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Greek Numerals GREEK NUMERALS, also known as IONIC, IONIAN, MILESIAN, or ALEXANDRIAN NUMERALS, are a system of writing numbers using the letters of the Greek alphabet . In modern Greece Greece , they are still used for ordinal numbers and in contexts similar to those in which Roman numerals Roman numerals are still used elsewhere in the West. For ordinary cardinal numbers , however, Greece Greece uses Arabic numerals Arabic numerals . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Description * 3 Table * 4 Higher numbers * 5 Zero * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORYThe Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations ' Linear A and Linear B alphabets used a different system, called Aegean numerals Aegean numerals , which included specialized symbols for numbers: 𐄇 = 1, 𐄐 = 10, 𐄙 = 100, 𐄢 = 1000, and 𐄫 = 10000 [...More...]  "Greek Numerals" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Acute Accent The ACUTE ACCENT ( ´ ) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin , Cyrillic , and Greek scripts. CONTENTS* 1 Uses * 1.1 History * 1.2 Pitch * 1.2.1 Greek * 1.3 Stress * 1.4 Height * 1.5 Length * 1.5.1 Long vowels * 1.5.2 Short vowels * 1.6 Palatalization * 1.7 Tone * 1.8 Disambiguation * 1.9 Emphasis * 1.10 Letter extension * 1.11 Other uses * 1.12 English * 2 Technical notes * 2.1 Microsoft Windows * 2.1.1 Microsoft Office * 2.2 Macintosh OS X * 2.3 Keyboards * 2.4 Internet * 2.5 Limitations * 3 Notes * 4 See also * 5 External links USESHISTORYAn early precursor of the acute accent was the apex , used in Latin inscriptions to mark long vowels [...More...]  "Acute Accent" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Dzongkha Numerals Dzongkha , the national language of Bhutan Bhutan , has two numeral systems, one vigesimal (base 20), and a modern decimal system. The vigesimal system remains in robust use. Ten is an auxiliary base: the teens are formed with ten and the numerals 1–9. VIGESIMAL 1 ciː 11 cuci 2 ˈɲiː 12 cuɲi 3 sum 13 cusum 4 ʑi 14 cuʑi 5 ˈŋa 15 ceŋa 6 ɖʱuː 16 cuɖu 7 dyn 17 cupdỹ 8 ɡeː 18 copɡe 9 ɡuː 19 cyɡu 10 cutʰãm* 20 kʰe ciː*When it appears on its own, 'ten' is usually said cutʰãm 'a full ten'. In combinations it is simply cu. Factors of 20 are formed from kʰe [...More...]  "Dzongkha Numerals" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Georgian Numerals The GEORGIAN NUMERALS are the system of number names used in Georgian , a language spoken in the country of Georgia . The Georgian numerals from 30 to 99 are constructed using a base20 system, similar to the scheme used in Basque , French for numbers 80 through 99, or the notion of the score in English. The symbols for numbers in modern Georgian texts are the same Arabic numerals used in English, except that the comma is used as the decimal separator , and digits in large numbers are divided into groups of three using spaces or periods (full stops). An older method for writing numerals exists in which most of letters of the Georgian alphabet (including some obsolete letters) are each assigned a numeric value [...More...]  "Georgian Numerals" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Binary Number In mathematics and digital electronics , a BINARY NUMBER is a number expressed in the BINARY NUMERAL SYSTEM or BASE2 NUMERAL SYSTEM which represents numeric values using two different symbols: typically 0 (zero) and 1 (one) . The base 2 system is a positional notation with a radix of 2. Because of its straightforward implementation in digital electronic circuitry using logic gates , the binary system is used internally by almost all modern computers and computerbased devices . Each digit is referred to as a bit [...More...]  "Binary Number" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Ternary Numeral System The TERNARY numeral system (also called BASE3) has three as its base . Analogous to a bit , a ternary digit is a TRIT (TRinary digIT). One trit is equivalent to log23 (about 1.58496) bits of information . Although ternary most often refers to a system in which the three digits 0 , 1 , and 2 are all nonnegative numbers, the adjective also lends its name to the balanced ternary system, comprising the digits −1 , 0 and +1, used in comparison logic and ternary computers [...More...]  "Ternary Numeral System" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Quaternary Numeral System QUATERNARY is the base 4 numeral system . It uses the digits 0, 1, 2 and 3 to represent any real number . Four is the largest number within the subitizing range and one of two numbers that is both a square and a highly composite number (the other being 36), making quaternary a convenient choice for a base at this scale. Despite being twice as large, its radix economy is equal to that of binary. However, it fares no better in the localization of prime numbers (the next best being the primorial base six, senary ). Quaternary shares with all fixedradix numeral systems many properties, such as the ability to represent any real number with a canonical representation (almost unique) and the characteristics of the representations of rational numbers and irrational numbers . See decimal and binary for a discussion of these properties [...More...]  "Quaternary Numeral System" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Korean Numerals The Korean language has two regularly used sets of numerals , a native Korean system and SinoKorean system. CONTENTS * 1 Construction * 2 Numerals (Cardinal) * 3 Pronunciation * 4 Constant suffixes used in SinoKorean ordinal numerals * 5 Substitution for disambiguation * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 See also CONSTRUCTIONFor both native and Sino KOREAN NUMERALS, the teens (11 through 19) are represented by a combination of tens and the ones places. For instance, 15 would be sibo (십오; 十五), but not usually ilsibo in the SinoKorean system, and yeoldaseot (열다섯) in native Korean. Twenty through ninety are likewise represented in this placeholding manner in the SinoKorean system, while Native Korean has its own unique set of words, as can be seen in the chart below. The grouping of large numbers in Korean follow the Chinese tradition of myriads (10000) rather than thousands (1000) [...More...]  "Korean Numerals" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Counting Rods COUNTING RODS (traditional Chinese : 籌; simplified Chinese : 筹; pinyin : chóu; Japanese : 算木; rōmaji : sangi) are small bars, typically 3–14 cm long, that were used by mathematicians for calculation in ancient China China , Japan Japan , Korea Korea , and Vietnam Vietnam . They are placed either horizontally or vertically to represent any integer or rational number . The written forms based on them are called ROD NUMERALS [...More...]  "Counting Rods" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Radix In mathematical numeral systems , the RADIX or BASE is the number of unique digits , including zero, used to represent numbers in a positional numeral system . For example, for the decimal system (the most common system in use today) the radix is ten, because it uses the ten digits from 0 through 9. In any standard positional numeral system, a number is conventionally written as (x)y with x as the string of digits and y as its base, although for base ten the subscript is usually assumed (and omitted, together with the pair of parentheses ), as it is the most common way to express value . For example, (100)dec = 100 (in the decimal system) represents the number one hundred, while (100)2 (in the binary system with base 2) represents the number four. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 In numeral systems * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links ETYMOLOGY Radix Radix is a Latin word for "root" [...More...]  "Radix" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Āryabhaṭa Numeration The ĀRYABHAṭA NUMERATION is a system of numerals based on Sanskrit phonemes . It was introduced in the early 6th century in India by Āryabhaṭa , in the first chapter titled Gītika Padam of his Aryabhatiya . It attributes a numerical value to each syllable of the form consonant+vowel possible in Sanskrit phonology , from ka = 1 up to hau = 1018 . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Example * 3 Numeral table * 4 See also * 5 References HISTORYThe basis of this number system is mentioned in the second stanza of the first chapter of Aryabhatiya . The Varga (Group/Class) letters ka to ma are to be placed in the varga (square) places (1st, 100th, 10000th, etc.) and Avarga letters like ya, ra, la .. have to be placed in Avarga places (10th, 1000th, 100000th, etc.). The Varga letters kak to ma have value from 1, 2, 3 .. up to 25 and Avarga letters ya to ha have value 30, 40, 50.. up to 100 [...More...]  "Āryabhaṭa Numeration" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Prehistoric Numerals Counting Counting in prehistory was first assisted by using body parts, primarily the fingers . This is reflected in the etymology of certain number names , such as in the names of ten and hundred in the ProtoIndoEuropean numerals , both containing the root *dḱ also seen in the word for "finger" (Latin digitus, cognate to English toe). Early systems of counting using tally marks appear in the Upper Paleolithic . The first more complex systems develop in the Ancient Near East together with the development of early writing out of protowriting systems [...More...]  "Prehistoric Numerals" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Inuit Numerals Inuit , like other Eskimo languages (and Celtic and Mayan languages as well), uses a vigesimal counting system. Inuit counting has subbases at 5, 10, and 15. Arabic numerals Arabic numerals , consisting of 10 distinct digits (09) are not adequate to represent a base20 system. Students from Kaktovik, Alaska , came up with the KAKTOVIK INUPIAQ NUMERALS, which has since gained wide use among Alaskan Iñupiaq , and is slowly gaining ground in other countries where dialects of the Inuit language are spoken. The numeral system has helped to revive counting in Inuit, which had been falling into disuse among Inuit speakers due to the prevalence of the base10 system in schools. The picture below shows the numerals 1–19 and then 0. Twenty is written with a one and a zero, forty with a two and a zero, and four hundred with a one and two zeros [...More...]  "Inuit Numerals" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Kharosthi Numerals Egyptian hieroglyphs Egyptian hieroglyphs 32 c. BCE * Hieratic Hieratic 32 c. BCE * Demotic 7 c. BCE * Meroitic 3 c. BCE* ProtoSinaitic 19 c. BCE * Ugaritic 15 c. BCE* Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCE * Ge’ez 5–6 c. BCE* Phoenician 12 c. BCE * PaleoHebrew 10 c. BCE * Samaritan 6 c. BCE* LibycoBerber 3 c. BCE * Tifinagh * Paleohispanic (semisyllabic) 7 c. BCE* Aramaic 8 c. BCE * Kharoṣṭhī 4 c. BCE* Brāhmī 4 c. BCE * Brahmic family Brahmic family (see) * E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE * Hangul Hangul (core letters only) 1443* Devanagari 13 c. CE * Canadian syllabics 1840 * Hebrew 3 c. BCE* Pahlavi 3 c. BCE * Avestan 4 c. CE * Palmyrene 2 c. BCE* Syriac 2 c. BCE * Nabataean 2 c. BCE * Arabic 4 c. CE * N\'Ko 1949 CE* Sogdian 2 c. BCE * Orkhon (old Turkic) 6 c [...More...]  "Kharosthi Numerals" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Maya Numerals The MAYA NUMERAL SYSTEM is a vigesimal (base20) positional notation used in the Maya civilization to represent numbers. The numerals are made up of three symbols; zero (shell shape, with the plastron uppermost), one (a dot) and five (a bar). For example, thirteen is written as three dots in a horizontal row above two horizontal lines stacked above each other. 400s 20s 1s 33 429 5125 Numbers after 19 were written vertically in powers of twenty. For example, thirtythree would be written as one dot above three dots, which are in turn atop two lines. The first dot represents "one twenty" or "1×20", which is added to three dots and two bars, or thirteen. Therefore, (1×20) + 13 = 33. Upon reaching 202 or 400, another row is started (203 or 8000, then 204 or 160,000, and so on). The number 429 would be written as one dot above one dot above four dots and a bar, or (1×202) + (1×201) + 9 = 429 [...More...]  "Maya Numerals" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Etruscan Numerals The ETRUSCAN NUMERALS were used by the ancient Etruscans . The system was adapted from the Greek Attic numerals and formed the inspiration for the later Roman numerals Roman numerals via the Old Italic script . ETRUSCAN ARABIC SYMBOL * OLD ITALIC θu 1 𐌠 maχ 5 𐌡 śar 10 𐌢 muvalχ 50 𐌣 ? 100 or C 𐌟There is very little surviving evidence of these numerals. Examples are known of the symbols for larger numbers, but it is unknown which symbol represents which number. Thanks to the numbers written out on the Tuscania Tuscania dice , there is agreement that zal, ci, huθ and śa are the numbers up to six (besides 1 and 5). The assignment depends on whether the numbers on opposite faces of Etruscan dice add up to seven, like nowadays. Some dice found did not show this proposed pattern [...More...]  "Etruscan Numerals" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 