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Guillotine
A guillotine (/ˈɡɪlətiːn/; French: [ɡijɔtin]) is an apparatus designed for efficiently carrying out executions by beheading. The device consists of a tall, upright frame in which a weighted and angled blade is raised to the top and suspended. The condemned person is secured with stocks at the bottom of the frame, positioning the neck directly below the blade. The blade is then released, to quickly fall and forcefully decapitate the victim with a single, clean pass so that the head falls into a basket below. The device is best known for its use in France, in particular during the French Revolution, where it was celebrated as the people's avenger by supporters of the revolution and vilified as the pre-eminent symbol of the Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror
by opponents.[1] The name dates from this period, but similar devices had been used elsewhere in Europe
Europe
over several centuries
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Breaking Wheel
The breaking wheel, also known as the Catherine wheel or simply the wheel, was a torture device used for capital punishment from antiquity into early modern times for public execution by breaking a criminal's bones or bludgeoning them to death. As a form of execution, it was used from classical times into the 18th century; as a form of post mortem punishment of the criminal, the wheel was still in use in 19th-century Germany.Contents1 Description 2 History2.1 Possible Frankish origins 2.2 France 2.3 Holy Roman Empire2.3.1 Dolle case; unclear case2.4 Indian Subcontinent 2.5 Scotland 2.6 British and French colonial empires 2.7 Habsburg Empire 2.8 Russia 2.9 Sweden 2.10 Later use3 Metaphorical uses 4 Execution of St. Catherine4.1 Coats of arms with Catherine wheels4.1.1 Persons 4.1.2 Organizations 4.1.3 Places5 Gallery 6 References 7 External linksDescription[edit] The wheel was typically a large wooden wagon wheel with many radial spokes
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Holinshed's Chronicles
Holinshed's Chronicles, also known as Holinshed's Chronicles
Holinshed's Chronicles
of England, Scotland, and Ireland, is a collaborative work published in several volumes and two editions, the first in 1577, and the second in 1587. It was a large, comprehensive description of British history. The Chronicles are a source of interest to many because of their extensive links to Shakespeare's plays.Contents1 Description 2 Influence on Shakespeare2.1 The Chronicles and Macbeth3 References 4 Bibliography4.1 Modern edition5 External linksDescription[edit] In 1548 Reginald Wolfe, a London printer, conceived the idea of creating a "Universal Cosmography of the whole world, and therewith also certain particular histories of every known nation." He wanted the work to be printed in English and he wanted maps and illustrations in the book as well
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Louis XV Of France
Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as Louis the Beloved,[1] was a monarch of the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
who ruled as King of France
France
from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774. He succeeded his great-grandfather Louis XIV
Louis XIV
at the age of five. Until he reached maturity in 1723, his kingdom was ruled by Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, as Regent of France. Cardinal Fleury was his chief minister from 1726 until the Cardinal's death in 1743, at which time the young king took sole control of the kingdom. His reign of more than 58 years was the second-longest in the history of France, exceeded only by his predecessor and great-grandfather, Louis XIV.[2] In 1748, Louis returned the Austrian Netherlands, territory won at the Battle of Fontenoy
Battle of Fontenoy
of 1745
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Death By Burning
Deliberately causing death through the effects of combustion, or effects of exposure to extreme heat, has a long history as a form of capital punishment. Many societies have employed it as an execution method for activities considered criminal such as treason, rebellious actions by slaves, heresy, witchcraft and sexual transgressions, such as incest or homosexuality. The best known type of executions of death by burning is when the condemned is bound to a large wooden stake (this is usually called burning at the stake, or in some cases, auto-da-fé), but other forms of death resulting from exposure to extreme heat are known. For example, pouring substances such as molten metal onto a person (or down their throat or into their ears), as well as enclosing persons within, or attaching them to, metal contraptions subsequently heated
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Lantern
Today, the term lantern is used to describe many types of portable lighting, but lanterns originated as a protective enclosure for a light source—usually a candle or a wick in oil—to make it easier to carry and hang up, and more practical outdoors or in drafty interiors. Lanterns were usually made from a metal frame with several sides, usually four, but up to eight, commonly with a hook or hoop of metal on top. Windows of some translucent material would be fitted in the sides, now usually glass or plastic but formerly thin sheets of animal horn, or tinplate punched with holes or decorative patterns; though some antique lanterns have only a metal grid, clearly indicating their function was that outlined below. Though primarily used to prevent a burning candle or wick being extinguished, another important function was to reduce the risk of fire should a spark leap from the flame or the light be dropped
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English Language
English is a West Germanic language
West Germanic language
that was first spoken in early medieval England
England
and is now a global lingua franca.[4][5] Named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to England, it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea. It is closely related to the Frisian languages, but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Norse (a North Germanic
North Germanic
language), as well as by Latin
Latin
and Romance languages, especially French.[6] English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are called Old English
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Nobility
Nobility
Nobility
is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary. The privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be largely honorary (e.g., precedence), and vary by country and era
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Ancien Régime
The Ancien Régime
Ancien Régime
(/ˌɒ̃sjæ̃ reɪˈʒiːm/; French: [ɑ̃.sjɛ̃ ʁeʒim]; French for "old regime") was the political and social system of the Kingdom of France
Kingdom of France
from the Late Middle Ages (circa 15th century) until 1789, when hereditary monarchy and the feudal system of French nobility
French nobility
were abolished by the French Revolution.[1] The Ancien Régime
Ancien Régime
was ruled by the late Valois and Bourbon dynasties. The term is occasionally used to refer to the similar feudal systems of the time elsewhere in Europe
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Place Du Carrousel
The Place du Carrousel
Place du Carrousel
(ka-ru-zel) is a public square in the 1st arrondissement of Paris, located at the open end of the courtyard of the Louvre
Louvre
Palace, a space occupied, prior to 1883, by the Tuileries Palace. Sitting directly between the museum and the Tuileries Garden, the Place du Carrousel
Place du Carrousel
delineates the eastern end of the gardens just as the Place de la Concorde
Place de la Concorde
defines its western end. The name "carrousel" refers to a type of military dressage, an equine demonstration now commonly called military drill
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Paris
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Paris
Paris
(French pronunciation: ​[paʁi] ( listen)) is the capital and most populous city in France, with an administrative-limits area of 105 square kilometres (41 square miles) and an official population of 2,206,488 (2015).[5] The city is a commune and department, and the heart of the 12,012-square-kilometre (4,638-square-mile) Île-de-
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Highwayman
A highwayman was a robber who stole from travellers. This type of thief usually traveled and robbed by horse as compared to a footpad who travelled and robbed on foot; mounted highwaymen were widely considered to be socially superior to footpads.[1] Such robbers operated in Great Britain
Great Britain
from the Elizabethan era
Elizabethan era
until the early 19th century. In many other countries, they persisted for a few decades longer, until the mid or late 19th century. The word highwayman is first known to have been used in the year 1617;[2] other euphemisms included "knights of the road" and "gentlemen of the road"
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Harpsichord
A harpsichord is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard, a row of levers which the player presses. When the player presses one or more keys, a mechanism that plucks one or more strings with a small quill is triggered. "Harpsichord" designates the whole family of similar plucked-keyboard instruments, including the smaller virginals, muselar, and spinet. The harpsichord was widely used in Renaissance and Baroque music. During the late 18th century, it gradually disappeared from the musical scene, with the rise of the piano
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Strasbourg
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.Part of the series onAlsaceRot un Wiss, traditional flag of AlsaceHistory Germania Superior
Germania Superior
(Pagus Alsatiae) (83–475) <
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National Assembly (French Revolution)
During the French Revolution, the National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale), which existed from June 13, 1789 to July 9, 1789, was a revolutionary assembly formed by the representatives of the Third Estate (the common people) of the Estates-General; thereafter (until replaced by the Legislative Assembly on Sept. 30, 1791) it was known as the National Constituent Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale constituante), though popularly the shorter form persisted.Contents1 Background Information 2 The Assembly convenes 3 The King resists 4 Confrontation and recognition 5 Reconstitution 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksBackground Information[edit] Main article: Estates-General of 1789 The Estates-General had been called on May 4, 1789 to deal with France's financial crisis, but promptly fell to squabbling over its own structure
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Sans-culottes
The sans-culottes (French: [sɑ̃kylɔt], literally "without breeches") were the common people of the lower classes in late 18th century France, a great many of whom became radical and militant partisans of the French Revolution
French Revolution
in response to their poor quality of life under the Ancien Régime.[1] The name sans-culottes refers to their clothing, and through that to their lower-class status: culottes were the fashionable silk knee-breeches of the 18th-century nobility and bourgeoisie, and the working class sans-culottes wore pantaloons, or trousers, instead.[2] The sans-culottes, most of them urban labourers, served as the driving popular force behind the revolution. Though ill-clad and ill-equipped, they made up the bulk of the Revolutionary army during the early years of the French Revolutionary Wars.[3]:1-22 The most fundamental political ideals of the sans-culottes were social equality, economic equality, and popular democracy
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