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Guarionex
Guarionex (Taíno language: "The Brave Noble Lord"[1]) was a Taíno cacique from Maguá in the island of Hispaniola
Hispaniola
at the time of the arrival of the Europeans
Europeans
to the Western Hemisphere in 1492.[2] He was the son of cacique Guacanagaríx, the great Taíno prophet who had the vision of the coming of the Guamikena (White Men). Since 1494 the Spaniards had imposed heavy tributes on the Taino population of Hispaniola. In 1495, Taino led by Caonabo raised up in arms but were crushed by Bartholomew Columbus. Guarionex then opted for accommodation and appeasement but by 1497 the situation had deteriorated further. Guarionex then sided with Spanish rebel Francisco Roldán and set out to attack the Spaniards. Columbus assembled his troops and attacked Guarionex's camp at night by surprise
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Taíno Language
Taíno is an extinct and poorly-attested Arawakan language that was spoken by the Taíno people of the Caribbean. At the time of Spanish contact, it was the principal language throughout the Caribbean. Classic Taíno (Taíno proper) was the native language of the northern Leeward Islands, Puerto Rico, the Turks and Caicos Islands, and most of Hispaniola, and it was expanding into Cuba. Ciboney is essentially unattested, but colonial sources suggest that it was a dialect of Taíno and was spoken in westernmost Hispaniola, the Bahamas, Jamaica, and most of Cuba. By the late 15th century, Taíno had displaced earlier languages except for western Cuba and pockets in Hispaniola. As the Taíno culture declined during Spanish colonization, the language was replaced by Spanish and other European languages
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Spain
Coordinates: 40°N 4°W / 40°N 4°W / 40; -4Kingdom of SpainReino de España  (Spanish) 4 other official names[a][b] Catalan:Regne d'EspanyaBasque:Espainiako ErresumaGalician:Reino de EspañaOccitan:Reiaume d'Espanha Flag Coat of arms Motto: "Plus ultra" (Latin) "Further Beyond"Anthem: "Marcha Real" (Spanish)[2] "Royal March" Show globeShow map of EuropeLocation of .mw-parser-output .nobold font-weight:normal Spain (dark green)– in Europe (green & dark grey)– in the European Union (green)Capitaland largest cityMadrid40°26′N 3°42′W / 40.433°N 3.700°W / 40.433; -3.700Official language and national languageSpanish[c]Ethnic groups (2019)[4]89.67% Spaniards10.33% othersReligion (2019)[5]67.0% Catholicism27.2% No religion3.1% Other religionsDemonym(s)S
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Arasibo
Arasibo
Arasibo
(born c. 1480s) was a Taíno Cacique
Cacique
in Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
who governed the area which is now named after him (now spelled Arecibo).Contents1 Pre-Columbian era 2 Arrival of the Conquistadors 3 Cronicals of Arecibo 4 Legacy 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksPre-Columbian era[edit] Arasibo
Arasibo
governed a tribe whose village was located by the shore of the river "Abacoa" (now known as the "Río Grande de Arecibo"). Arasibo had been known to be a "just" and respected cacique and his tribe had led a peaceful existence before the arrival of the Spaniards. The rivers close to the village were full of fish and turtles and so it was only natural that the members of Arasibo's tribe were fishermen. Their land produced many fruits, such as papayas; the tribe were cultivators of corn
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Orocobix
Orocobix was the principal regional Taíno Cacique (chief) of the central mountain region of Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
called Jatibonicu in the 16th century. The Jatibonicu territorial region covered the present day municipalities of Aibonito, Orocovis, Barranquitas, Morovis and Corozal. The Taíno language
Taíno language
name Orocobix or O-roco-bis literally means: 'Remembrance of the First Great Mountain.' The seat of power of Orocobix's kingdom and caney (longhouse) was located in the town of Aibonito. Orocobix was the first cousin of Cacique Agüeybaná (The Great Sun). His wife was named "La Cacica" Yayo, she was the mother of Cacica Catalina. Cacique Orocobix and Cacica Yayo were both later given in servitude in the year 1514 and worked in the Royal Mines of the King of Spain, in Utuado
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Tibes Indigenous Ceremonial Center
The Tibes
Tibes
Indigenous Ceremonial Center (Spanish: Centro Ceremonial Indígena de Tibes) in Barrio Portugués, Ponce municipality, Puerto Rico, houses one of the most important archeological discoveries made in the Antilles. The discovery provides an insight as to how the indigenous tribes of the Igneri and Taínos
Taínos
lived and played during and before the arrival of Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
to the New World. Tibes is the oldest Antillean Indian ceremonial and sports complex yet uncovered in Puerto Rico
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Agüeybaná (The Great Sun)
Agüeybaná (died 1510) was one of the two principal and most powerful caciques (chiefs) of the Taíno
Taíno
people in "Borikén" (Puerto Rico) when the Spanish first arrived on the island on November 19, 1493.[4]Contents1 Etimology 2 Arrival of the conquistadors 3 Death and aftermath 4 Legacy 5 Ancestry 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksEtimology[edit] Agüeybana, which has been interpreted by 19th and 20th century authors as meaning "The Great Sun", was the hereditary title shared by the family that ruled the theocratic monarchy of Borikén, governing the hierarchy over the rest of the regional chiefs or caciques. Like other nobiliary recognitions within Taíno
Taíno
culture, it was passed down through the maternal bloodline
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Pre-Columbian Era
The Pre-Columbian era
Pre-Columbian era
incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas
Americas
before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic
Upper Paleolithic
period to European colonization during the Early Modern period. While the phrase "pre-Columbian era" literally refers only to the time preceding Christopher Columbus's voyages of 1492, in practice the phrase is usually used to denote the entire history of indigenous Americas
Americas
cultures until those cultures were exterminated, diminished, or extensively altered by Europeans, even if this happened decades or centuries after Columbus's first landing
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Dominican Republic
Coordinates: 19°00′N 70°40′W / 19.000°N 70.667°W / 19.000; -70.667Dominican Republic República Dominicana  (Spanish)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Dios, Patria, Libertad" (Spanish) "God, Homeland, Freedom"Anthem: Quisqueyanos Valientes Valiant Quisqueyans Capital and largest city Santo Domingo 19°00′N 70°40′W / 19.000°N 70.667°W / 19.000; -70.667Official languages SpanishEthnic groups 87.5% Dominican 10.2% Haitian 2.3% otherDemonym Dominican Quisqueyano (colloquial)[1]Government Unitary presidential republic[2]• PresidentDanilo Medina• Vice PresidentMargarita Cedeño de FernándezLegislature Congress• Upper houseSenate• Lower houseChamber of DeputiesIndependence• from
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Castilians
Castilians (Spanish: castellanos) are certain inhabitants in regions of central Spain
Spain
including at least the eastern part of Castile and León, Castile-La Mancha
Castile-La Mancha
excluding Albacete, and the Community of Madrid, who are the source of the Spanish language
Spanish language
(Castilian) among other aspects of cultural identity. However, not all people in the regions of the medieval Kingdom of Castile
Kingdom of Castile
think of themselves as Castilian. For this reason, the exact limits of what Castile is today are disputed
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Bartolomé De Las Casas
Bartolomé de las Casas
Bartolomé de las Casas
(Spanish: [bartoloˈme ðe las ˈkasas] ( listen); c. 1484[1] – 18 July 1566) was a 16th-century Spanish historian, social reformer and Dominican friar. He became the first resident Bishop
Bishop
of Chiapas, and the first officially appointed "Protector of the Indians". His extensive writings, the most famous being A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies and Historia de Las Indias, chronicle the first decades of colonization of the West Indies and focus particularly on the atrocities committed by the colonizers against the indigenous peoples.[2] Arriving as one of the first European settlers in the Americas, he initially participated in, but eventually felt compelled to oppose the atrocities committed against the Native Americans by the Spanish colonists
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Francisco Roldán
Francisco Roldán (circa 1450 - July 11 [O.S. July 1] 1502) was a Spanish colonial administrator. Biography[edit] He was left as alcalde mayor (local governor) of La Isabela
La Isabela
when Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
returned to Spain
Spain
from his second voyage. In 1497, Roldán revolted against Bartholomew Columbus
Bartholomew Columbus
and established a rival regime in western Hispaniola, drawing into it by 1498 about half of the Spaniards. When Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
returned to Hispaniola
Hispaniola
in August 1498, he was able to make peace with the rebels by granting concessions, including control of native labor.[1][2][3] Under Francisco de Bobadilla, the governor who replaced Christopher Columbus, Roldán received a pardon for his sedition.[4] Roldán died July 11 [O.S
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Jumacao
Jumacao
Jumacao
a.k.a. Jumaca (born c. 1480s) was the Taíno Cacique
Cacique
(Chief) of the area in Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
named after him (now spelled Humacao).Contents1 Before and after the arrival of the Conquistadors 2 Taíno revolt 3 Legacy 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksBefore and after the arrival of the Conquistadors[edit] The Taínos, who lived in Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
long before the arrival of the Spaniards, were an organized and peaceful people. The only problems they had were occasionally with the cannibals of the Carib tribes. The Cacique
Cacique
was the head of the tribe and the governor of his region. They reported to the "Supreme Cacique", who during Jumacao's time was the Cacique
Cacique
Agueybana. When the Spaniards
Spaniards
arrived, Agueybana received Juan Ponce de León with open arms
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Bartholomew Columbus
Bartholomew Columbus
Bartholomew Columbus
(Genoese dialect: Bertomê Corombo;[1] Spanish: Bartolomé Colón; Italian: Bartolomeo Colombo) (c. 1461 – 1515) was an Italian explorer from Genoa and the younger brother of Christopher Columbus.Contents1 Biography 2 Bibliography 3 References 4 External linksBiography[edit] Born in the Republic of Genoa, in the 1470s Bartholomew was a mapmaker in Lisbon, the principal center of cartography of the time, and conceived with his brother the "Enterprise of the Indies", a scheme to reach the Orient and its lucrative spice trade by a western rather than an eastern route. In 1489 he went to England to seek assistance from Henry VII for the execution of the scheme. He was taken by pirates and landed in England in a destitute condition, and on presenting himself at Court was unfavorably received
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Europeans
The Indigenous peoples
Indigenous peoples
of Europe
Europe
are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe. According to German monograph Minderheitenrechte in Europa co-edited by Pan and Pfeil (2002) there are 87 distinct peoples of Europe, of which 33 form the majority population in at least one sovereign state, while the remaining 54 constitute ethnic minorities. The total number of national or linguistic minority populations in Europe
Europe
is estimated at 105 million people, or 14% of 770 million Europeans.[1] There is no precise or universally accepted definition of the terms "ethnic group" or "nationality"
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Vision (spirituality)
A vision is something seen in a dream, trance, or religious ecstasy, especially a supernatural appearance that usually conveys a revelation.[1] Visions generally have more clarity than dreams, but traditionally fewer psychological connotations. Visions are known to emerge from spiritual traditions and could provide a lens into human nature and reality.[2] Prophecy
Prophecy
is often associated with visions. In simple words, it is a religious experience in which the experience can be seen and hence it is called a vision.Contents1 Examples 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksExamples[edit]This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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