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Guanches
Guanches
Guanches
were the aboriginal Berber inhabitants of the Canary Islands.[1] It is believed that they migrated to the archipelago around 1000 BC or perhaps earlier. The Guanches
Guanches
were the only native people known to have lived in the Macaronesian region before the arrival of Europeans, as there is no evidence that the other Macaronesian archipelagos (Azores, Cape Verde, Madeira) were inhabited before Europeans arrived
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Pierre Amédée Jaubert
Pierre Amédée Emilien Probe Jaubert (3 June 1779 – 28 January 1847) was a French diplomat, academic, orientalist, translator, politician, and traveler. He was Napoleon's "favourite orientalist adviser and dragoman".[1]Contents1 Biography 2 See also 3 Notes 4 ReferencesBiography[edit] Born in Aix-en-Provence, Jaubert was one of the most distinguished pupils of Silvestre de Sacy, whose funeral Discours he gave in 1838. Jaubert acted as interpreter to Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte during the Egyptian Campaign of 1798-1799,[1] in which he was a member of the Egyptian Institute of Sciences and Arts. On his return to Paris
Paris
held various posts in the government
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Las Palmas (province)
The Province of Las Palmas
Las Palmas
(/lɑːs ˈpɑːlməs/, UK: /ˈpɑːməs/; Spanish: Provincia de Las Palmas) is a province of Spain, consisting of the eastern part of the autonomous community of the Canary Islands.Contents1 Geography1.1 Composition 1.2 General view2 Notes and references 3 External linksGeography[edit] Composition[edit] It consists of about half of the Atlantic archipelago, including the islands of Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura, and Lanzarote, as well as another six minor isles (Alegranza, Graciosa, Montaña Clara, Lobos, Roque del Este, and Roque del Oeste). Their total land area is 4,065.78 km² (1,569.8 sq mi), representing 54.6% of the Canary Islands' total land
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Pliny The Elder
Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
(born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian. Spending most of his spare time studying, writing, and investigating natural and geographic phenomena in the field, Pliny wrote the encyclopedic Naturalis Historia
Naturalis Historia
(Natural History), which became an editorial model for encyclopedias. His nephew, Pliny the Younger, wrote of him in a letter to the historian Tacitus:For my part I deem those blessed to whom, by favour of the gods, it has been granted either to do what is worth writing of, or to write what is worth reading; above measure blessed those on whom both gifts have been conferred
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Mauretania
 Spain ∟ Ceuta  ∟ Melilla Mauretania
Mauretania
(also spelled Mauritania)[3] is the Latin name for an area in the ancient Maghreb
Maghreb
(Tamazgha). It stretched from central present-day Algeria
Algeria
westwards to the Atlantic, covering northern Morocco, and southward to the Atlas Mountains.[4] Its native inhabitants, seminomadic pastoralists of Berber ancestral stock, were known to the Romans as the Mauri and the Masaesyli.[5] Beginning in 27 BC, the kings of Mauretania
Mauretania
became Roman vassals until about 44 AD when the area was annexed to Rome and divided into two provinces: Mauretania Tingitana
Mauretania Tingitana
and Mauretania
Mauretania
Caesariensis. In the late 3rd century, another province, Mauretania
Mauretania
Sitifensis, was formed out of the eastern part of Caesariensis
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Ruins
Ruins
Ruins
(from the Latin "Ruina") are the remains of human-made architecture: structures that were once intact have fallen, as time went by, into a state of partial or total disrepair, due to lack of maintenance or deliberate acts of destruction. Natural disaster, war and depopulation are the most common root causes, with many structures becoming progressively derelict over time due to long-term weathering and scavenging. There are famous ruins all over the world, from ancient sites in China, the Indus valley
Indus valley
and Judea
Judea
to Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
in Africa, ancient Greek, Egyptian and Roman sites in the Mediterranean basin, and Incan and Mayan sites in the Americas
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Republic Of Genoa
The Republic
Republic
of Genoa
Genoa
(Ligurian: Repúbrica de Zêna, pronounced [reˈpybrika de ˈze:na]; Latin: Res Publica Ianuensis; Italian: Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria
Liguria
on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica
Corsica
from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean. It began when Genoa
Genoa
became a self-governing commune within the imperial Kingdom of Italy, and ended when it was conquered by the French First Republic
French First Republic
under Napoleon
Napoleon
and replaced with the Ligurian Republic. Corsica
Corsica
was ceded to France
France
in the Treaty of Versailles of 1768
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Portugal
Portugal
Portugal
(Portuguese pronunciation: [puɾtuˈɣaɫ]), officially the Portuguese Republic
Republic
(Portuguese: República Portuguesa [ʁɛˈpuβlikɐ puɾtuˈɣezɐ]),[note 1] is a sovereign state located mostly on the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost country of mainland Europe, bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
and to the north and east by Spain
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Petroglyph
Petroglyphs are images created by removing part of a rock surface by incising, picking, carving, or abrading, as a form of rock art. Outside North America, scholars often use terms such as "carving", "engraving", or other descriptions of the technique to refer to such images. Petroglyphs are found worldwide, and are often associated with prehistoric peoples. The word comes from the Greek word petro-, theme of the word "petra" meaning "stone", and glyphein meaning "to carve", and was originally coined in French as pétroglyphe. The term petroglyph should not be confused with petrograph, which is an image drawn or painted on a rock face. Both types of image belong to the wider and more general category of rock art or parietal art. Petroforms, or patterns and shapes made by many large rocks and boulders over the ground, are also quite different
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History Of The Mediterranean Region
The Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
was the central superhighway of transport, trade and cultural exchange between diverse peoples encompassing three continents: Western Asia, North Africa, and Southern Europe
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History Of Libya
Libya's history covers its rich mix of ethnic groups added to the indigenous Berber tribes. Berbers have been present throughout the entire history of the country. For most of its history, Libya
Libya
has been subjected to varying degrees of foreign control, from Europe, Asia, and Africa
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Crown Of Castile
The Crown of Castile[nb 1] was a medieval state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then Castilian king, Ferdinand III, to the vacant Leonese throne. It continued to exist as a separate entity after the personal union in 1469 of the crowns of Castile and Aragon with the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs up to the promulgation of the Nueva Planta decrees
Nueva Planta decrees
by Philip V in 1715. The Indies, Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea were also a part of the Crown of Castile
Crown of Castile
when transformed from lordships to kingdoms of the heirs of Castile in 1506, with the Treaty of Villafáfila, and upon the death of Ferdinand the Catholic. The title of "King of Castile" remained in use by the Habsburg rulers during the 16th and 17th centuries
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Numidia
French Algeria
Algeria
(19th - 20th centuries)French conquest French governors Resistance Pacification Emir Abdelkader Fatma N'Soumer Mokrani Revolt Cheikh Bouamama Nationalism RCUA FLN GPRA Algerian War 1958 putsch 1961 putsch Évian Accords Independence referendum Pied-Noir Harkis Oujda GroupContemporary era1960s–80sArab nationalism 1965 putsch Berber Spring 1988 Riots1990s
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum
Mediolanum
(286–402, Western) Augusta Treverorum Sirmium Ravenna
Ravenna
(402–476, Western)
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Tifinagh
Tifinagh
Tifinagh
(Berber pronunciation: [tifinaɣ]; also written Tifinaɣ in the Berber Latin alphabet; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⵉⴼⵉⵏⴰⵖ; Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⵊⵉⵏⵗ or ⵜⵊⵏⵗ) is an abjad script used to write the Berber languages.[1] A modern alphabetical derivative of the traditional script, known as Neo-Tifinagh, was introduced in the 20th century
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Strabo
Strabo[1] (/ˈstreɪboʊ/; Greek: Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC – c. AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor
Asia Minor
during the transitional period of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
into the Roman Empire.Contents1 Life 2 Education 3 Geographica 4 Geology 5 Editions 6 Notes 7 References 8 Sources 9 External linksLife[edit]Title page from Isaac Casaubon's 1620 edition of Geographica Strabo
Strabo
was born to an affluent family from Amaseia in Pontus (modern Amasya, Turkey),[2] a city that he said was situated the approximate equivalent of 75 km from the Black Sea
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