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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek
Modern Greek
: ελληνικά , _elliniká_, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα (_ listen ), ellinikí glóssa_, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B
Linear B
and the Cypriot syllabary
Cypriot syllabary
, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems. The Greek language
Greek language
holds an important place in the history of the Western world
Western world
and Christianity
Christianity
; the canon of ancient Greek literature includes seminal works in the Western canon such as the epic poems _ Iliad
Iliad
_ and _ Odyssey
Odyssey
_
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Proto-Greek Language
The PROTO-GREEK LANGUAGE (also known as PROTO-HELLENIC) is the assumed last common ancestor of all known varieties of Greek , including Mycenaean Greek , the subsequent ancient Greek dialects (i.e., Attic , Ionic , Aeolic , Doric , Ancient Macedonian and Arcadocypriot ) and, ultimately, Koine , Byzantine and Modern Greek . The unity of Proto-Greek would have ended as Hellenic migrants, who spoke the predecessor of the Mycenaean language, entered the Greek peninsula sometime in the Neolithic or the Bronze Age . CONTENTS * 1 Origins * 2 Phonology * 2.1 Proto-Greek changes * 2.1.1 Laryngeal changes * 2.2 Palatalization * 2.3 Other Post-Proto-Greek changes * 3 Morphology * 3.1 Noun * 3.2 Pronoun * 3.3 Verb * 4 Numerals * 5 See also * 6 References * 6.1 Citations * 6.2 Sources ORIGINS A reconstruction of the 3rd millennium BC "Proto-Greek area", by Vladimir I. Georgiev . The evolution of Proto-Greek could be considered within the context of an early Paleo-Balkan sprachbund that makes it difficult to delineate exact boundaries between individual languages
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Mycenaean Greek
MYCENAEAN GREEK is the most ancient attested form of the Greek language , on the Greek mainland, Crete and Cyprus in Mycenaean Greece (16th to 12th centuries BCE), before the hypothesised Dorian invasion , often cited as the _terminus post quem _ for the coming of the Greek language to Greece. The language is preserved in inscriptions in Linear B , a script first attested on Crete before the 14th century. Most inscriptions are on clay tablets found in Knossos , in central Crete , as well as in Pylos , in the southwest of the Peloponnese . Other tablets have been found at Mycenae itself, Tiryns and Thebes and at Chania , in Western Crete. The language is named after Mycenae, one of the major centres of Mycenaean Greece. The tablets long remained undeciphered, and many languages were suggested for them, until Michael Ventris deciphered the script in 1952. The texts on the tablets are mostly lists and inventories. No prose narrative survives, much less myth or poetry. Still, much may be glimpsed from these records about the people who produced them and about Mycenaean Greece, the period before the so-called Greek Dark Ages
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Ancient Greek
ANCIENT GREEK includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period (3rd century BC to the 6th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek . The language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine (common). Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek . Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects . Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians, playwrights, and philosophers . It has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a standard subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance . This article primarily contains information about the Epic and Classical phases of the language
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Koine Greek
KOINE GREEK (UK English /ˈkɔɪniː/ , US English /kɔɪˈneɪ/ , /ˈkɔɪneɪ/ or /kiːˈniː/ ; from Koine Greek ἡ κοινὴ διάλεκτος, "the common dialect"), also known as ALEXANDRIAN DIALECT, COMMON ATTIC, HELLENISTIC or BIBLICAL GREEK ( Modern Greek : Ελληνιστική Κοινή, "Hellenistic Koiné", in the sense of "Hellenistic supraregional language "), was the common supra-regional form of Greek spoken and written during Hellenistic and Roman antiquity and the early Byzantine era, or Late Antiquity. It evolved from the spread of Greek following the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC, and served as the lingua franca of much of the Mediterranean region and the Middle East during the following centuries. It was based mainly on Attic and related Ionic speech forms, with various admixtures brought about through dialect levelling with other varieties. Koine Greek included styles ranging from more conservative literary forms to the spoken vernaculars of the time. As the dominant language of the Byzantine Empire , it developed further into Medieval Greek, which it turned into Modern Greek. Koine remained the court language of the Byzantine Empire until its ending in 1453, while Medieval and eventually Modern Greek were everyday’s language
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Medieval Greek
MEDIEVAL GREEK, also known as BYZANTINE GREEK, is the stage of the Greek language between the end of Classical antiquity in the 5th-6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages , conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453. From the 7th century onwards, Greek was the only language of administration and government in the Byzantine Empire . This stage of language is thus described as Byzantine Greek. The study of the Medieval Greek language and literature is a branch of Byzantine Studies, or Byzantinology , the study of the history and culture of the Byzantine Empire. The beginning of Medieval Greek is occasionally dated back to as early as the 4th century, either to 330 AD, when the political centre of the Roman Empire was moved to Constantinople , or to 395 AD, the division of the Empire. However, this approach is rather arbitrary as it is more an assumption of political as opposed to cultural and linguistic developments. Indeed, by this time the spoken language, particularly pronunciation, had already shifted towards modern forms. The conquests of Alexander , and the ensuing Hellenistic period , had caused Greek to spread to peoples throughout Anatolia and the Eastern Mediterranean, altering the spoken language's pronunciation and structure
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Modern Greek
MODERN GREEK (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική Γλώσσα "Neo-Hellenic", historically and colloquially also known as Ρωμαίικα "Romaic" or "Roman", and Γραικικά "Greek") refers to the dialects and varieties of the Greek language spoken in the modern era. The end of the Medieval Greek period and the beginning of Modern Greek is often symbolically assigned to the fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1453, even though that date marks no clear linguistic boundary and many characteristic modern features of the language arose centuries earlier, between the fourth and the fifteenth centuries AD. During most of the period, the language existed in a situation of diglossia , with regional spoken dialects existing side by side with learned, more archaic written forms, as with the demotic and learned varieties ( Dimotiki and Katharevousa ) that co-existed throughout much of the 19th and 20th centuries
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Greece
GREECE (Greek : Ελλάδα, _ Elláda _ ), officially the HELLENIC REPUBLIC (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία, _Ellinikí Dimokratía_ ), historically also known as HELLAS ( Ancient Greek : Ἑλλάς, _Hellás_ , modern pronunciation _Ellás_), is a country in southeastern Europe , with a population of approximately 11 million as of 2015. Athens is the nation's capital and largest city, followed by Thessaloniki . Greece is strategically located at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula , it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, and Turkey to the northeast. Greece consists of nine geographic regions : Macedonia , Central Greece , the Peloponnese , Thessaly , Epirus , the Aegean Islands (including the Dodecanese and Cyclades ), Thrace , Crete , and the Ionian Islands . The Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland , the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south
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Mediterranean Sea
The MEDITERRANEAN SEA is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean , surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia , on the south by North Africa , and on the east by the Levant . Although the sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, it is usually identified as a separate body of water. Geological evidence indicates that around 5.9 million years ago, the Mediterranean was cut off from the Atlantic and was partly or completely desiccated over a period of some 600,000 years before being refilled by the Zanclean flood about 5.3 million years ago. The name Mediterranean is derived from the Latin _mediterraneus_, meaning "inland" or "in the middle of land" (from _medius_, "middle" and _terra_, "land"). It covers an approximate area of 2.5 million km2 (965,000 sq mi), but its connection to the Atlantic (the Strait of Gibraltar ) is only 14 km (8.7 mi) wide. The Strait of Gibraltar is a narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar and Spain in Europe from Morocco in Africa
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Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common _ancestral language_ or _parental language_, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the _daughter languages_ within a language family as being _genetically related_. Estimates of the number of living languages vary from 5,000 to 8,000, depending on the precision of one's definition of "language", and in particular on how one classifies dialects . The 2013 edition of Ethnologue catalogs just over 7,000 living human languages. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people. There are also many dead and extinct languages, as well as some that are still insufficiently studied to be classified, or are even unknown outside their respective speech communities. Membership of languages in a language family is established by comparative linguistics . Sister languages are said to have a "genetic" or "genealogical" relationship. The latter term is older
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Indo-European Languages
_Pontic Steppe_ * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture _Caucasus_ * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo _Eastern Europe_ * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni _Northern Europe_* Corded ware * Baden * Middle Dnieper ------------------------- Bronze Age _Pontic Steppe_ * Chariot * Yamna * Catacomb * Multi-cordoned ware * Poltavka * Srubna _Northern/Eastern Steppe_ *
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Hellenic Languages
_Pontic Steppe_ * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture _Caucasus_ * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo _Eastern Europe_ * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni _Northern Europe_* Corded ware * Baden * Middle Dnieper ------------------------- Bronze Age _Pontic Steppe_ * Chariot * Yamna * Catacomb * Multi-cordoned ware * Poltavka * Srubna _Northern/Eastern Steppe_ *
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Ancient Greek Dialects
Ancient Greek in classical antiquity , before the development of the κοινή (koiné) "common" language of Hellenism , was divided into several DIALECTS . Most of them are known only from inscriptions, but a few of them, principally Aeolic , Doric , and Ionic , are also represented in the literary canon alongside the dominant Attic form of literary Greek. Likewise, Modern Greek is divided into several dialects, most of them having been derived from Koine Greek. CONTENTS * 1 Provenance * 2 Literature * 3 Classification * 3.1 Ancient classification * 3.2 Modern classification * 4 Phonology * 4.1 Hiatus * 4.2 _Ā_ * 4.3 Ablaut * 5 Post-Hellenistic * 6 Notes * 6.1 Overviews * 6.2 Inscriptions PROVENANCE * The earliest known dialect is MYCENAEAN GREEK , the language reconstructed from the Linear B tablets produced by the Mycenaean civilization of the Late Bronze Age in the late 2nd millennium BC . The classical distribution of dialects was brought about by the migrations of the early Iron Age after the collapse of the Mycenaean civilization . Some speakers of Mycenaean were displaced to Cyprus while others remained inland in Arcadia , giving rise to the ARCADOCYPRIOT dialect. This is the only dialect with a known Bronze-age precedent
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Varieties Of Modern Greek
The linguistic VARIETIES OF MODERN GREEK can be classified along two principal dimensions. First, there is a long tradition of sociolectal variation between the natural, popular spoken language on the one hand and archaizing, learned written forms on the other. Second, there is regional variation between dialects . The competition between the popular and the learned registers (see Diglossia ), culminated in the struggle between _ Dimotiki _ (Demotic Greek) and _ Katharevousa _ during the 19th and 20th centuries. As for regional dialects, variation within the bulk of dialects of present-day Greece is not particularly strong, except for a number of outlying, highly divergent dialects spoken by isolated communities. CONTENTS* 1 Diglossia * 1.1 Roots and history: Demotic and Katharevousa * 1.2 Standard Modern Greek * 2 History of modern Greek dialects * 2.1 Initial dialect differentiation * 2.2 Historical literary dialects * 3 Modern varieties * 3.1 Outlying varieties * 3.1.1 Tsakonian * 3.1.2 Pontic Greek * 3.1.3 Cappadocian Greek * 3.1.4 Italiot Greek * 3.1.5 Mariupolitan * 3.1.6 Other outlying varieties * 3.2 Core dialects * 3.2.1 Phonological features * 3.2.2 Grammatical features * 4 References DIGLOSSIA For more details on this topic, see Greek language question
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Writing System
A WRITING SYSTEM is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication . While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages , writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer . The processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing
Writing
is usually recorded onto a durable medium , such as paper or electronic storage , although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing on a computer display , in sand, or by skywriting . The general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets , syllabaries , or logographies . Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category. In the alphabetic category, there is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes ) of consonants and vowels that encode based on the general principle that the letters (or letter pair/groups) represent speech sounds . In a syllabary, each symbol correlates to a syllable or mora . In a logography, each character represents a word, morpheme , or other semantic units. Other categories include abjads , which differ from alphabets in that vowels are not indicated, and abugidas or alphasyllabaries, with each character representing a consonant–vowel pairing
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