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Growth Medium
A growth medium or culture medium is a solid, liquid or semi-solid designed to support the growth of microorganisms or cells,[1] or small plants like the moss Physcomitrella patens.[2] Different types of media are used for growing different types of cells.[3] The two major types of growth media are those used for cell culture, which use specific cell types derived from plants or animals, and microbiological culture, which are used for growing microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi. The most common growth media for microorganisms are nutrient broths and agar plates; specialized media are sometimes required for microorganism and cell culture growth.[1] Some organisms, termed fastidious organisms, require specialized environments due to complex nutritional requirements
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Magnesium
Magnesium
Magnesium
is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12. It is a shiny gray solid which bears a close physical resemblance to the other five elements in the second column (group 2, or alkaline earth metals) of the periodic table: all group 2 elements have the same electron configuration in the outer electron shell and a similar crystal structure. Magnesium
Magnesium
is the ninth most abundant element in the universe.[4][5] It is produced in large, aging stars from the sequential addition of three helium nuclei to a carbon nucleus. When such stars explode as supernovas, much of the magnesium is expelled into the interstellar medium where it may recycle into new star systems
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Salt
Table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite. Salt
Salt
is present in vast quantities in seawater, where it is the main mineral constituent. The open ocean has about 35 grams (1.2 oz) of solids per litre, a salinity of 3.5%. Salt
Salt
is essential for life in general, and saltiness is one of the basic human tastes. Salt
Salt
is one of the oldest and most ubiquitous food seasonings, and salting is an important method of food preservation. Some of the earliest evidence of salt processing dates to around 8,000 years ago, when people living in the area of present-day Romania boiled spring water to extract salts; a salt-works in China dates to approximately the same period
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Blood Serum
In blood, the serum (/ˈsɪərəm/ or /ˈsɪrəm/) is the component that is neither a blood cell (serum does not contain white or red blood cells) nor a clotting factor; it is the blood plasma not including the fibrinogens. Serum includes all proteins not used in blood clotting (coagulation) and all the electrolytes, antibodies, antigens, hormones, and any exogenous substances (e.g., drugs and microorganisms). The study of serum is serology which may also include proteomics. Serum is used in numerous diagnostic tests, as well as blood typing. Measurements of serum concentrations has proved useful in many fields including clinical trials of therapeutic vs toxic response. [1] Blood
Blood
is centrifuged to remove cellular components
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Unicellular Organism
A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism that consists of only one cell, unlike a multicellular organism that consists of more than one cell. Unicellular organisms fall into two general categories: prokaryotic organisms and eukaryotic organisms. Prokaryotes include bacteria and archaea. Many eukaryotes are multicellular, but the group includes the protozoa, unicellular algae, and unicellular fungi. Unicellular organisms are thought to be the oldest form of life, with early protocells possibly emerging 3.8–4 billion years ago.[1][2] Although some prokaryotes live in colonies, they are not specialised into cells with differing functions. These organisms live together, and each cell must carry out all life processes to survive
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Escherichia Coli
Bacillus coli
Bacillus coli
communis Escherich 1885 Escherichia
Escherichia
coli (/ˌɛʃɪˈrɪkiə ˈkoʊlaɪ/;[1] also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia
Escherichia
that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).[2][3] Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes can cause serious food poisoning in their hosts, and are occasionally responsible for product recalls due to food contamination.[4][5] The harmless strains are part of the normal flora of the gut, and can benefit their hosts by producing vitamin K2,[6] and preventing colonization of the intestine with pathogenic bacteria, having a symbiotic relationship.[7][8] E. coli is expelled into the environment within fecal matter
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Carbon
Carbon
Carbon
(from Latin: carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. It is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds. It belongs to group 14 of the periodic table.[13] Three isotopes occur naturally, 12C and 13C being stable, while 14C is a radionuclide, decaying with a half-life of about 5,730 years.[14] Carbon
Carbon
is one of the few elements known since antiquity.[15] Carbon
Carbon
is the 15th most abundant element in the Earth's crust, and the fourth most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen. Carbon's abundance, its unique diversity of organic compounds, and its unusual ability to form polymers at the temperatures commonly encountered on Earth
Earth
enables this element to serve as a common element of all known life
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Nitrogen
Nitrogen
Nitrogen
is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7. It was first discovered and isolated by Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772. Although Carl Wilhelm Scheele
Carl Wilhelm Scheele
and Henry Cavendish had independently done so at about the same time, Rutherford is generally accorded the credit because his work was published first. The name nitrogène was suggested by French chemist Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal
Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal
in 1790, when it was found that nitrogen was present in nitric acid and nitrates
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Glucose
Glucose
Glucose
is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6, which means that it is a molecule that is made of six carbon atoms, twelve hydrogen atoms, and six oxygen atoms. Glucose
Glucose
circulates in the blood of animals as blood sugar. It is made during photosynthesis from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight. It is the most important source of energy for cellular respiration. Glucose
Glucose
is stored as a polymer, in plants as starch and in animals as glycogen. With six carbon atoms, it is classed as a hexose, a subcategory of the monosaccharides. D- Glucose
Glucose
is one of the sixteen aldohexose stereoisomers. The D-isomer, D-glucose, also known as dextrose, occurs widely in nature, but the L-isomer, L-glucose, does not
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Glycerol
Glycerol
Glycerol
(/ˈɡlɪsərɒl/;[4] also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound. It is a colorless, odorless, viscous liquid that is sweet-tasting and non-toxic. The glycerol backbone is found in all lipids known as triglycerides. It is widely used in the food industry as a sweetener and humectant and in pharmaceutical formulations
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Ammonium
The ammonium cation is a positively charged polyatomic ion with the chemical formula NH+ 4. It is formed by the protonation of ammonia (NH3)
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Nitrate
Nitrate
Nitrate
is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula NO− 3 and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u. Nitrates also describe the organic functional group RONO2. These nitrate esters are a specialized class of explosives.Contents1 Structure 2 Properties and diet 3 Occurrence 4 Uses 5 Detection 6 Toxicity6.1 Poisoning 6.2 Human health effects 6.3 Marine toxicity7 Nitrate
Nitrate
overview 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksStructure[edit] The anion is the conjugate base of nitric acid, consisting of one central nitrogen atom surrounded by three identically bonded oxygen atoms in a trigonal planar arrangement. The nitrate ion carries a formal charge of −1. This results from a combination formal charge in which each of the three oxygens carries a −​2⁄3 charge, whereas the nitrogen carries a +1 charge, all these adding up to formal charge of the polyatomic nitrate ion
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Hormones
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour. Hormones have diverse chemical structures, mainly of 3 classes: eicosanoids, steroids, and amino acid/protein derivatives (amines, peptides, and proteins). The glands that secrete hormones comprise the endocrine signaling system
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Inorganic
A chemical compound is termed inorganic if it fulfills one or more of the following criteria:most of them do not contain carbon It cannot be found or incorporated into a living organismThere is no clear or universally agreed-upon distinction between organic and inorganic compounds
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Yeast Extract
Yeast
Yeast
extract is the common name for various forms of processed yeast products made by extracting the cell contents (removing the cell walls); they are used as food additives or flavorings, or as nutrients for bacterial culture media. They are often used to create savory flavors and umami taste sensations, and can be found in a large variety of packaged food including frozen meals, crackers, snack foods, gravy, stock and more
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Wort (brewing)
Wort
Wort
(/ˈwɜːrt/) is the liquid extracted from the mashing process during the brewing of beer or whisky. Wort
Wort
contains the sugars that will be fermented by the brewing yeast to produce alcohol. Production[edit]Draining wortThe first step in wort production is to make malt from dried, sprouted barley. The malt is then run through a roller mill and cracked. This cracked grain is then mashed, that is, mixed with hot water and steeped, a slow heating process that enables enzymes to convert the starch in the malt into sugars. At set intervals, most notably when the mixture has reached temperatures of 45, 62 and 73 °C (113, 144 and 163 °F),[1] the heating is briefly halted. The temperature of the mixture is usually increased to 78 °C (172 °F) for mashout
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