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Guangdong Romanization
Guangdong
Guangdong
Romanization refers to the four romanization schemes published by the Guangdong
Guangdong
Provincial Education Department in 1960 for transliterating Cantonese, Teochew, Hakka, and Hainanese. The schemes utilized similar elements with some differences in order to adapt to their respective spoken varieties. In certain respects, Guangdong
Guangdong
romanization resembles pinyin in its distinction of the alveolar initials z, c, s from the alveolo-palatal initials j, q, x, and in its use of b, d, g to represent the unaspirated stop consonants /p t k/. In addition, it makes use of the medial u before the rime rather than representing it as w in the initial when it follows g or k. Guangdong
Guangdong
romanization makes use of diacritics to represent certain vowels. This includes the use of the circumflex, acute accent, and diaeresis in the letters ê, é, and ü, respectively
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Sichuanese Dialect
Sichuanese (simplified Chinese: 四川话; traditional Chinese: 四川話; Sichuanese Pinyin: Si4cuan1hua4; pinyin: Sìchuānhuà; Wade–Giles: Szŭ4-ch'uan1-hua4), or Sichuanese/Szechwanese Mandarin, (simplified Chinese: 四川官话; traditional Chinese: 四川官話; pinyin: Sìchuān Guānhuà) commonly known as Sichuanese, or Szechwanese is a branch of Southwestern Mandarin, spoken mainly in Sichuan
Sichuan
and Chongqing, which was part of Sichuan
Sichuan
Province until 1997, and the adjacent regions of their neighboring provinces, such as Hubei, Guizhou, Yunnan, Hunan
Hunan
and Shaanxi. Although "Sichuanese" is often synonymous with the Chengdu- Chongqing
Chongqing
dialect, there is still a great amount of diversity among the Sichuanese dialects, some of which are mutually unintelligible with each other
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Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China
China
and Taiwan
Taiwan
(de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing
Beijing
dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, and its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese. Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order. It has more initial consonants but fewer vowels, final consonants and tones than southern varieties
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Taiwanese Language Phonetic Alphabet
Taiwanese may refer to:Something from or related to Taiwan
Taiwan
(Formosa) Taiwanese aborigines, the indigenous people of Taiwan Han Taiwanese, the Han people of Taiwan Taiwanese people, residents of
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Mandarin Chinese
Mandarin (/ˈmændərɪn, -drɪn/ ( listen); simplified Chinese: 官话; traditional Chinese: 官話; pinyin: Guānhuà; literally: "speech of officials") is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. The group includes the Beijing
Beijing
dialect, the basis of Standard Mandarin or Standard Chinese. Because most Mandarin dialects are found in the north, the group is sometimes referred to as the Northern dialects (北方话; běifānghuà). Many local Mandarin varieties are not mutually intelligible
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Amoy Dialect
The Amoy
Amoy
dialect or Xiamen
Xiamen
dialect (Chinese: 廈門話; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Ē-mn̂g-ōe), also known as Amoynese, Amoy
Amoy
Hokkien, Xiamenese or Xiamen
Xiamen
Hokkien, is a dialect of Hokkien
Hokkien
spoken in the city of Xiamen (historically known as "Amoy") and its surrounding metropolitan area, in the southern part of Fujian
Fujian
province
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Wenzhounese
Wenzhounese (simplified Chinese: 温州话; traditional Chinese: 溫州話; pinyin: wēnzhōuhuà), also known as Oujiang (simplified Chinese: 瓯江话; traditional Chinese: 甌江話; pinyin: ōujiānghuà), Tong Au (simplified Chinese: 东瓯片; traditional Chinese: 東甌片; pinyin: dōngōupiàn) or Auish (simplified Chinese: 瓯语; traditional Chinese: 甌語; pinyin: ōuyŭ), is the language spoken in Wenzhou, the southern prefecture of Zhejiang, China. Nicknamed the "Devil's Language" for its complexity and difficulty, it is the most divergent division of Wu Chinese, with little to no mutual intelligibility with other Wu dialects or any other variety of Chinese. It features noticeable elements in common with Min Chinese, which is spoken to the south in Fujian
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Wu Chinese
Wu (Shanghainese: [ɦu˨˨ ɲy˦˦]; Suzhou
Suzhou
dialect: [ɦəu˨˨ ɲy˦˦]; Wuxi
Wuxi
dialect: [ŋ˨˨˧ nʲy˨˨]) is a group of linguistically similar and historically related varieties of Chinese primarily spoken in the whole city of Shanghai, Zhejiang
Zhejiang
province and the southern half of Jiangsu
Jiangsu
province, as well as bordering areas. Major Wu varieties include those of Shanghai, Suzhou, Ningbo, Wuxi, Wenzhou/Oujiang, Hangzhou, Shaoxing, Jinhua
Jinhua
and Yongkang. Wu speakers, such as Chiang Kai-shek, Lu Xun
Lu Xun
and Cai Yuanpei, occupied positions of great importance in modern Chinese culture and politics
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Fuzhou Dialect
The Fuzhou
Fuzhou
dialect, (simplified Chinese: 福州话; traditional Chinese: 福州話; pinyin: Fúzhōuhuà; FR:  Hók-ciŭ-uâ (help·info)) also Fuzhounese, Foochow or Hok-chiu, is the prestige variety of the Eastern Min
Eastern Min
branch of Min Chinese spoken mainly in eastern Fujian
Fujian
province. Like many other varieties of Chinese, the Fuzhou
Fuzhou
dialect is dominated by monosyllabic morphemes which carry lexical tones,[3] and has a mainly analytic syntax
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Eastern Min
Eastern Min, or Min Dong (simplified Chinese: 闽东语; traditional Chinese: 閩東語; pinyin: Mǐndōngyǔ; Foochow Romanized: Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄), is a branch of the Min group of varieties of Chinese. The prestige form and most-cited representative form is the Fuzhou
Fuzhou
dialect, the speech of the capital and largest city of Fujian.[4]Contents1 Geographic distribution1.1 China
China
and Taiwan 1.2 America 1.3 Europe 1.4 Japan
Japan
and Malaysia2 Classification2.1 Branches and influences3 References 4 Further readingGeographic distribution[edit] China
China
and Taiwan[edit] Eastern Min
Eastern Min
varieties are mainly spoken in the eastern part of Fujian Province in People's Republic of China, in and near the cities of Fuzhou
Fuzhou
and Ningde
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Cantonese
Cantonese, or Standard Cantonese, is a variety of the Chinese language spoken within Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(historically known as Canton) and its vicinity in southeastern China. It is the traditional prestige variety of Yue, one of the major subdivisions of Chinese. In mainland China, it is the lingua franca of the province of Guangdong, being the majority language of the Pearl River Delta, and neighbouring areas such as Guangxi. It is the dominant and official language of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau
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Yue Chinese
Yue or Yueh (English: /ˈjuːeɪ/ or /juːˈeɪ/; Cantonese pronunciation: [jyːt̚²])[3] is one of the primary branches of Chinese spoken in southern China, particularly the provinces of Guangdong
Guangdong
and Guangxi, collectively known as Liangguang. The name Cantonese
Cantonese
is often used for the whole branch, but linguists prefer to reserve that name for the variety of Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(Canton), Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau, which is the prestige dialect. Taishanese, from the coastal area of Jiangmen
Jiangmen
located southwest of Guangzhou, was the language of most of the 19th-century emigrants from Guangdong
Guangdong
to Southeast Asia and North America
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Taiwanese Hokkien
[tai˧˩ g̃i˥˩] / [tai˧˩ g̃u˥˩] (coastal) [tai˧˧ g̃i˥˩] / [tai˧˧ g̃u˥˩] (inland)Native to TaiwanNative speakers15 million (1997)[1]Language familySino-TibetanChineseMinSouthern MinQuanzhangTaiwanese HokkienWriting systemLatin (pe̍h-ōe-jī), Han characters
Han characters
(traditional)Official statusOfficial language inNone, de facto status in Taiwan
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Macau Government Cantonese Romanization
The Macau
Macau
Government Cantonese
Cantonese
Romanization
Romanization
refers to the mostly consistent system for romanizing Cantonese
Cantonese
as employed by the Government of Macau
Government of Macau
and other non-governmental organizations based in Macau. The system has been employed by the Macau
Macau
Government since the Portuguese colonial period and continues to be used after the 1999 handover of the territory
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Hong Kong Government Cantonese Romanisation
The Hong Kong Government uses an unpublished system of Romanisation of Cantonese
Cantonese
for public purposes which is based on the 1888 standard described by Roy T Cowles in 1914 as Standard Romanisation.[1]:iv The primary need for Romanisation of Cantonese
Cantonese
by the Hong Kong Government is in the assigning of names to new streets and places
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S. L. Wong (romanisation)
Wong Shik-Ling (also known as S. L. Wong) published a romanisation scheme accompanying a set of phonetic symbols for Cantonese
Cantonese
based on International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
(IPA) in the book A Chinese Syllabary Pronounced according to the Dialect of Canton.Contents1 Phonology1.1 Finals1.1.1 Vowels 1.1.2 Falling diphthong finals 1.1.3 Nasal phoneme finals 1.1.4 Plosive phoneme finals 1.1.5 Nasal consonantoids fully voiced finals1.2 Initials 1.3 Tones2 See also 3 References 4 External linksPhonology[edit] Cantonese, like a number of other varieties of Chinese is monosyllabic
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