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Gregory Nazianzen
GREGORY OF NAZIANZUS (Greek : Γρηγόριος ὁ Ναζιανζηνός Grēgorios ho Nazianzēnos; c. 329 – 25 January 390 ), also known as GREGORY THE THEOLOGIAN or GREGORY NAZIANZEN, was a 4th-century Archbishop of Constantinople
Archbishop of Constantinople
, and theologian. He is widely considered the most accomplished rhetorical stylist of the patristic age . As a classically trained orator and philosopher he infused Hellenism into the early church , establishing the paradigm of Byzantine theologians and church officials. Gregory made a significant impact on the shape of Trinitarian theology among both Greek- and Latin
Latin
-speaking theologians, and he is remembered as the "Trinitarian Theologian". Much of his theological work continues to influence modern theologians, especially in regard to the relationship among the three Persons of the Trinity
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Gregory Of Nazianzus The Elder
GREGORY THE ELDER, or GREGORY OF NAZIANZUS THE ELDER, (c. 276 – 374) was the bishop of the see of Nazianzus in Roman province of Cappadocia
Cappadocia
. However, he is better remembered as the patriarch of an important family of ecclesiastics. CONTENTS * 1 Career * 2 Family * 3 References * 4 External links CAREERA member of the Hypsistarians , a distinct Jewish-pagan sect worshiping Hypsistos, the "Most High" God, Gregory was convinced to convert to Christianity by his wife Nonna in 325. Both Gregory and Nonna came from wealthy families, and Gregory was able to personally finance the construction of a church in the region. In 328, Gregory was selected as bishop of Nazianzus , a position he held until his death. At one point, Gregory subscribed to an Arian understanding of the Trinity
Trinity
. However, this was for a very brief time and he quickly renounced that position
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Fresco
FRESCO (plural _FRESCOS_ or _FRESCOES_) is a technique of mural painting executed upon freshly-laid, or wet lime plaster . Water is used as the vehicle for the pigment to merge with the plaster, and with the setting of the plaster, the painting becomes an integral part of the wall. The word fresco (Italian : _affresco_) is derived from the Italian adjective _fresco_ meaning "fresh", and may thus be contrasted with fresco-secco or secco mural painting techniques, which are applied to dried plaster, to supplement painting in fresco. The fresco technique has been employed since antiquity and is closely associated with Italian Renaissance painting
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Kariye Camii
The CHURCH OF THE HOLY SAVIOUR IN CHORA (Greek : Ἐκκλησία τοῦ Ἁγίου Σωτῆρος ἐν τῇ Χώρᾳ, Turkish : Kariye Müzesi, Kariye Camii, Kariye Kilisesi) is a medieval Byzantine Greek Orthodox church preserved as the Chora Museum
Museum
in the Edirnekapı neighborhood of Istanbul
Istanbul
. The neighborhood is situated in the western part of the municipality (belediye) of the Fatih district. In the 16th century, during the Ottoman era, the church was converted into a mosque; it became a museum in 1948. The interior of the building is covered with some of the oldest and finest surviving Byzantine mosaics and frescoes ; they were uncovered and restored after the building was secularized and turned into a museum. Depiction of the Chora Church, c. 1900 Chora Church, Istanbul, Turkey, 1903. Survey 1903
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Theologian
THEOLOGY is the critical study of the nature of the divine . It is taught as an academic discipline, typically in universities, seminaries and schools of divinity
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Doctor Of The Church
DOCTOR OF THE CHURCH ( Latin _doctor_ "teacher") is a title given by the Catholic Church to saints whom they recognize as having been of particular importance, particularly regarding their contribution to theology or doctrine. Some other churches have similar categories with various names
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Three Holy Hierarchs
The THREE HIERARCHS ( Ancient Greek : Οἱ Τρεῖς Ἱεράρχαι; Modern Greek : Οι Τρεις Ιεράρχες) of Eastern Christianity refers to Basil the Great (also known as Basil of Caesarea), Gregory the Theologian (also known as Gregory of Nazianzus) and John Chrysostom . They were highly influential bishops of the early church who played pivotal roles in shaping Christian theology . In Eastern Christianity they are also known as the Three Great Hierarchs and Ecumenical Teachers, while in Roman Catholicism the three are honored as Doctors of the Church
Doctors of the Church
. The three are venerated as saints in Eastern Orthodoxy , Catholicism , Anglicanism and other Christian churches
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Cappadocian Fathers
The CAPPADOCIAN FATHERS, also traditionally known as the Three Cappadocians, are Basil the Great (330–379), who was bishop of Caesarea ; Basil's younger brother Gregory of Nyssa (c.332–395), who was bishop of Nyssa ; and a close friend, Gregory of Nazianzus (329–389), who became Patriarch of Constantinople . The Cappadocia region, in modern-day Turkey
Turkey
, was an early site of Christian activity , with several missions by Paul in this region. The Cappadocians advanced the development of early Christian theology , for example the doctrine of the Trinity
Trinity
, and are highly respected as saints in both Western and Eastern churches
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Oecumene
The ECUMENE (US ) or OECUMENE (UK ; Greek : οἰκουμένη, oikouménē, lit. "inhabited") was an ancient Greek term for the known world, the inhabited world, or the habitable world. Under the Roman Empire , it came to refer to civilization and the secular and religious imperial administration. In present usage, it is used as the noun form of "ecumenical " and describes the Christian Church as a unified whole or the unified modern world civilization. It is also used in cartography to describe a type of world map (mappa mundi ) used in late Antiquity and the Middle Ages . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Greece * 3 Rome * 4 Modernity * 4.1 Religion * 4.2 Culture * 4.3 Cartography * 5 References * 6 External links ETYMOLOGY A modern depiction of the ecumene described by Herodotus in the 5th century BC
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Anno Domini
The terms ANNO DOMINI (AD) and BEFORE CHRIST (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars . The term _anno Domini_ is Medieval Latin and means "in the year of the Lord", but is often translated as "in the year of our Lord". This calendar era is based on the traditionally reckoned year of the conception or birth of Jesus of Nazareth , with _AD_ counting years from the start of this epoch , and _BC_ denoting years before the start of the era. There is no year zero in this scheme, so the year AD 1 immediately follows the year 1 BC. This dating system was devised in 525 by Dionysius Exiguus of Scythia Minor , but was not widely used until after 800. The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world today
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Arianzum
NAZIANZUS (Greek : Ναζιανζός, Nazianzos) was a small town in the late Roman province of Cappadocia Tertia . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Ecclesiastical history * 3 See also * 4 References HISTORYIts history in antiquity is unknown. It became the Turkish village of Nenizi east of Ak-Serai (formerly Archelais), in the Ottoman villayet of Koniah , but has sometimes been wrongly identified with Diocaesarea. ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORYAt the beginning of the 4th century Nazianzus was suffragan to Caesarea Mazaca ; under Emperor Valens it formed part of Cappadocia Secunda , the metropolis of which was Tyana . Later it became part of Cappadocia Tertia and depended on its Metropolitan of Mocessus . Finally it became a metropolitan see itself under Diogenes. In 1370 it was united to the metropolitan see of Caesarea Mazaca (modern Kayseri)
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Cappadocia
CAPPADOCIA (/kæpəˈdoʊʃə/ ; also _Capadocia_; Turkish : _Kapadokya_, Greek : Καππαδοκία _Kappadokía_, from Ancient Greek : Καππαδοκία, from Old Persian : _Katpatuka_) is a historical region in Central Anatolia , largely in the Nevşehir , Kayseri , Kırşehir , Aksaray , and Niğde Provinces in Turkey . According to Herodotus , in the time of the Ionian Revolt (499 BC), the Cappadocians were reported as occupying a region from Mount Taurus to the vicinity of the Euxine ( Black Sea ). Cappadocia, in this sense, was bounded in the south by the chain of the Taurus Mountains that separate it from Cilicia , to the east by the upper Euphrates , to the north by Pontus , and to the west by Lycaonia and eastern Galatia
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Eastern Orthodox Church
The EASTERN ORTHODOX CHURCH, also known as the ORTHODOX CHURCH, or officially as the ORTHODOX CATHOLIC CHURCH, is the second-largest Christian church and one of the oldest extant religious institutions in the world. The Eastern Orthodox Church teaches that it is the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church established by Jesus Christ in his Great Commission to the apostles. It practices what it understands to be the original Christian faith and maintains the sacred tradition passed down from the apostles . The Eastern Orthodox Church is a communion of autocephalous churches , each typically governed by a Holy Synod . It teaches that all bishops are equal by virtue of their ordination , and has no central governing structure analogous to the Papacy in the Roman Catholic Church
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Oriental Orthodoxy
ORIENTAL ORTHODOXY is a communion of Eastern Christian churches that recognize only the first three ecumenical councils – the First Council of Nicaea in 325, the First Council of Constantinople in 381 and the Council of Ephesus in 431. The Oriental Orthodox churches maintain their own ancient apostolic succession with miaphysite Christology , rejecting the definition of the two natures of Christ (human and divine), known as the Chalcedonian Definition , issued by the Council of Chalcedon in 451. Over the following two centuries, one by one, they discontinued their communion with the adherents of Chalcedonian Christianity , and developed separate institutions that together did not participate in any of the later ecumenical councils
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Roman Catholic Church
The CATHOLIC CHURCH, also known as the ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, is the largest Christian Church
Christian Church
, with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation . Headed by the Bishop of Rome
Rome
, known as the Pope
Pope
, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed . Its central administration, the Holy See