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Gregory Nazianzen
GREGORY OF NAZIANZUS (Greek : Γρηγόριος ὁ Ναζιανζηνός Grēgorios ho Nazianzēnos; c. 329 – 25 January 390 ), also known as GREGORY THE THEOLOGIAN or GREGORY NAZIANZEN, was a 4th-century Archbishop of Constantinople , and theologian. He is widely considered the most accomplished rhetorical stylist of the patristic age . As a classically trained orator and philosopher he infused Hellenism into the early church , establishing the paradigm of Byzantine theologians and church officials. Gregory made a significant impact on the shape of Trinitarian theology among both Greek- and Latin
Latin
-speaking theologians, and he is remembered as the "Trinitarian Theologian". Much of his theological work continues to influence modern theologians, especially in regard to the relationship among the three Persons of the Trinity
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Orthodox Church Organization
This article covers the ORGANIZATION OF THE EASTERN ORTHODOX CHURCHES rather than the doctrines, traditions, practices, or other aspects of Eastern Orthodoxy . Like the Catholic Church, the Orthodox Church claims to be the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church . The term Western Orthodoxy is sometimes used to denominate what is technically a Vicariate within the Antiochian Orthodox and the Russian Orthodox Churches and thus a part of the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
as that term is defined here. The term "Western Orthodox Church" is disfavored by members of that Vicariate. In the 5th century, Oriental Orthodoxy
Oriental Orthodoxy
separated from Chalcedonian Christianity
Christianity
(and is therefore separate from both the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches), well before the 11th century Great Schism . It should not be confused with Eastern Orthodoxy
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Hagia Sophia
HAGIA SOPHIA (/ˈhɑːɡiə soʊˈfiːə/ ; from the Greek : Αγία Σοφία, pronounced , "Holy Wisdom "; Latin
Latin
: Sancta Sophia or Sancta Sapientia; Turkish : Ayasofya) was a Greek Orthodox Christian patriarchal basilica (church ), later an imperial mosque , and now a museum (Ayasofya Müzesi) in Istanbul
Istanbul
, Turkey
Turkey
. The Roman Empire
Roman Empire
's first Christian
Christian
Cathedral, from the date of its construction in 537 AD, and until 1453, it served as an Eastern Orthodox cathedral and seat of the Patriarch
Patriarch
of Constantinople
Constantinople
, except between 1204 and 1261, when it was converted by the Fourth Crusaders to a Roman Catholic cathedral under the Latin Empire
Latin Empire
. The building was later converted into an Ottoman mosque from 29 May 1453 until 1931
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Eastern Orthodox Christian Theology
EASTERN ORTHODOX CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY is the theology particular to the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
. It is characterized by monotheistic Trinitarianism
Trinitarianism
, belief in the Incarnation of the Logos (Son of God ), a balancing of cataphatic theology with apophatic theology , a hermeneutic defined by Sacred Tradition , a concrete ecclesiology , a robust theology of the person , and a therapeutic soteriology
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History Of Eastern Orthodox Christian Theology
The history of Eastern ORTHODOX CHRISTIAN theology begins with the life of Jesus
Jesus
and the forming of the Christian Church
Christian Church
. Major events include the Chalcedonian schism with the Oriental Orthodox miaphysites , the Iconoclast controversy , the Photian schism , the Great Schism between East and West , and the Hesychast controversy . The period after the Second World War saw a re-engagement with the Greek, and more recently Syriac, Fathers that included a rediscovery of the theological works of St. Gregory Palamas , which has resulted in a renewal of Orthodox theology in the 20th and 21st centuries
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Eastern Orthodox Worship
Eastern Orthodox worship
Eastern Orthodox worship
in this article is distinguished from Eastern Orthodox prayer in that 'worship' refers to the activity of the Christian Church
Christian Church
as a body offering up prayers to God
God
while 'prayer' refers to the individual devotional traditions of the Orthodox . The worship of the Orthodox Church is viewed as the Church's fundamental activity because the worship of God
God
is the joining of man to God
God
in prayer and that is the essential function of Christ 's Church. The Orthodox view their Church as being the living embodiment of Christ, through the grace of His Holy Spirit , in the people, clergy, monks and all other members of the Church
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Christ Pantocrator
In Christian iconography , CHRIST PANTOCRATOR refers to a specific depiction of Christ . Pantocrator or Pantokrator (Greek : Χριστός Παντοκράτωρ) is, used in this context, a translation of one of many names of God
God
in Judaism. When the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
was translated into Greek as the Septuagint
Septuagint
, Pantokrator was used both for YHWH Sabaoth " Lord of Hosts " and for El Shaddai " God Almighty ." In the New Testament
New Testament
, Pantokrator is used once by Paul (2 Cor 6:18) and nine times in the Book of Revelation
Book of Revelation
: 1:8, 4:8, 11:17, 15:3, 16:7, 16:14, 19:6, 19:15, and 21:22. The references to God
God
and Christ in Revelation are at times interchangeable, Pantokrator appears to be reserved for God
God
except, perhaps, in 1:8
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Iconography
ICONOGRAPHY, as a branch of art history , studies the identification, description, and the interpretation of the content of images: the subjects depicted, the particular compositions and details used to do so, and other elements that are distinct from artistic style . The word iconography comes from the Greek εἰκών ("image") and γράφειν ("to write"). A secondary meaning (based on a non-standard translation of the Greek and Russian equivalent terms) is the production of religious images, called "icons", in the Byzantine and Orthodox Christian tradition; see Icon
Icon
. In art history, "an iconography" may also mean a particular depiction of a subject in terms of the content of the image, such as the number of figures used, their placing and gestures
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Bishop
A BISHOP (English derivation from the New Testament of the Christian Bible Greek ἐπίσκοπος, epískopos, "overseer", "guardian") is an ordained , consecrated , or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Roman Catholic , Eastern Orthodox , Oriental Orthodox , Anglican , Old Catholic and Independent Catholic churches and in the Assyrian Church of the East , bishops claim apostolic succession , a direct historical lineage dating back to the original Twelve Apostles
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Omophorion
In the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic liturgical tradition, the OMOPHORION (Greek : ὠμοφόριον, meaning " borne on the shoulders"; Slavonic : омофоръ, omofor) is the distinguishing vestment of a bishop and the symbol of his spiritual and ecclesiastical authority. Originally of wool, it is a band of brocade decorated with four crosses and an eight-pointed star and is worn about the neck and shoulders. By symbolizing the lost sheep that is found and carried on the Good Shepherd 's shoulders, it signifies the bishop's pastoral role as the icon of Christ
Christ
. Clergy and ecclesiastical institutions subject to a bishop's authority are often said to be "under his omophorion". The equivalent vestment in Western Christian usage is the archiepiscopal pallium , the use of which is subject to different rubrics and restrictions, while all Orthodox bishops wear the omophorion
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Gospel Book
The GOSPEL BOOK, EVANGELION, or BOOK OF THE GOSPELS (Greek : Εὐαγγέλιον, Evangélion) is a codex or bound volume containing one or more of the four Gospels of the Christian
Christian
New Testament — normally all four. The term is also used of the liturgical book , also called the Evangeliary
Evangeliary
, from which are read the portions of the Gospels used in the Mass and other services, arranged according to the order of the liturgical calendar . Liturgical use in churches of a distinct Gospel book remains normal, often compulsory, in Eastern Christianity
Eastern Christianity
, and very common in Roman Catholicism and some parts of Anglicanism
Anglicanism
. Protestant
Protestant
churches normally just use a complete Bible
Bible

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Scroll
A SCROLL (from the Old French escroe or escroue), also known as a ROLL, is a roll of papyrus , parchment , or paper containing writing. CONTENTS * 1 Structure * 2 History of scroll use * 3 Rolls * 4 Scotland * 5 Replacement by the codex * 6 Recent discovery * 7 Modern technology * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links STRUCTUREA scroll is usually divided up into pages, which are sometimes separate sheets of papyrus or parchment glued together at the edges, or may be marked divisions of a continuous roll of writing material . The scroll is usually unrolled so that one page is exposed at a time, for writing or reading, with the remaining pages rolled up to the left and right of the visible page. It is unrolled from side to side, and the text is written in lines from the top to the bottom of the page. Depending on the language, the letters may be written left to right, right to left, or alternating in direction (boustrophedon )
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History Of The Eastern Orthodox Church
The HISTORY OF THE EASTERN ORTHODOX CHURCH is traced back to Jesus Christ and the Apostles . The Apostles appointed successors, known as bishops , and they in turn appointed other bishops in a process known as Apostolic succession
Apostolic succession
. Over time, five Patriarchates were established to organize the Christian
Christian
world, and four of these ancient Patriarchates remain Orthodox today. Orthodox Christianity
Christianity
reached its present form in Late Antiquity
Late Antiquity
(in the period from the 3rd to the 8th century), when the Ecumenical Councils were held, doctrinal disputes were resolved, the Fathers of the Church lived and wrote, and Orthodox worship practices settled into their permanent form (including the liturgies and the major holidays of the Church)
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Theosis (Eastern Christian Theology)
THEOSIS or deification is a transformative process whose aim is likeness to or union with God
God
, as taught by the Eastern Orthodox Church and Eastern Catholic Churches
Eastern Catholic Churches
. As a process of transformation, theosis is brought about by the effects of catharsis (purification of mind and body) and theoria ('illumination' with the 'vision' of God). According to Eastern Christian teaching, theosis is very much the purpose of human life. It is considered achievable only through a synergy (or cooperation) between human activity and God's uncreated energies (or operations)
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Four Marks Of The Church
The FOUR MARKS OF THE CHURCH is a term describing four distinctive adjectives—ONE, HOLY, CATHOLIC AND APOSTOLIC — of traditional Christian
Christian
ecclesiology as expressed in the Nicene Creed
Nicene Creed
completed at the First Council of Constantinople
First Council of Constantinople
in AD 381: " in one, holy, catholic, and apostolic Church." In Protestant theology these are sometimes called the ATTRIBUTES OF THE CHURCH. They are still confessed today in the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed, recited in the liturgy of the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
(both Latin and Eastern Rites ), the Orthodox Church , the Anglican Communion
Anglican Communion
, and in many classical Protestant denominations ' worship services
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Apostolic Succession
APOSTOLIC SUCCESSION is the method whereby the ministry of the Christian Church is held to be derived from the apostles by a continuous succession, which has usually been associated with a claim that the succession is through a series of bishops . This series was seen originally as that of the bishops of a particular see founded by one or more of the apostles . According to historian Justo L. González , apostolic succession is generally understood today as meaning a series of bishops, regardless of see, each consecrated by other bishops, themselves consecrated similarly in a succession going back to the apostles. According to the Joint International Commission for Theological Dialogue Between the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church , "apostolic succession" means more than a mere transmission of powers. It is succession in a Church which witnesses to the apostolic faith, in communion with the other Churches, witnesses of the same apostolic faith
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