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Ground (electricity)
In electrical engineering, ground or earth is the reference point in an electrical circuit from which voltages are measured, a common return path for electric current, or a direct physical connection to the Earth. Electrical circuits may be connected to ground (earth) for several reasons. In mains powered equipment, exposed metal parts are connected to ground so that if, due to any fault conditions, a "Line" supply voltage connection occurs to any such conductive parts, the current flow will then be such that any protective equipment installed for either overload or "leakage" protection will operate and disconnect the "Line" voltage. This is done to prevent harm resulting to the user from coming in contact with any such dangerous voltage in a situation where the user may, at the same time, also come in contact with an object at ground/earth potential
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Australia
Coordinates: 25°S 133°E / 25°S 133°E / -25; 133Commonwealth of Australia Flag Coat of arms Anthem: Advance Australia
Australia
Fair[N 1] Commonwealth of Australia, including the Australian territorial claim in the AntarcticCapitalCanberra35°18′29″S 149°07′28″E / 35.30806°S 149.12444°E / -35.30806; 149.12444Largest citySydneyNational languageEnglish[N 2]Religion (2016)[3] Various 52%
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Electrical Impedance
Electrical impedance
Electrical impedance
is the measure of the opposition that a circuit presents to a current when a voltage is applied. The term complex impedance may be used interchangeably. Quantitatively, the impedance of a two-terminal circuit element is the ratio of the complex representation of a sinusoidal voltage between its terminals to the complex representation of the current flowing through it.[1] In general, it depends upon the frequency of the sinusoidal voltage. Impedance extends the concept of resistance to AC circuits, and possesses both magnitude and phase, unlike resistance, which has only magnitude. When a circuit is driven with direct current (DC), there is no distinction between impedance and resistance; the latter can be thought of as impedance with zero phase angle. The notion of impedance is useful for performing AC analysis of electrical networks, because it allows relating sinusoidal voltages and currents by a simple linear law
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Radio Frequency
Radio
Radio
frequency (RF) is any of the electromagnetic wave frequencies that lie in the range extending from around 7004200000000000000♠20 kHz to 7011300000000000000♠300 GHz, roughly the frequencies used in radio communication.[1] The term does not have an official definition, and different sources specify slightly different upper and lower bounds for the frequency range. RF usually refers to electrical rather than mechanical oscillations. However, mechanical RF systems do exist (see mechanical filter and RF MEMS). Although radio frequency is a rate of oscillation, the term "radio frequency" or its abbreviation "RF" are used as a synonym for radio – i.e., to describe the use of wireless communication, as opposed to communication via electric wires
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Electrical Connection
An electrical connection between discrete points allows the flow of electrons (electric current). A pair of connections is needed for a circuit. Between points with a low voltage difference, direct current can be controlled by a switch. However, if the points are not connected, and the voltage difference between those points is high enough, electrical ionization of the atmosphere will occur, and current will tend to occur along the path of least resistance. See also[edit]Electrical connectorThis technology-related article is a stub
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Sacramento, California
SacramentoRegion Sacramento ValleyCSA Sacramento-RosevilleMSA Sacramento–Roseville–Arden-ArcadeIncorporated February 27, 1850[1]Chartered 1920[2]Named for Sacrament of the Holy EucharistGovernment • Type City Council[3] • Body Sacramento City Council • Mayor Darrell Steinberg
Darrell Steinberg
(D)[4] • City Council[4]Council MembersAngelique Ashby Allen Warren Jeff Harris Steve Hansen Jay Schenirer Eric Guer
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St. Joseph, Missouri
St. Joseph (informally St. Joe) is a city in and the county seat of Buchanan County, Missouri, United States.[4] It is the principal city of the St. Joseph Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes Buchanan, Andrew, and DeKalb counties in Missouri
Missouri
and Doniphan County, Kansas. As of the 2010 census, St. Joseph had a total population of 76,780, making it the eighth largest city in the state, third largest in Northwest Missouri.[5] St. Joseph, named after the biblical Saint Joseph, is located on the Missouri
Missouri
River. It is perhaps best known as the starting point of the Pony Express
Pony Express
and the death place of Jesse James; Hip Hop star Eminem was born here as well.[6] St
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Carl August Steinheil
Carl August von Steinheil
Carl August von Steinheil
(12 October 1801 – 14 September 1870) was a German physicist, inventor, engineer and astronomer.Contents1 Biography 2 Inventions 3 Legacy 4 References 5 External linksBiography[edit]Reading telescopes by C.A. Steinheil purchased in 1865 on display in the Teylers Instrument RoomSteinheil was born in Ribeauvillé, Alsace. He studied law in Erlangen since 1821. He then studied astronomy in Göttingen
Göttingen
and Königsberg. He continued his studies in astronomy and physics while living in his father's manor in Perlachseck near Munich
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Electrical Code
An electrical code is a set of regulations for the design and installation of electrical wiring in a building. The intention of a code is to provide standards to ensure electrical wiring systems that are safe for people and property. Such wiring is subject to rigorous safety standards for design and installation. Wires and electrical cables are specified according to the circuit operating voltage and electric current capability, with further restrictions on the environmental conditions, such as ambient temperature range, moisture levels, and exposure to sunlight and chemicals. Associated circuit protection, control and distribution devices within a building's wiring system are subject to voltage, current and functional specification
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Kirchhoff's Circuit Laws
Kirchhoff's circuit laws
Kirchhoff's circuit laws
are two equalities that deal with the current and potential difference (commonly known as voltage) in the lumped element model of electrical circuits. They were first described in 1845 by German physicist Gustav Kirchhoff.[1] This generalized the work of Georg Ohm
Georg Ohm
and preceded the work of James Clerk Maxwell. Widely used in electrical engineering, they are also called Kirchhoff's rules or simply Kirchhoff's laws. Both of Kirchhoff's laws can be understood as corollaries of Maxwell's equations in the low-frequency limit
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BS 7671
British Standard
British Standard
BS 7671 "Requirements for Electrical Installations. IET Wiring Regulations", informally called in the electrical community The "Regs", is the national standard in the United Kingdom for electrical installation and the safety of electrical wiring in domestic, commercial, industrial, and other buildings, also in special installations and locations, such as marinas or caravan parks.[1] In general, BS 7671 applies to circuits supplied at nominal voltages up to and including 1000 volts AC or 1500 volts DC. The standard therefore covers the 230 volt 50 Hz AC mains supply used in the UK for houses, offices, and commerce
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Power Supply
A power supply is an electrical device that supplies electric power to an electrical load. The primary function of a power supply is to convert electric current from a source to the correct voltage, current, and frequency to power the load. As a result, power supplies are sometimes referred to as electric power converters. Some power supplies are separate standalone pieces of equipment, while others are built into the load appliances that they power. Examples of the latter include power supplies found in desktop computers and consumer electronics devices
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Vehicles
A vehicle (from Latin: vehiculum[1]) is a mobile machine that transports people or cargo. Typical vehicles include wagons, bicycles, motor vehicles (motorcycles, cars, trucks, buses), railed vehicles (trains, trams), watercraft (ships, boats), aircraft and spacecraft.[2] Land vehicles are classified broadly by what is used to apply steering and drive forces against the ground: wheeled, tracked, railed or skied. ISO 3833-1977 is the standard, also internationally used in legislation, for road vehicles types, terms and definitions.[3]Contents1 History 2 Most popular vehicles 3 Locomotion3.1 Energy source 3.2 Motors and engines 3.3 Converting energy to work 3.4 Friction4 Control4.1 Steering 4.2 Stopping5 Legislation5.1 European Union 5.2 Licensing 5.3 Registration 5.4 Mandatory safety equipment6 Right-of-way 7 Safety 8 See also 9 ReferencesHistory[edit]This article may require cleanup to meet's quality standards
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Portable Media Player
A portable media player (PMP) or digital audio player (DAP) is a portable consumer electronics device capable of storing and playing digital media such as audio, images, and video files.[1][2] The data is typically stored on a CD, DVD, flash memory, microdrive, or hard drive. Most portable media players are equipped with a 3.5 mm headphone jack, which users can plug headphones into, or connect to a boombox or hifi system
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Cell Phone
A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area. The radio frequency link establishes a connection to the switching systems of a mobile phone operator, which provides access to the public switched telephone network (PSTN). Modern mobile telephone services use a cellular network architecture, and, therefore, mobile telephones are called cellular telephones or cell phones, in North America. In addition to telephony, 2000s-era mobile phones support a variety of other services, such as text messaging, MMS, email, Internet
Internet
access, short-range wireless communications (infrared, Bluetooth), business applications, video games, and digital photography
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Portable Electronics
Mobile computing
Mobile computing
is human–computer interaction by which a computer is expected to be transported during normal usage, which allows for transmission of data, voice and video. Mobile computing
Mobile computing
involves mobile communication, mobile hardware, and mobile software. Communication issues include ad hoc networks and infrastructure networks as well as communication properties, protocols, data formats and concrete technologies. Hardware includes mobile devices or device components
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