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Great Exhibition
The GREAT EXHIBITION OF THE WORKS OF INDUSTRY OF ALL NATIONS or THE GREAT EXHIBITION, sometimes referred to as the CRYSTAL PALACE EXHIBITION in reference to the temporary structure in which it was held, was an international exhibition that took place in Hyde Park , London, from 1 May to 15 October 1851. It was the first in a series of World\'s Fairs , exhibitions of culture and industry that became popular in the 19th century, and it was a much anticipated event. The Great Exhibition was organized by Henry Cole and Prince Albert
Prince Albert
, husband of the reigning monarch, Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
. It was attended by famous people of the time, including Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
, Samuel Colt , members of the Orléanist Royal Family and the writers Charlotte Brontë , Charles Dickens
Charles Dickens
, Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
, George Eliot
George Eliot
and Alfred Tennyson . Music for the opening was under the direction of Sir George Thomas Smart and the continuous music from the exhibited organs for the Queen's procession was "under the superintendence of William Sterndale Bennett "
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Bureau Of International Expositions
The BUREAU INTERNATIONAL DES EXPOSITIONS (BIE) is an intergovernmental organization created to supervise international exhibitions (also known as expos or world expos ) falling under the jurisdiction of the _Convention Relating to International Exhibitions_. CONTENTS * 1 Founding and purpose * 2 Member states * 2.1 Former members * 2.1.1 Australia * 2.1.2 Canada * 2.1.3 United States * 3 Registered Expositions (World Expos) * 4 Recognized Expositions (Specialized Expos) * 5 Expo Mascots * 6 Symbols * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links FOUNDING AND PURPOSEThe BIE was established by the Convention Relating to International Exhibitions, signed in Paris on 22 November 1928, with the following goals: * to oversee the calendar, the bidding, the selection and the organization of World Expositions; and * to establish a regulatory framework under which Expo organizers and participants may work together under the best conditions.Today, 170 member countries have adhered to the BIE Convention. The BIE regulates two types of expositions: Registered Exhibitions (commonly called World Expos) and Recognized Exhibitions (commonly called Specialized Expositions). Horticultural Exhibitions with an A1 grade, regulated by the International Association of Horticultural Producers , are recognized since 1960
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The Crystal Palace
THE CRYSTAL PALACE was a cast-iron and plate-glass structure originally built in Hyde Park, London , to house the Great Exhibition of 1851. More than 14,000 exhibitors from around the world gathered in its 990,000-square-foot (92,000 m2) exhibition space to display examples of technology developed in the Industrial Revolution . Designed by Joseph Paxton , the Great Exhibition building was 1,851 feet (564 m) long, with an interior height of 128 feet (39 m). The invention of the cast plate glass method in 1848 made possible the production of large sheets of cheap but strong glass, and its use in the Crystal Palace created a structure with the greatest area of glass ever seen in a building and astonished visitors with its clear walls and ceilings that did not require interior lights. The name of the building resulted from a piece penned by the playwright Douglas Jerrold , who in July 1850 wrote in the satirical magazine _Punch _ about the forthcoming Great Exhibition, referring to a "palace of very crystal". After the exhibition, it was decided to relocate the Palace to an area of South London to be rebuilt on Penge Common, at the top of Penge Peak next to Sydenham Hill , an affluent suburb of large villas. It stood there from 1854 until its destruction by fire in 1936
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Telegraph
TELEGRAPHY (from Greek : τῆλε _têle_, "at a distance" and γράφειν _gráphein_, "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message. Thus semaphore is a method of telegraphy, whereas pigeon post is not. Telegraphy requires that the method used for encoding the message be known to both sender and receiver. Many methods are designed according to the limits of the signalling medium used. The use of smoke signals , beacons , reflected light signals, and flag semaphore signals are early examples. In the 19th century, the harnessing of electricity led to the invention of electrical telegraphy . The advent of radio in the early 20th century brought about radiotelegraphy and other forms of wireless telegraphy . In the Internet
Internet
age, telegraphic means developed greatly in sophistication and ease of use, with natural language interfaces that hide the underlying code, allowing such technologies as electronic mail and instant messaging
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United Kingdom Of Great Britain And Ireland
The UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND was established as a sovereign state on 1 January 1801 by the Acts of Union 1800 , which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland
Ireland
. The growing desire for an Irish Republic led to the Irish War of Independence , which resulted in Ireland
Ireland
seceding from the Union and forming the Irish Free State in 1922. Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
remained part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, and the state was consequently renamed the " United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland". The UK financed the European coalition that defeated France in 1815 in the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
. The British Empire
British Empire
thereby became the foremost world power for the next century. The Crimean War with Russia and the Boer wars were relatively small operations in a largely peaceful century. Rapid industrialisation that began in the decades prior to the state's formation continued up until the mid-19th century. A devastating famine , exacerbated by government inaction in the mid-19th century, led to demographic collapse in much of Ireland, and increased calls for Irish land reform
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London
LONDON /ˈlʌndən/ ( listen ) is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom . Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain , London has been a major settlement for two millennia. It was founded by the Romans , who named it _ Londinium _. London's ancient core, the City of London
City of London
, largely retains its 1.12-square-mile (2.9 km2) medieval boundaries. Since at least the 19th century, "London" has also referred to the metropolis around this core, historically split between Middlesex , Essex , Surrey , Kent , and Hertfordshire , which today largely makes up Greater London
Greater London
, a region governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly . London is a leading global city in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism, and transportation. It is crowned as the world's largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world . London is a world cultural capital. It is the world's most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the world\'s largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic
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Hyde Park, London
HYDE PARK is a Grade I-registered major park in Central London
London
. It is the largest of four Royal Parks that form a chain from the entrance of Kensington Palace through Kensington Gardens
Kensington Gardens
and Hyde Park, via Hyde Park Corner
Hyde Park Corner
and Green Park
Green Park
past the main entrance to Buckingham Palace . The park is divided by the Serpentine and the Long Water . The park was established by Henry VIII in 1536 when he took the land from Westminster
Westminster
Abbey and used it as a hunting ground. It opened to the public in the early 17th century and quickly became popular, particularly for May Day
May Day
parades. Major improvements occurred in the early 18th century under the direction of Queen Caroline . Several duels took place in Hyde Park during this time, often involving members of the nobility. The Great Exhibition of 1851 was held in the park, for which the Crystal Palace , designed by Joseph Paxton , was erected. Free speech
Free speech
and demonstrations have been a key feature of Hyde Park since the 19th century. Speaker\'s Corner has been established as a point of free speech and debate since 1872, while the Chartists , the Reform League , the suffragettes , and the Stop the War Coalition have all held protests there
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Exposition Universelle (1855)
The EXPOSITION UNIVERSELLE of 1855 was an International Exhibition held on the Champs-Élysées
Champs-Élysées
in Paris
Paris
from 15 May to 15 November 1855. Its full official title was the Exposition Universelle des produits de l'Agriculture, de l'Industrie et des Beaux-Arts de Paris
Paris
1855. Today the exposition's sole physical remnant is the Théâtre du Rond-Point des Champs-Élysées
Champs-Élysées
designed by architect Gabriel Davioud , which originally housed the Panorama National. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 References * 3 Further reading * 4 External links HISTORYThe exposition was a major event in France
France
, then newly under the reign of Emperor
Emperor
Napoleon III
Napoleon III
. It followed London
London
's Great Exhibition of 1851 and attempted to surpass that fair's Crystal Palace with its own Palais de l\'Industrie . The arts displayed were shown in a separate pavilion on Avenue Montaigne . There were works from artists from 29 countries, including French artists Francois Rude , Ingres
Ingres
, Delacroix and Henri Lehmann , and British artists William Holman Hunt
William Holman Hunt
and John Everett Millais
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Paris
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 _Population without double counting _: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. PARIS (locally ( listen )) is the capital and most populous city of France
France
. It has an area of 105 square kilometres (41 square miles) and a population of 2,229,621 in 2015 within its administrative limits. The city is both a commune and department and forms the centre and headquarters of the Île-de- France
France
, or Paris
Paris
Region, which has an area of 12,012 square kilometres (4,638 square miles) and a population in 2016 of 12,142,802, comprising roughly 18 percent of the population of France. By the 17th century, Paris
Paris
was one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The Paris Region had a GDP
GDP
of €649.6 billion (US $763.4 billion) in 2014, accounting for 30.4 percent of the GDP
GDP
of France. According to official estimates, the Paris Region has the fourth-highest GDP
GDP
in the world and the largest regional GDP
GDP
in the EU
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Queen Victoria
VICTORIA (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India . Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn , the fourth son of George III of the United Kingdom . Both the Duke of Kent and King George III died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld . She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy , in which the sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments; publicly, she became a national icon who was identified with strict standards of personal morality. Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha , in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances
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Joseph Paxton
SIR JOSEPH PAXTON (3 August 1803 – 8 June 1865) was an English gardener , architect and Member of Parliament, best known for designing the Crystal Palace , and for cultivating the Cavendish banana , the most consumed banana in the Western world. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Chatsworth * 2.1 Greenhouses * 3 Crystal Palace * 4 Publishing * 5 Political career * 6 Later life * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links EARLY LIFEPaxton was born in 1803, the seventh son of a farming family, in Milton Bryan , Bedfordshire. Some references, incorrectly, list his birth year as 1801. This is, as he admitted in later life, a result of misinformation he provided in his teens, which enabled him to enrol at Chiswick Gardens. He became a garden boy at the age of fifteen for Sir Gregory Osborne Page-Turner at Battlesden Park , near Woburn . After several moves, he obtained a position in 1823 at the Horticultural Society's Chiswick Gardens. CHATSWORTH _ The Conservative Wall_ at Chatsworth The Horticultural Society's gardens were close to the gardens of William Cavendish, 6th Duke of Devonshire at Chiswick House . The duke met the young gardener as he strolled in his gardens and became impressed with his skill and enthusiasm. He offered the 20-year-old Paxton the position of head gardener at Chatsworth , which was considered one of the finest landscaped gardens of the time
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World's Fair
A WORLD\'S FAIR, WORLD FAIR, WORLD EXPOSITION, or UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION (sometimes EXPO or EXPO for short) is a large international exhibition designed to showcase achievements of nations. These exhibitions vary in character and are held in different parts of the world. The current international exhibition is Expo 2017 , which is being held in Astana , Kazakhstan . Since the 1928 Convention Relating to International Exhibitions came into force, the Bureau International des Expositions (BIE; English: International Exhibitions Bureau) has served as an international sanctioning body for world's fairs. BIE-approved fairs are of three types: universal, specialized and horticultural. They usually last from three weeks to six months. The Bureau International des Expositions also recognises the Milan Triennial Exhibition of Decorative Arts and Modern Architecture , on grounds of historical precedence, provided that it retains its original features
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Culture
CULTURE (/ˈkʌltʃər/ ) is the social behavior and norms found in human societies . Culture is a central concept in anthropology , encompassing the range of phenomena that are transmitted through social learning in human societies . Some aspects of human behavior, such as language , social practices such as kinship and marriage , expressive forms such as art , music , dance , ritual , and religion , and technologies such as tool usage , cooking , shelter , and clothing are said to be cultural universals , found in all human societies. The concept of material culture covers the physical expressions of culture, such as technology, architecture and art, whereas the immaterial aspects of culture such as principles of social organization (including practices of political organization and social institutions ), mythology , philosophy , literature (both written and oral ), and science comprise the intangible cultural heritage of a society. In the humanities , one sense of culture as an attribute of the individual has been the degree to which they have cultivated a particular level of sophistication in the arts , sciences, education, or manners
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Industry
INDUSTRY is the production of goods or related services within an economy . The major source of revenue of a group or company is the indicator of its relevant industry. When a large group has multiple sources of revenue generation, it is considered to be working in different industries. Manufacturing industry became a key sector of production and labour in European and North American countries during the Industrial Revolution , upsetting previous mercantile and feudal economies. This came through many successive rapid advances in technology, such as the production of steel and coal . Following the Industrial Revolution , possibly a third of the world's economic output are derived that is from manufacturing industries. Many developed countries and many developing/semi-developed countries (People's Republic of China, India etc.) depend significantly on manufacturing industry. Industries, the countries they reside in, and the economies of those countries are interlinked in a complex web of interdependence
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Henry Cole
SIR HENRY COLE (15 July 1808 – 18 April 1882) was a British civil servant and inventor who facilitated many innovations in commerce and education in 19th century in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland . Cole is credited with devising the concept of sending greetings cards at Christmas time, introducing the world's first commercial Christmas card in 1843. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Felix Summerly pseudonym * 3 Cole and the exhibitions * 4 Museums * 5 Honours and legacy * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links BIOGRAPHY The world's first commercially produced Christmas card , made by Henry Cole
Henry Cole
1843. Henry Cole
Henry Cole
was born in Bath the son of Captain Henry Robert Cole, then of the 1st Dragoon Guards , and his wife Lætitia Dormer. He was sent in 1817 to Christ\'s Hospital , and upon leaving school in 1823 became clerk to Francis Palgrave , and then a sub-commissioner under the Record Commission . Cole was employed in transcribing records, but found time to study water-colour painting under David Cox , and exhibited sketches at the Royal Academy
Royal Academy
. He lived with his father in a house belonging to the novelist Thomas Love Peacock , who retained two rooms in it, and became a friend of young Cole
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