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Grover Cleveland
Stephen Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland
(March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908) was an American politician and lawyer who was the 22nd and 24th president of the United States, the only president in American history to serve two non-consecutive terms in office (1885–89 and 1893–97).[1] He won the popular vote for three presidential elections – in 1884, 1888, and 1892 – and was one of two Democrats (with Woodrow Wilson) to be elected president during the era of Republican political domination dating from 1861 to 1933. Cleveland was the leader of the pro-business Bourbon Democrats
Bourbon Democrats
who opposed high tariffs, Free Silver, inflation, imperialism, and subsidies to business, farmers, or veterans on libertarian philosophical grounds
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Depression (economics)
In economics, a depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies. It is a more severe economic downturn than a recession, which is a slowdown in economic activity over the course of a normal business cycle. A depression is an unusual and extreme form of recession. Depressions are characterized by their length, by abnormally large increases in unemployment, falls in the availability of credit (often due to some form of banking or financial crisis), shrinking output as buyers dry up and suppliers cut back on production and investment, large number of bankruptcies including sovereign debt defaults, significantly reduced amounts of trade and commerce (especially international trade), as well as highly volatile relative currency value fluctuations (often due to currency devaluations)
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Heart Attack
Myocardial infarction
Myocardial infarction
(MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.[1] The most common symptom is chest pain or discomfort which may travel into the shoulder, arm, back, neck, or jaw.[1] Often it occurs in the center or left side of the chest and lasts for more than a few minutes.[1] The discomfort may occasionally feel like heartburn.[1] Other symptoms may include shortness of breath, nausea, feeling faint, a cold sweat, or feeling tired.[1] About 30% of people have atypical symptoms.[7] Women more often have atypical symptoms than men.[10] Among t
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Agrarianism
Agrarianism is a social philosophy or political philosophy which values rural society as superior to urban society, the independent farmer as superior to the paid worker, and sees farming as a way of life that can shape the ideal social values.[1] It stresses the superiority of a simpler rural life as opposed to the complexity of city life.Contents1 Philosophy 2 History 3 Agrarian parties3.1 Africa3.1.1 Tunisia3.2 Europe3.2.1 Bulgaria 3.2.2 Czechoslovakia 3.2.3 France 3.2.4 Ireland 3.2.5 Latvia 3.2.6 Lithuania 3.2.7 Poland 3.2.8 Romania 3.2.9 Serbia 3.2.10 Ukraine3.3 Oceania3.3.1 Australia 3.3.2 New Zealand4 Back-to-the-land movement 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading7.1 Agrarian values 7.2 Primary sources 7.3 Europe 7.4 North America 7.5 Global South8 External linksPhilosophy[edit] M
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Gold Standard
A gold standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is based on a fixed quantity of gold. Three types can be distinguished: specie, bullion, and exchange.In the gold specie standard the monetary unit is associated with the value of circulating gold coins, or the monetary unit has the value of a certain circulating gold coin, but other coins may be made of less valuable metal. The gold bullion standard is a system in which gold coins do not circulate, but the authorities agree to sell gold bullion on demand at a fixed price in exchange for the circulating currency. The gold exchange standard usually does not involve the circulation of gold coins. The main feature of the gold exchange standard is that the government guarantees a fixed exchange rate to the currency of another country that uses a gold standard (specie or bullion), regardless of what type of notes or coins are used as a means of exchange
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Progressive Era
The Progressive Era was a period of widespread social activism and political reform across the United States that spanned from the 1890s to the 1920s.[1] The main objectives of the Progressive movement were eliminating problems caused by industrialization, urbanization, immigration, and corruption in government. The movement primarily targeted political machines and their bosses. By taking down these corrupt representatives in office a further means of direct democracy would be established
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Fourth Party System
The Fourth Party System is the term used in political science and history for the period in American political history from about 1896 to 1932 that was dominated by the Republican Party, excepting the 1912 split in which Democrats held the White House for eight years. American history texts usually call it the Progressive Era. The concept was introduced under the name “System of 1896” by E.E. Schattschneider in 1960, and the numbering scheme was added by political scientists in the mid-1960s.[1] The period featured a transformation from the issues of the Third Party System, which had focused on the American Civil War, Reconstruction, race and monetary issues. The era began in the severe depression of 1893 and the extraordinarily intense election of 1896. It included the Progressive Era, World War I, and the start of the Great Depression
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Realigning Election
A realigning election (often called a critical election, political realignment, or critical realignment) is a term from political science and political history describing a dramatic change in the political system. Scholars frequently apply the term to American elections and occasionally to other countries. Usually it means the coming to power for several decades of a new coalition, replacing an old dominant coalition of the other party as in 1896 when the Republican Party (GOP) became dominant, or 1932 when the Democratic Party became dominant
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Silverite
The Silverites were members of a political movement in the United States in the late-19th century that advocated that silver should continue to be a monetary standard along with gold, as authorized under the Coinage Act of 1792. The Silverite coalition's famous slogan was "16 to 1" – that is, the ratio of sixteen ounces of silver equal in value to one ounce of gold, a ratio similar to that established in the Coinage Act of 1834. Silverites belonged to a number of political parties, including the Silver Party, Populist Party, Democratic Party, and the Silver Republican Party. The Silverites advocated free coinage of silver. They wanted to lower the gold standard of the United States to silver therefore allowing inflation of the money supply. Many Silverites were in the West, where silver was mined.[1] Advocates predicted that if silver were used as the standard of money, they would be able to pay off all of their debt
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Political Boss
A boss, in politics, is a person who controls a unit of a political party,[clarification needed] although he/she may not hold political office. Numerous officeholders in that unit are subordinate to the single boss in party affairs. Each party in the same ward or city may have its own boss; that is, the Republican boss of Ward 7 controls Republican politics, while the Democratic boss controls the Democratic party there. Reformers sometimes allege that political bosses are likely guilty of corruption. Bosses may base their power on control of a large number of votes
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Classical Liberalism
Classical liberalism
Classical liberalism
is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom. Closely related to economic liberalism, it developed in the early 19th century, building on ideas from the previous century as a response to urbanization and to the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
in Europe
Europe
and the United States.[1][2][3] Notable individuals whose ideas contributed to classical liberalism include John Locke,[4] Jean-Baptiste Say, Thomas Malthus
Thomas Malthus
and David Ricardo
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Lawyer
A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, barrister, attorney, counselor, solicitor, not as a paralegal or charter executive secretary.[1] Working as a lawyer involves the practical application of abstract legal theories and knowledge to solve specific individualized problems, or to advance the interests of those who hire lawyers to perform legal services. The role of the lawyer varies greatly across legal jurisdictions, and so it can be treated here in only the most general terms.[2][3]Contents1 Terminology 2 Responsibilities2.1 Oral argument in the courts 2.2 Research and drafting of court papers 2.3 Advocacy (written and oral) in administrative hearings 2.4 Client intake and counseling (with regard to pending litigation) 2.5 Legal advice 2.6 Protecting intellectual property 2.7 Negotiating and drafting contracts 2.8 Conveyancing 2.9 Carrying out the intent of the deceased 2.10 Prosecution and defense of criminal suspects3 Educati
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Politician
A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking office in government. In democratic countries, politicians seek elective positions within a government through elections or, at times, temporary appointment to replace politicians who have died, resigned or have been otherwise removed from office. In non-democratic countries, they employ other means of reaching power through appointment, bribery, revolutions and intrigues. Some politicians are experienced in the art or science of government.[1] Politicians propose, support and create laws or policies that govern the land and, by extension, its people
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List Of Mayors Of Buffalo, New York
In many countries, a mayor (from the Latin maior [majˈjɔr], meaning "bigger") is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town. Worldwide, there is a wide variance in local laws and customs regarding the powers and responsibilities of a mayor as well as the means by which a mayor is elected or otherwise mandated. Depending on the system chosen, a mayor may be the chief executive officer of the municipal government, may simply chair a multi-member governing body with little or no independent power, or may play a solely ceremonial role
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Third Party System
The Third Party System is a term of periodization used by historians and political scientists to describe the history of political parties in the United States from 1854 until the mid-1890s, which featured profound developments in issues of American nationalism, modernization, and race. This period, the later part of which is often termed the Gilded Age, is defined by its contrast with the eras of the Second Party System and the Fourth Party System. It was dominated by the new Republican Party, which claimed success in saving the Union, abolishing slavery and enfranchising the freedmen, while adopting many Whiggish modernization programs such as national banks, railroads, high tariffs, homesteads, social spending (such as on greater Civil War veteran pension funding), and aid to land grant colleges
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United States House Elections, 1894
Charles Crisp DemocraticElected Speaker Thomas Reed RepublicanElections to the United States House of Representatives in 1894 comprised a significant realigning election — a major Republican landslide that set the stage for the decisive election of 1896. The elections of members of the United States House of Representatives in 1894 came in the middle of President Grover Cleveland's second term. The nation was in its deepest economic depression ever following the Panic of 1893, so economic issues were at the forefront. In the spring, a major coal strike damaged the economy of the Midwest and Mid-Atlantic. It was accompanied by violence; the miners lost and many moved toward the Populist party. Immediately after the coal strike concluded, Eugene V. Debs led a nationwide railroad strike, called the Pullman Strike. It shut down the nation's transportation system west of Detroit for weeks, until President Cleveland's use of federal troops ended the strike
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