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Grundrisse
The GRUNDRISSE DER KRITIK DER POLITISCHEN ÖKONOMIE (Fundamentals of Political Economy Criticism) is a lengthy, unfinished manuscript by the German philosopher Karl Marx
Karl Marx
. The series of seven notebooks were rough-drafted by Marx, chiefly for purposes of self-clarification, during the winter of 1857-8. Left aside by Marx in 1858, it remained unpublished until 1939. CONTENTS * 1 Contents * 2 Dissemination * 3 The Grundrisse\'s influence * 4 Footnotes * 5 Further reading * 6 External links CONTENTSThe Grundrisse
Grundrisse
is very wide-ranging in subject matter and covers all six sections of Marx's economics (of which only one, the first volume of Das Kapital , ever reached a final form). It is often described as the rough draft of Das Kapital, although there is considerable disagreement about the exact relationship between the two texts, particularly around the issue of methodology
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Class Conflict
CLASS CONFLICT, frequently referred to as CLASS WARFARE or CLASS STRUGGLE, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes . The view that the class struggle provides the lever for radical social change for the majority is central to the work of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and the anarchist Mikhail Bakunin . Class conflict
Class conflict
can take many different forms: direct violence, such as wars fought for resources and cheap labor; indirect violence, such as deaths from poverty, starvation, illness or unsafe working conditions; coercion, such as the threat of losing a job or the pulling of an important investment; or ideologically, such as with books and articles
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Capital (economics)
In economics , CAPITAL consists of anything that can enhance a person's power to perform economically useful work. CAPITAL GOODS, REAL CAPITAL, or capital assets are already-produced, durable goods or any non-financial asset that is used in production of goods or services . Adam Smith defines capital as "That part of a man's stock which he expects to afford him revenue". The term "stock" is derived from the Old English word for stump or tree trunk. It has been used to refer to all the moveable property of a farm since at least 1510. How a capital good is maintained or returned to its pre-production state varies with the type of capital involved. In most cases capital is replaced after a depreciation period as newer forms of capital make continued use of current capital non profitable. It is also possible that advances make an obsolete form of capital practical again
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Private Property
PRIVATE PROPERTY is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities . Private property
Private property
is distinguishable from public property , which is owned by a state entity; and from collective (or cooperative ) property, which is owned by a group of non-governmental entities . Private property
Private property
is further distinguished from personal property , which refers to property for personal use and consumption. Private property
Private property
is a legal concept defined and enforced by a country's political system. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Economics * 3 Criticism * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORY Gate with a private property sign. Prior to the 18th century, English-speakers generally used the word "property" in reference to land ownership
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Historical Determinism
HISTORICAL DETERMINISM is the stance that events are historically predetermined or currently constrained by various forces. Historical determinism can be understood in contrast to its negation, i.e. the rejection of historical determinism. Some political philosophies (e.g. Early and Stalinist Marxism
Marxism
) assert a historical materialism of either predetermination or constraint, or both. Used as a pejorative, it is normally meant to designate an overdetermination of present possibilities by historical conditions
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Working Class
The WORKING CLASS (also LABOURING CLASS and PROLETARIAT ) are the people employed for wages , especially in manual-labour occupations and in skilled, industrial work. Working-class occupations include blue-collar jobs, some white-collar jobs, and most service-work jobs. The working class only rely upon their earnings from wage labour , thereby, the category includes most of the working population of industrialized economies , of the urban areas (cities, towns, villages) of non-industrialized economies , and of the rural workforce. In Marxist theory and socialist literature, the term working class is often used interchangeably with the term proletariat, and includes all workers who expend both physical and mental labour (salaried knowledge workers and white-collar workers ) to produce economic value for the owners of the means of production (the bourgeoisie in Marxist literature)
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Wage Labour
WAGE LABOUR (also WAGE LABOR in American English ) is the socioeconomic relationship between a worker and an employer , where the worker sells his or her labour power under a formal or informal employment contract . These transactions usually occur in a labour market where wages are market determined. In exchange for the wages paid, the work product generally becomes the undifferentiated property of the employer, except for special cases such as the vesting of intellectual property patents in the United States where patent rights are usually vested in the employee personally responsible for the invention. A WAGE LABOURER is a person whose primary means of income is from the selling of his or her labour power in this way. In modern mixed economies such as those of the OECD countries, it is currently the most common form of work arrangement
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Class Consciousness
CLASS CONSCIOUSNESS is a term used in political theory , particularly Marxism , to refer to the beliefs that a person holds regarding their social class or economic rank in society, the structure of their class, and their class interests. It is an awareness that is key to sparking a revolution that would, "create a dictatorship of the proletariat , transforming it from a wage-earning, property-less mass into the ruling class" according to Karl Marx
Karl Marx

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Capital Accumulation
CAPITAL ACCUMULATION (also termed THE ACCUMULATION OF CAPITAL) is the dynamic that motivates the pursuit of profit, involving the investment of money or any financial asset with the goal of increasing the initial monetary value of said asset as a financial return whether in the form of profit , rent , interest , royalties or capital gains . The process of capital accumulation forms the basis of capitalism , and is one of the defining characteristics of a capitalist economic system . In a more broad sense, capital accumulation may refer to the gathering or amassing of any objects of value as judged by one's perceived reproductive interest group
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Asiatic Mode Of Production
The theory of the ASIATIC MODE OF PRODUCTION (AMP) was devised by Karl Marx around the early 1850s. The essence of the theory has been described as " suggestion ... that Asiatic societies were held in thrall by a despotic ruling clique, residing in central cities and directly expropriating surplus from largely autarkic and generally undifferentiated village communities". The theory continues to arouse heated discussion among contemporary Marxists and non-Marxists alike. Some have rejected the whole concept on the grounds that the socio-economic formations of pre-capitalist Asia did not differ enough from those of feudal Europe to warrant special designation. Aside from Marx, Friedrich Engels was also an enthusiastic commentator on the AMP. They both focused on the socio-economic base of AMP society
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Commodity (Marxism)
In classical political economy and especially Karl Marx
Karl Marx
's critique of political economy , a COMMODITY is any good or service ("products" or "activities" ) produced by human labour and offered as a product for general sale on the market. Some other priced goods are also treated as commodities, e.g. human labor-power , works of art and natural resources, even though they may not be produced specifically for the market, or be non-reproducible goods. Marx's analysis of the commodity (in German: Kaufware, i.e. merchandise, ware for sale) is intended to help solve the problem of what establishes the economic value of goods, using the labor theory of value . This problem was extensively debated by Adam Smith , David Ricardo , and Karl Rodbertus-Jagetzow , among others
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Bourgeoisie
The BOURGEOISIE (Eng.: /bʊərʒwɑːˈziː/ ; French pronunciation: ​ ) is a polysemous French term that can mean: Part of a series on MARXISM Theoretical works * Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 * Theses on Feuerbach * The German Ideology * The Communist Manifesto * The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon * Grundrisse der Kritik der Polit
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Marx's Theory Of Alienation
KARL MARX\'S THEORY OF ALIENATION describes the estrangement (Ger. Entfremdung) of people from aspects of their Gattungswesen ("species-essence") as a consequence of living in a society of stratified social classes . The alienation from the self is a consequence of being a mechanistic part of a social class, the condition of which estranges a person from their humanity. The theoretic basis of alienation, within the capitalist mode of production , is that the worker invariably loses the ability to determine life and destiny, when deprived of the right to think (conceive) of themselves as the director of their own actions; to determine the character of said actions; to define relationships with other people; and to own those items of value from goods and services, produced by their own labour
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Marxist Sociology
MARXIST SOCIOLOGY is the study of sociology from a Marxist perspective. Marxism itself can be recognized as both a political philosophy and a sociology , particularly so far as it attempts to remain scientific, systematic and objective rather than purely normative and prescriptive. Marxist sociology is "a form of conflict theory associated with ... Marxism's objective of developing a positive (empirical ) science of capitalist society as part of the mobilization of a revolutionary working class ." The American Sociological Association has a section dedicated to the issues of Marxist sociology that is "interested in examining how insights from Marxist methodology and Marxist analysis can help explain the complex dynamics of modern society". Marxist sociology would come to facilitate the developments of critical theory and cultural studies as loosely distinct disciplines
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Base And Superstructure
In Marxist theory , human society consists of two parts: the BASE (or SUBSTRUCTURE) and SUPERSTRUCTURE; the base comprises the forces and relations of production —employer–employee work conditions, the technical division of labour , and property relations—into which people enter to produce the necessities and amenities of life. These relations determine society’s other relationships and ideas, which are described as its superstructure. The superstructure of a society includes its culture , institutions , political power structures , roles , rituals , and state . The base determines (conditions) the superstructure, yet their relation is not strictly causal, because the superstructure often influences the base; the influence of the base, however, predominates. In Orthodox Marxism , the base determines the superstructure in a one-way relationship
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Socialist Mode Of Production
In Marxist theory, SOCIALISM, also called the SOCIALIST MODE OF PRODUCTION, refers to a specific historical phase of economic development and its corresponding set of social relations that supersede capitalism in the schema of historical materialism . The Marxist definition of socialism is a mode of production where the sole criterion for production is use-value and therefore the law of value no longer directs economic activity. Marxist production for use is coordinated through conscious economic planning , while distribution of economic output is based on the principle of to each according to his contribution . The social relations of socialism are characterized by the working class effectively owning the means of production and the means of their livelihood, either through cooperative enterprises or by public ownership or private artisanal tools and self-management , so that the social surplus accrues to the working class and society as a whole
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