeding
Bleeding
can occur internally, where blood leaks from blood vessels inside the body, or externally, either through a natural opening such as the mouth, nose, ear, urethra, vagina or anus, or through a break in the skin. Hypovolemia is a massive decrease in blood volume, and death by excessive loss of blood is referred to as exsanguination.[2] Typically, a healthy person can endure a loss of 10–15% of the total blood volume without serious medical difficulties (by comparison, blood donation typically takes 8–10% of the donor's blood volume).[3] The stopping or controlling of bleeding is called hemostasis and is an important part of both first aid and surgery. The use of cyanoacrylate glue to prevent bleeding and seal battle wounds was designed and first used in the Vietnam War
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Gingival Recession
Gingival recession, also known as receding gums, is the exposure in the roots of the teeth caused by a loss of gum tissue and/or retraction of the gingival margin from the crown of the teeth.[1] Gum recession is a common problem in adults over the age of 40, but it may also occur starting from the age of a teenager, or around the age of 10. It may exist with or without concomitant decrease in crown-to-root ratio (recession of alveolar bone).Contents1 Classification 2 Causes 3 Symptoms 4 Gingival grafting4.1 Growth-factor techniques5 References 6 External linksClassification[edit] Various classifications have been proposed to classify gingival recession, Miller’s classification system[2] being the one that is most widely followed. Many cases which are encountered in daily clinical practice cannot be classified according to the criteria of the present classification systems
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Pus
Pus
Pus
is an exudate, typically white-yellow, yellow, or yellow-brown, formed at the site of inflammation during bacterial or fungal infection.[1][2] An accumulation of pus in an enclosed tissue space is known as an abscess, whereas a visible collection of pus within or beneath the epidermis is known as a pustule, pimple, or spot. Pus
Pus
consists of a thin, protein-rich fluid, known as liquor puris, and dead leukocytes from the body's immune response (mostly neutrophils).[citation needed] During infection, macrophages release cytokines which trigger neutrophils to seek the site of infection by chemotaxis. There, the neutrophils release granules which destroy the bacteria
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Stratified Squamous Epithelium
A stratified squamous epithelium consists of squamous (flattened) epithelial cells arranged in layers upon a basal membrane. Only one layer is in contact with the basement membrane; the other layers adhere to one another to maintain structural integrity. Although this epithelium is referred to as squamous, many cells within the layers may not be flattened; this is due to the convention of naming epithelia according to the cell type at the surface. In the deeper layers, the cells may be columnar or cuboidal.[1] There are no intercellular spaces. This type of epithelium is well suited to areas in the body subject to constant abrasion, as the thickest layers can be sequentially sloughed off and replaced before the basement membrane is exposed
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