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Guandao
A guandao is a type of Chinese pole weapon that is used in some forms of Chinese martial arts. In Chinese, it is properly called a yanyuedao (偃月刀; lit. "reclining moon blade"), the name under which it always appears in texts from the Song to Qing dynasties such as the Wujing Zongyao
Wujing Zongyao
and Huangchao Liqi Tushi. It is comparable to the Japanese naginata and the European fauchard or glaive and consists of a heavy blade with a spike at the back and sometimes also a notch at the spike's upper base that can catch an opponent's weapon. In addition there are often irregular serrations that lead the back edge of the blade to the spike. The blade is mounted atop a 1.5 m to 1.8 m (5–6 foot) long wooden or metal pole with a pointed metal counter weight used to balance the heavy blade and for striking on the opposite end. On modern versions, a red sash or tassel is attached at the joint of the pole and blade
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Traditional Chinese Characters
Traditional Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字; simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字; Pinyin: Zhèngtǐzì/Fántǐzì) are Chinese characters
Chinese characters
in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau
Macau
or in the Kangxi Dictionary
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Chinese Dragon
Chinese dragons or East Asian dragons are legendary creatures in Chinese mythology, Chinese folklore, and East Asian culture at large. East Asian dragons have many animal-like forms such as turtles and fish, but are most commonly depicted as snake-like with four legs. They traditionally symbolize potent and auspicious powers, particularly control over water, rainfall, typhoons, and floods. The dragon is also a symbol of power, strength, and good luck for people who are worthy of it in East Asian culture
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Wudangquan
Wudang quan
Wudang quan
is a class of Chinese martial arts. In contemporary China, Chinese martial arts
Chinese martial arts
styles are generally classified into two major groups: Wudang (Wutang), named after the Wudang Mountains; and Shaolin, named after the Shaolin Monastery.[1][2][3] [4][5] Wudang quan
Wudang quan
(Chinese: 武当拳; pinyin: Wǔdāng quán; Wade–Giles: Wu3-tang1 ch'üan2) translates as "Wudang fist." Whereas Shaolin includes many martial art styles, Wudangquan includes only a few arts that utilize the focused mind to control the waist, and therefore the body; this typically encompasses T'ai chi ch'uan, Xing-Yi chuan and Bagua zhang,[6] but must also include Baji chuan and Wudang Sword.[7]: Although the name Wudang simply distinguishes the skills, theories and applications of the internal arts from those of the Shaolin styles, it falsely suggests these arts originated at the Wudang Mountains
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Simplified Chinese Characters
Simplified Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(简化字; jiǎnhuàzì)[1] are standardized Chinese characters
Chinese characters
prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language. The government of the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy.[2] They are officially used in the People's Republic of China
Republic of China
and Singapore. Traditional Chinese
Traditional Chinese
characters are currently used in Hong Kong, Macau, and the Republic of China
Republic of China
(Taiwan)
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Green Standard Army
The Green Standard Army (Chinese: 綠營兵; pinyin: Lǜyíngbīng; Manchu: niowanggiyan turun i kūwaran) was the name of a category of military units under the control of Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
China. It was made up mostly of ethnic Han soldiers and operated concurrently with the Manchu-Mongol-Han Eight Banner armies. In areas with a high concentration of Hui people, Muslims served as soldiers in the Green Standard Army.[1] After the Qing consolidated control over China, the Green Standard Army was primarily used as a police force.[2]Contents1 History1.1 Origins 1.2 Koxinga
Koxinga
and the Revolt of the Three Feudatories 1.3 Reform and Decline2 References 3 SourcesHistory[edit] Origins[edit] The original Green Standard troops were the soldiers of the Ming commanders who surrendered to the Qing in 1644 and after
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Shanhaiguan District
Shanhaiguan District
Shanhaiguan District
(simplified Chinese: 山海关区; traditional Chinese: 山海關區; pinyin: Shānhǎiguān Qū), formerly Shan-hai-kwan or Shan-hai-kuan, is a district of the city of Qinhuangdao, Hebei
Hebei
Province, China, named after the pass of the Great Wall within the district, Shanhai Pass
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Qing Dynasty
Tael
Tael
(liǎng)Preceded by Succeeded byLater JinShunSouthern MingDzungarRepublic of ChinaMongoliaThe Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing (English: /tʃɪŋ/), was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
and succeeded by the Republic of China. The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for the modern Chinese state. It was the fourth largest empire in world history. The dynasty was founded by the Jurchen Aisin Gioro
Aisin Gioro
clan in Manchuria. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci, originally a Ming vassal, began organizing "Banners", military-social units that included Jurchen, Han Chinese, and Mongol elements
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Tang Dynasty
The Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
or the Tang Empire
Empire
(/tɑːŋ/;[3] Chinese: 唐朝[a]) was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty
Sui dynasty
and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. It is generally regarded as a high point in Chinese civilization, and a golden age of cosmopolitan culture.[5] Its territory, acquired through the military campaigns of its early rulers, rivaled that of the Han dynasty, and the Tang capital at Chang'an
Chang'an
(present-day Xi'an) was the most populous city in the world. The dynasty was founded by the Lǐ family (李), who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire
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Tao Hongjing
Tao Hongjing
Tao Hongjing
(456-536), courtesy name Tongming, was a polymath Chinese author, scholar, calligrapher, waidan alchemist, pharmacologist, and astronomer during the Northern and Southern dynasties
Northern and Southern dynasties
(420-589). He is best known as a founder of the Shangqing "Highest Clarity" school of Daoism
Daoism
and the compiler-editor of the basic Shangqing religious texts.Contents1 Biography1.1 Secular life 1.2 Reclusion on Maoshan 1.3 Names2 Literary works 3 Religion3.1 Buddhism 3.2 Daoism4 Protoscience4.1 Pharmacology 4.2 External alchemy5 References 6 External linksBiography[edit] There are a variety of sources about Tao Hongjing's life, from his own writings to biographies in the official Twenty-Four Histories
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Romance Of The Three Kingdoms
Romance of the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
is a 14th-century historical novel attributed to Luo Guanzhong. It is set in the turbulent years towards the end of the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
and the Three Kingdoms period
Three Kingdoms period
in Chinese history, starting in 169 AD and ending with the reunification of the land in 280. The story – part historical, part legend, and part mythical – romanticises and dramatises the lives of feudal lords and their retainers, who tried to replace the dwindling Han dynasty
Han dynasty
or restore it. While the novel follows hundreds of characters, the focus is mainly on the three power blocs that emerged from the remnants of the Han dynasty, and would eventually form the three states of Cao Wei, Shu Han, and Eastern Wu
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Chinese Units Of Measurement
Chinese units of measurement, known in Chinese as the shìzhì ("market system"), are the traditional units of measurement of the Han Chinese. Although Chinese numerals
Chinese numerals
have been decimal (base-10) since the Shang, several Chinese measures use hexadecimal (base-16). Local applications have varied, but the Chinese dynasties
Chinese dynasties
usually proclaimed standard measurements and recorded their predecessor's systems in their histories. In the present day, the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
maintains some customary units based upon the market units but standardized to round values in the metric system, for example the common jin or catty of exactly 500 g
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Shaolin Kung Fu
Shaolin Kung Fu
Shaolin Kung Fu
(Chinese: 少林功夫; pinyin: Shàolín gōng fu), also called Shaolin Wushu (少林武術; Shàolín wǔshù) or Shaolin quan (少林拳; Shàolín quán), is one of the oldest, largest, and most famous styles of wushu or kungfu. It combines Zen Buddhism and martial arts and originated and was developed in the Shaolin temple in Henan
Henan
province, China
China
during its 1500-year history. Popular sayings in Chinese folklore
Chinese folklore
related to this practice include "All martial arts under heaven originated from Shaolin" and "Shaolin kung fu is the best under heaven," indicating the influence of Shaolin kung fu among martial arts. The name Shaolin is also used as a brand for the so-called external styles of kung fu
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Guan Yu
Guan Yu
Guan Yu
(died January or February 220),[a] courtesy name Yunchang, was a general serving under the warlord Liu Bei
Liu Bei
in the late Eastern Han dynasty. He played a significant role in the events that led to the end of the dynasty and the establishment of the state of Shu Han
Shu Han
– founded by Liu Bei
Liu Bei
– in the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
period. After Liu Bei gained control of Yi Province in 214, Guan Yu
Guan Yu
remained in Jing Province to govern and defend the area for about seven years. In 219, while he was away fighting Cao Cao's forces at the Battle of Fancheng, Liu Bei's ally Sun Quan
Sun Quan
broke the Sun–Liu alliance and sent his general Lü Meng
Lü Meng
to invade and conquer Liu Bei's territories in Jing Province in a stealth operation
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