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Gravelly Hill Interchange
GRAVELLY HILL INTERCHANGE, better known throughout the UK by its nickname SPAGHETTI JUNCTION , is junction 6 of the M6 motorway
M6 motorway
where it meets the A38(M) Aston Expressway in the Gravelly Hill area of Birmingham
Birmingham
, England. The interchange was opened on 24 May 1972. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Co-located junctions * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links OVERVIEWThe interchange's colloquial name "Spaghetti Junction" was coined in 1965 by journalists from the Birmingham
Birmingham
Evening Mail . On 1 June 1965, reporter Roy Smith described plans for the then unbuilt junction as a "cross between a plate of spaghetti and an unsuccessful attempt at a Staffordshire knot ", and a sub-editor headlined the article "Spaghetti Junction"
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Spaghetti Junction
"SPAGHETTI JUNCTION" is a nickname sometimes given to a complicated or massively intertwined road traffic interchange that resembles a plate of spaghetti . The term was originally used to refer to the Gravelly Hill Interchange on the M6 motorway
M6 motorway
in Birmingham
Birmingham
, United Kingdom . In an article published in the Birmingham
Birmingham
Evening Mail on 1 June 1965 the journalist Roy Smith described plans for the junction as "like a cross between a plate of spaghetti and an unsuccessful attempt at a Staffordshire knot ", with the headline above the article on the newspaper's front page, written by sub-editor Alan Eaglesfield, reading " Spaghetti
Spaghetti
Junction". Since then many complex interchanges around the world have acquired the nickname
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Birmingham
BIRMINGHAM (/ˈbɜːrmɪŋəm/ ( listen ), locally /ˈbɜːmɪŋ(g)əm/ ) is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands , England standing on the small River Rea . It is the largest and most populous British city outside London , with a population of 1,101,360 in 2014. A medium-sized market town in the medieval period, Birmingham grew to international prominence in the 18th century at the heart of the Midlands Enlightenment and subsequent Industrial Revolution , which saw the town at the forefront of worldwide advances in science, technology, and economic development, producing a series of innovations that laid many of the foundations of modern industrial society . By 1791 it was being hailed as "the first manufacturing town in the world"
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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M6 Motorway
The M6 MOTORWAY runs from junction 19 of the M1 at the Catthorpe Interchange , near Rugby via Birmingham
Birmingham
then heads north, passing Stoke-on-Trent , Liverpool
Liverpool
, Manchester
Manchester
, Preston , Lancaster , Carlisle and terminating at the Gretna junction (J45). Here, just short of the Scottish border it becomes the A74(M) which continues to Glasgow
Glasgow
as the M74. As of 2016, the M6, as well as combining with the length of the A14 from Brampton from junction with A1(M) , the A74(M) and M74 to the junction with the M8 in Glasgow
Glasgow
, forms the longest non-stop motorway in the United Kingdom and one of the busiest
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A38(M) Motorway
The A38(M), also known as the ASTON EXPRESSWAY, is a motorway in Birmingham
Birmingham
, England. It is 2 miles (3.2 km) long and was opened on 24 May 1972. It forms part of the much longer A38 route. It is extremely unusual among UK motorways, as part of it consists of seven lanes with no central reservation, and operates a tidal flow system in an attempt to minimise congestion. Due to the nature of the road, the speed limit is reduced to 50 mph (80 km/h) for most of its length with a very short length of 30 mph (48 km/h), though there are no permanent speed cameras . When construction work of the motorway began in the late 1960s, many late 19th-century and early 20th-century houses in the Aston
Aston
area had to be demolished to make way for the new route
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A38 Road
The A38, part of which is also known as the Devon
Devon
Expressway, is a major A-class trunk road in England. The road runs from Bodmin in Cornwall
Cornwall
to Mansfield
Mansfield
in Nottinghamshire . It is 292 miles (470 km) long, making it the longest 2-digit A road in England. It was formerly known as the Leeds– Exeter
Exeter
Trunk Road, when this description also included the A61 . Prior to the opening of the M5 motorway
M5 motorway
in the 1960s and 1970s, the A38 formed the main "holiday route" from the Midlands to Somerset
Somerset
, Devon
Devon
and Cornwall. Considerable lengths of the road in the West Midlands closely follow Roman roads , including part of Icknield Street
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A5127 Road
The A5127 is a major road in England
England
which runs between Birmingham and Lichfield
Lichfield
, Staffordshire . For much of the route the road follows the old route of the A38 which has since been moved in order to by-pass places such as Erdington
Erdington
and Sutton Coldfield
Sutton Coldfield
and form a relief road from Birmingham
Birmingham
city centre to Spaghetti Junction . The part from the county boundary, through Shenstone to Lichfield
Lichfield
was one of the roads of the Lichfield
Lichfield
Turnpike Trust , established in 1729. Beyond Lichfield, it joins the Roman Ryknild Street
Ryknild Street
at Streethay and immediately after that joins the present A38
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Highways England
HIGHWAYS ENGLAND (formerly the HIGHWAYS AGENCY) is a government-owned company with responsibility for the operation, maintenance and improvement of the motorways and trunk roads in England. It operates information services through the provision of on-road signage and its Traffic England website, provides traffic officers to deal with incidents on its network, and manages the delivery of improvement schemes to the network. Founded as an executive agency , it was converted into a government-owned company on 1 April 2015. As part of this transition, government set out its vision for the future of the strategic road network in its Road Investment Strategy. Highways England
Highways England
is now undertaking £15 billion of investment between 2015 and 2020 to improve the network in response to this
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Road Junction
A JUNCTION is where two or more roads meet. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Types * 2.1 Interchange * 2.2 Intersection * 3 Pedestrians * 4 Cyclists * 5 See also * 6 References HISTORYRoads began as a means of linking locations of interest: towns , forts and geographic features such as river fords . Where roads met outside of an existing settlement, these junctions often led to a new settlement. Scotch Corner is an example of such a location. In the United Kingdom and other countries, the practice of giving names to junctions emerged, to help travellers find their way. Junctions took the name of a prominent nearby business or a point of interest. As road networks increased in density and traffic flows followed suit, managing the flow of traffic across the junction became of increasing importance, to minimize delays and improve safety
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Gravelly Hill
GRAVELLY HILL is an area of Birmingham
Birmingham
, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. CONTENTS * 1 Location * 2 Spaghetti Junction * 3 Industry * 4 Local government * 5 External links LOCATION Gravelly Hill
Gravelly Hill
is approximately 4 miles north-east of Birmingham
Birmingham
city centre. To the north-west is Perry Barr and to the north-east are Stockland Green , Erdington and Sutton Coldfield . Aston
Aston
is to the west and Washwood Heath lies to the south. The housing in the area is mostly Victorian and pre-war with some recent developments of modern apartments. Housing in the area is popular with students (particularly those attending Aston
Aston
University ) given its good transport links to the main campus
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Interchange (road)
In the field of road transport , an INTERCHANGE is a road junction that typically uses grade separation , and one or more ramps, to permit traffic on at least one highway to pass through the junction without directly crossing any other traffic stream. It differs from a standard intersection , at which roads cross at grade . Interchanges are almost always used when at least one of the roads is a controlled-access highway (freeway or motorway) or a limited-access divided highway (expressway), though they may occasionally be used at junctions between two surface streets
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Birmingham Mail
The BIRMINGHAM MAIL or the BLACK COUNTRY MAIL in the Black Country is a tabloid newspaper based in Birmingham
Birmingham
, England
England
but distributed around Birmingham
Birmingham
, The Black Country , and Solihull
Solihull
and parts of Warwickshire
Warwickshire
, Worcestershire
Worcestershire
and Staffordshire
Staffordshire
. The newspaper, which was rebranded from the BIRMINGHAM EVENING MAIL in October 2005, it is one of the biggest selling local newspapers in the UK, and the largest in Birmingham. The Mail is published Monday to Saturday in the following editions:- Daily Edition and Black Country. The Sunday Mercury is a sister paper published on a Sunday
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Stafford Knot
The STAFFORD KNOT, sometimes incorrectly referred to as the STAFFORDSHIRE KNOT, is a distinctive three-looped knot that is the traditional symbol of the English county of Staffordshire
Staffordshire
and of its county town , Stafford
Stafford
. It is a particular representation of the simple overhand knot , the most basic knot of all. CONTENTS * 1 Origins * 2 Usage * 3 Derived references * 4 References ORIGINSThe knot was the badge of the de Stafford
Stafford
family. One legend of its origin, generally considered mythical , is that three convicted criminals who had committed a crime together were due to be executed in Stafford
Stafford
gaol. There was argument over who should be hanged first but the hangman solved the problem by devising this knot and hanging the three simultaneously
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West Midlands Police
WEST MIDLANDS POLICE is the territorial police force responsible for policing the metropolitan county of West Midlands in England. Covering an area with nearly 2.9 million inhabitants, which includes the cities of Birmingham , Coventry , Wolverhampton and also the Black Country ; the force is made up of 6,944 Police Officers, supported by 3,131 Police Staff, 303 Special Constables and 506 Police Community Support Officers (PCSO) – with these 10,884 employees, this makes it the second-largest force in England behind the Metropolitan Police and third-largest force in the United Kingdom after the aforementioned force and Police Scotland . The force is currently led by Chief Constable Dave Thompson
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Department For Transport
The DEPARTMENT FOR TRANSPORT (DFT) is the government department responsible for the English transport network and a limited number of transport matters in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland that have not been devolved . The department is run by the Secretary of State for Transport , currently (since 14 July 2016) Chris Grayling . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Role * 3 Ministers * 4 2017 Judicial Review * 5 Executive agencies * 6 Non-departmental public bodies * 7 Devolution * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links HISTORY For List of Ministers, see Secretary of State for Transport