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Guadalupe Victoria
Guadalupe Victoria
Guadalupe Victoria
(Spanish pronunciation: [ɡwaðaˈlupe βikˈtoɾja]; 29 September 1786 – 21 March 1843),[1][2] born José Miguel Ramón Adaucto Fernández y Félix,[3] was a Mexican general and political leader who fought for independence against the Spanish Empire in the Mexican War of Independence
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Veracruz (city)
Veracruz
Veracruz
(Spanish pronunciation: [beɾaˈkɾus] ( listen)), officially known as Heroica Veracruz, is a major port city and municipality on the Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
in the Mexican state of Veracruz. The city is located along the coast in the central part of the state,[2] 90 km (56 mi) southeast of the state capital Xalapa
Xalapa
along Federal Highway 140. It is the state's most populous city, with a population that is greater than the municipality's population, as part of the city of Veracruz
Veracruz
extends into the neighboring Boca del Río Municipality
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Siege Of Cuautla
The Siege of Cuautla
Siege of Cuautla
was a battle of the War of Mexican Independence that occurred from 9 February through 2 May 1812 at Cuautla, Morelos. The Spanish royalist forces loyal to the Spanish, commanded by Félix María Calleja, besieged the town of Cuautla and its Mexican rebel defenders fighting for independence from the Spanish Empire. The rebels were commanded by José María Morelos
Morelos
y Pavón, Hermenegildo Galeana, and Mariano Matamoros. The battle results are disputed, but it is generally agreed that the battle resulted more favorably for the Spanish whose siege was ultimately successful with the Mexican withdrawal on 2 May 1812.[2] The siege had many consequences to the political, military and social environment in the contemporary Viceroyalty of New Spain
New Spain
which was ruled since 1810 by Francisco Xavier Venegas
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San Juan De Ulúa
San Juan de Ulúa, also known as Castle of San Juan de Ulúa, is a large complex of fortresses, prisons and one former palace on an island of the same name in the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
overlooking the seaport of Veracruz, Mexico. Juan de Grijalva's 1518 expedition named the island. On Easter Sunday
Easter Sunday
1519, Hernan Cortés
Hernan Cortés
met with Tendile and Pitalpitoque, emissaries from Moctezuma II's Aztec Empire.[1]:89[1]:36,38,89Contents1 History 2 Post-Spanish era2.1 Conditions in 19143 Modern time 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] See also: Battle of San Juan de Ulúa
San Juan de Ulúa
(1568) The fort was built in the Spanish colonial New Spain
New Spain
era, with construction starting in 1565
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Epilepsy
Epilepsy
Epilepsy
is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.[10][11] Epileptic seizures
Epileptic seizures
are episodes that can vary from brief and nearly undetectable periods to long periods of vigorous shaking.[1] These episodes can result in physica
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Spanish Real
The real (meaning: "royal", plural: reales) was a unit of currency in Spain for several centuries after the mid-14th century.[1] It underwent several changes in value relative to other units throughout its lifetime until it was replaced by the peseta in 1868
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Canon Law
Canon law
Canon law
(from Greek kanon, a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members. It is the internal ecclesiastical law, or operational policy, governing the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(both the Latin Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches), the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches, and the individual national churches within the Anglican Communion.[1] The way that such church law is legislated, interpreted and at times adjudicated varies widely among these three bodies of churches
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Civil Law (Civil Law)
Civil law in Continental law
Continental law
(civil law in broader sense) is a branch (body) of law which is the general part of private law. The basis for civil law lies in a civil code. Before enacting of codes, the civil law could not be distinguished from private law. After that some special areas of private law began to develop, such as commercial law (in the 17th century) and labour law (in the 19th century). Civil law itself has the general part
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Bachelor Of Laws
The Bachelor of Laws
Bachelor of Laws
(Latin: Legum nrm Baccalaureus; LL.B. or B.L.) is an undergraduate degree in law (or a first professional degree in law, depending on jurisdiction) originating in England
England
and offered in Japan and most common law jurisdictions—except the United States and Canada—as the degree which allows a person to become a lawyer.[1] It historically served this purpose in the U.S. as well, but was phased out in the mid-1960s in favor of the Juris Doctor
Juris Doctor
degree, and Canada followed suit. Historically, in Canada, Bachelor of Laws
Bachelor of Laws
was the name of the first degree in common law, but is also the name of the first degree in Quebec civil law awarded by a number of Quebec universities. Canadian common-law LL.B. programmes were, in practice, second-entry professional degrees, meaning that the vast majority of those admitted to an LL.B
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Insurgency
An insurgency is a rebellion against authority (for example, an authority recognized as such by the United Nations) when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents.[1] An insurgency can be fought via counter-insurgency warfare, and may also be opposed by measures to protect the population, and by political and economic actions of various kinds aimed at undermining the insurgents' claims against the incumbent regime.[2] The nature of insurgencies is an ambiguous concept. Not all rebellions are insurgencies. There have been many cases of non-violent rebellions, using civil resistance, as in the People Power Revolution in the Philippines
Philippines
in the 1980s that ousted President Marcos and the Egyptian Revolution of 2011.[3] Where a revolt takes the form of armed rebellion, it may not be viewed as an insurgency if a state of belligerency exists between one or more sovereign states and rebel forces
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Hermenegildo Galeana
Hermenegildo Galeana
Hermenegildo Galeana
(13 April 1762 – 27 June 1814) was a hero of the Mexican War of Independence. There are several places in Mexico named Galeana after the general.This Mexican biographical article is a stub
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José María Morelos
José
José
is a predominantly Spanish form of the given name Joseph. While spelled alike, this name is pronounced differently in each language: in Spanish [xoˈse] and in Portuguese [ʒuˈzɛ] (or [ʒoˈzɛ]). In French, the name José, pronounced [ʒoˈze], is an old vernacular form of Joseph, which is also in current usage as a given name. José is also commonly used as part of male name composites, such as José Manuel, José
José
Maria or Antonio José, and also in female name composites like Maria José
José
or Marie-José. José
José
is also a Belgian Dutch male given name,[1] pronounced [ʒoːˈzeː], and for which the female written form is Josée as in French
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Veracruz
Veracruz
Veracruz
(American Spanish: [beɾaˈkɾus] ( listen)), formally Veracruz
Veracruz
de Ignacio de la Llave (American Spanish: [beɾaˈkɾuz ðe iɣˈnasjo ðe la ˈʝaβe]), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Veracruz
Veracruz
de Ignacio de la Llave (Spanish: Estado Libre y Soberano de Veracruz
Veracruz
de Ignacio de la Llave), is one of the 31 states that, along with the Federal District, comprise the 32 federative entities of Mexico
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Federal Republic Of Central America
The Federal Republic
Republic
of Central America
Central America
(Spanish: República Federal de Centroamérica), also called the United Provinces of Central America (Spanish: Provincias Unidas del Centro de América) in its first year of creation, was a sovereign state in Central America consisting of the territories of the former Captaincy General of Guatemala
Guatemala
of New Spain. It existed from September 1823 to 1841, and was a republican democracy. It is also sometimes incorrectly referred to in English as the United States
United States
of Central America. The republic consisted of the present-day states of Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica
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Royalist
A royalist supports a particular monarch as head of state for a particular kingdom, or of a particular dynastic claim. In the abstract, this position is royalism. It is distinct from monarchism, which advocates a monarchical system of government, but not necessarily a particular monarch. Most often, the term royalist is applied to a supporter of a current regime or one that has been recently overthrown to form a republic. In the United Kingdom, today the term is almost indistinguishable from "monarchist" because there are no significant rival claimants to the throne
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Lieutenant General
Lieutenant
Lieutenant
general, lieutenant-general and similar (abbrev Lt. Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries. The rank traces its origins to the Middle Ages, where the title of lieutenant general was held by the second in command on the battlefield, who was normally subordinate to a captain general. In modern armies, lieutenant general normally ranks immediately below general and above major general; it is equivalent to the navy rank of vice admiral, and in air forces with a separate rank structure, it is equivalent to air marshal
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