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Grass Court
A GRASS COURT is one of the four different types of tennis court on which the sport of tennis , originally known as "lawn tennis", is played. Grass
Grass
courts are made of grasses in different compositions depending on the tournament. Although grass courts are more traditional than other types of tennis courts, maintenance costs of grass courts are higher than those of hard courts and clay courts. Grass
Grass
courts (in the absence of suitable covers) must be left for the day if rain appears, as the grass becomes very slippery when wet. Grass
Grass
courts are most common in Britain , although the Northeastern United States
United States
also has some private grass courts. CONTENTS * 1 Play style * 2 Players * 3 Professional tournaments played on grass * 3.1 Summer grass season * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links PLAY STYLEBecause grass courts tend to be slippery, the ball often skids and bounces low while retaining most of its speed, rarely rising above knee height. In addition, there are often bad bounces. As a result, players must reach the ball faster relative to other surfaces, and rallies are likely to be comparatively brief; therefore, speed and power are rewarded on grass
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Roger Federer
US$ 107,309,145 * 2nd all-time leader in earnings OFFICIAL WEBSITE rogerfederer.com SINGLES CAREER RECORD 1111–247 (81.81%) CAREER TITLES 93 (3rd in the Open Era ) HIGHEST RANKING No. 1 (2 February 2004) CURRENT RANKING No. 3 (31 July 2017) GRAND SLAM SINGLES RESULTS AUSTRALIAN OPEN W (2004 , 2006 , 2007 , 2010 , 2017 ) FRENCH OPEN W (2009 ) WIMBLEDON W (2003 , 2004 , 2005 , 2006 , 2007 , 2009 , 2012 , 2017 ) US OPEN W (2004 , 2005 , 2006 , 2007 , 2008 ) OTHER TOURNAMENTS TOUR FINALS W (2003 , 2004 , 2006 , 2007 , 2010 , 2011 ) OLYMPIC GAMES F (2012 ) DOUBLES CAREER RECORD 129–89 (59.17%) CAREER TITLES 8 HIGHEST RANKING No. 24 (9 June 2003) CURRENT RANKING – (31 July 2017) GRAND SLAM DOUBLES RESULTS AUSTRALIAN OPEN 3R (2003 ) FRENCH OPEN 1R (2000 ) WIMBLEDON QF (2000 ) US OPEN 3R (2002 ) OTHER DOUBLES TOURNAMENTS OLYMPIC GAMES W (2008 ) TEAM COMPETITIONS DAVIS CUP W (2014 ) HOPMAN CUP W (2001 ) Olympic medal record 2008 Beijing
Beijing
Doubles 2012 London Singles Last updated on: 31 July 2017.ROGER FEDERER ( Swiss German pronunciation: ; born 8 August 1981) is a Swiss professional tennis player who is currently ranked world No. 3 in men's singles tennis by the Association of Tennis
Tennis
Professionals (ATP). He has won 19 Grand Slam singles titles, the most in history for a male tennis player
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Wimbledon Championships
THE CHAMPIONSHIPS, WIMBLEDON, commonly known simply as WIMBLEDON, is the oldest tennis tournament in the world, and is widely regarded as the most prestigious. It has been held at the All England Club in Wimbledon , London , since 1877 and is played on outdoor grass courts . Wimbledon is one of the four Grand Slam tennis tournaments, the others being the Australian Open , the French Open and the US Open . Since the Australian Open shifted to hardcourt in 1988, Wimbledon is the only major still played on grass . The tournament traditionally took place over two weeks in late June and early July, starting on the third Monday in June and culminating with the Ladies' and Gentlemen's Singles Finals, scheduled for the Saturday and Sunday at the end of the second week. However recent changes to the tennis calendar have seen the event moved back by two weeks cumulatively to begin in early July. Five major events are held each year, with additional junior and invitational competitions also taking place. Wimbledon traditions include a strict dress code for competitors and Royal patronage. The tournament is also notable for the absence of sponsor advertising around the courts. In 2009, Wimbledon's Centre Court was fitted with a retractable roof to lessen the loss of playing time due to rain
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Tennis Court
A TENNIS COURT is the venue where the sport of tennis is played. It is a firm rectangular surface with a low net stretched across the center. The same surface can be used to play both doubles and singles matches. A variety of surfaces can be used to create a tennis court, each with its own characteristics which affect the playing style of the game. CONTENTS * 1 Dimensions * 2 Surfaces * 2.1 Clay courts * 2.2 Grass courts * 2.3 Hard courts * 2.4 Carpet courts * 3 Indoor courts * 4 Smaller courts * 5 Terminology * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links DIMENSIONS The dimensions of a tennis court. Tennis is played on a rectangular flat surface, usually of grass , clay or hard material. The dimensions of a tennis court are defined and regulated by the International Tennis Federation (ITF) governing body and are written down in the annual 'Rules of Tennis' document. The court is 78 feet (23.77 metres) long. Its width is 27 feet (8.23 metres) for singles matches and 36 feet (10.97 metres) for doubles matches. The service line is 21 feet (6.40 metres) from the net. Additional clear space around the court is needed in order for players to reach overrun balls for a total of 60 feet (18 metres) wide and 120 feet (37 metres) long
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Tennis
TENNIS is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles ) or between two teams of two players each (doubles ). Each player uses a tennis racket that is strung with cord to strike a hollow rubber ball covered with felt over or around a net and into the opponent's court . The object of the game is to play the ball in such a way that the opponent is not able to play a valid return. The player who is unable to return the ball will not gain a point, while the opposite player will. Tennis is an Olympic sport and is played at all levels of society and at all ages. The sport can be played by anyone who can hold a racket, including wheelchair users . The modern game of tennis originated in Birmingham , England , in the late 19th century as "LAWN TENNIS". It had close connections both to various field ("lawn") games such as croquet and bowls as well as to the older racket sport of _real tennis _. During most of the 19th century, in fact, the term "tennis" referred to real tennis, not lawn tennis: for example, in Disraeli 's novel _Sybil _ (1845), Lord Eugene De Vere announces that he will "go down to Hampton Court and play tennis." The rules of tennis have changed little since the 1890s. Two exceptions are that from 1908 to 1961 the server had to keep one foot on the ground at all times, and the adoption of the tiebreak in the 1970s
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Grass
Gramineae Juss. Blades of grass POACEAE or GRAMINEAE is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as GRASSES. Poaceae includes the cereal grasses, bamboos and the grasses of natural grassland and cultivated lawns and pasture. Grasses have stems that are hollow except at the nodes and narrow alternate leaves borne in two ranks. The lower part of each leaf encloses the stem, forming a leaf-sheath. With around 780 genera and around 12,000 species, Poaceae are the fifth-largest plant family , following the Asteraceae , Orchidaceae , Fabaceae and Rubiaceae . Grasslands such as savannah and prairie where grasses are dominant are estimated to constitute 40.5% of the land area of the Earth , excluding Greenland and Antarctica . Grasses are also an important part of the vegetation in many other habitats, including wetlands , forests and tundra . The Poaceae are the most economically important plant family, providing staple foods from domesticated cereal crops such as maize , wheat , rice , barley , and millet as well as forage, building materials (bamboo , thatch , straw ) and fuel (ethanol ). Though commonly called "grasses", seagrasses , rushes , and sedges fall outside this family
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Turf Management
TURF MANAGEMENT or pitchcare describes the work needed to keep a sporting pitch ready for use. This article looks at the various types of sporting pitches and the type of challenges which they present. The skills needed vary considerably dependent upon the sport and whether or not artificial surfaces are used. Special
Special
sets of skills are also needed to care for either sand-based athletic fields or native soil fields. CONTENTS * 1 Tennis courts * 2 Golf courses * 3 Football pitches * 4 Athletics tracks * 5 Education * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading TENNIS COURTSThere are two main types of tennis court, grass and clay . The clay courts can then be divided into natural clay, hard courts and fast/dry courts. All tennis courts should ideally be a little west of true north to ensure minimum problems from sunlight. * GRASS COURTS. Historically very popular, they are now slowly being replaced by clay courts which offer the opportunity of year-round usage and lower maintenance.The skills needed to maintain a grass court are considerable. Traditionally the court is split into the foundations and drainage, the soil or binding layer, and the grass. All three must work together to provide the best playing surface
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United Kingdom
The UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, commonly known as the UNITED KINGDOM (UK) or BRITAIN, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland , the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
includes the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland
Ireland
and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is the only part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, with the North Sea to its east, the English Channel to its south and the Celtic Sea to its south-south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world . The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi), the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe
Europe
. It is also the 21st-most populous country , with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants
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Serve And Volley
SERVE AND VOLLEY is a style of play in tennis where the player serving moves quickly towards the net after hitting a serve . The server then attempts to hit a volley (a shot where the ball is struck without allowing it to bounce), as opposed to the baseline style, where the server stays back following the serve and attempts to hit a ground stroke (a shot where the ball is allowed to bounce before contact is made). The serve and volley style of play has diminished in recent years with advances in racquet and string technologies which allow players to generate a great amount of top spin on ground strokes and passing shots . The slowing of court surfaces and deflation of balls, promoting longer rallies for the enjoyment of spectators, has also put a damper on the serve and volley style. Some also claim that a lack of teaching of the serve and volley to juniors, who are too small to effectively employ this method, has caused it to become obsolete in grassroots tennis. The aim of this strategy is to put immediate pressure on the opponent with the intent of ending points quickly. Good returns must be made, or else the server can gain the advantage. This tactic is especially useful on fast courts (e.g. grass courts) and less so on slow courts (e.g. clay courts). For it to be successful, the player must either have a good serve to expose an opponent's poor return or be exceptionally quick and confident in movement around the net to produce an effective returning volley
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Serena Williams
US$ 84,463,131 (As of February 27, 2017) * 1st in all-time rankings (female) OFFICIAL WEBSITE Official website SINGLES CAREER RECORD 783–130 (85.76%) CAREER TITLES 72 WTA (5th in overall rankings ), 0 ITF HIGHEST RANKING No. 1 (July 8, 2002) CURRENT RANKING No. 15 (July 17, 2017) GRAND SLAM SINGLES RESULTS AUSTRALIAN OPEN W (2003 , 2005 , 2007 , 2009 , 2010 , 2015 , 2017 ) FRENCH OPEN W (2002 , 2013 , 2015 ) WIMBLEDON W (2002 , 2003 , 2009 , 2010 , 2012 , 2015 , 2016 ) US OPEN W (1999 , 2002 , 2008 , 2012 , 2013 , 2014 ) OTHER TOURNAMENTS GRAND SLAM CUP W (1999 ) TOUR FINALS W (2001 , 2009 , 2012 , 2013 , 2014 ) DOUBLES CAREER RECORD 184–30 (85.98%) CAREER TITLES 23 WTA , 0 ITF HIGHEST RANKING No. 1 (June 21, 2010) CURRENT RANKING No
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2008 Wimbledon Championships
The 2008 WIMBLEDON CHAMPIONSHIPS was a tennis tournament played on grass courts . It was the 122nd edition of the Wimbledon Championships , and the third Grand Slam event of the year. It took place at the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club in Wimbledon, London , England, United Kingdom, from 23 June to 6 July 2008. Spanish player Rafael Nadal won the first Wimbledon title of his career; the first Grand Slam tournament he had won other than the French Open . Nadal defeated five-time defending champion Roger Federer in the final in what many regard as the greatest tennis match of all time . In the women's singles, Venus Williams claimed her fifth title, and first win over her sister Serena in a Wimbledon final (she had lost the previous two). The performances of Britons Andy Murray in the men's singles and Laura Robson in the girls' singles were able to arouse significant interest from the home crowd. Following the completion of the 2007 Championships, the new fixed roof was put in place, in time for the 2008 Championships. The retractable section of the new roof was completed for the 2009 Championships
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Pete Sampras
PETROS SAMPRAS (born August 12, 1971) is a retired American tennis player widely regarded as one of the greatest in the history of the sport. He was a right-handed player with a one-handed backhand and a powerful, precise serve that earned him the nickname "Pistol Pete". His professional career began in 1988 and ended at the 2002 US Open , which he won, defeating rival Andre Agassi
Andre Agassi
in the final. He was inducted into the Hall of Fame in 2007. Sampras
Sampras
was the first man to win 14 Grand Slam singles titles (seven Wimbledon , five US Open , two Australian Open
Australian Open
). In total, he won 64 singles titles, which also included seven year-end championships . He was world No. 1 for a total of 286 weeks, including six consecutive year-end No. 1 rankings from 1993 to 1998. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Professional career * 2.1 1988: Turning professional * 2.2 1989: First Grand Slam match wins * 2.3 1990: First major title at the U.S. Open * 2.4 1991: Year-end Championship title * 2.5 1992: First Masters title * 2.6 1993: Wimbledon and US Open titles, world No. 1 * 2.7 1994: Australian Open
Australian Open
and Wimbledon title * 2.8 1995: Wimbledon and US Open titles, world No
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Steffi Graf
STEFANIE MARIA "STEFFI" GRAF (German pronunciation: ; born 14 June 1969) is a German former tennis player, who was ranked world No. 1 during her career. Graf won 22 Grand Slam singles titles. Her 22 singles titles put her second on the list of Major wins in the female competition since the introduction of the Open Era in 1968 and is third all-time behind Margaret Court
Margaret Court
(24) and Serena Williams (23). In 1988, she became the first and only tennis player (male or female) to achieve the Golden Slam by winning all four Grand Slam singles titles and the Olympic gold medal in the same calendar year. Furthermore, she is the only tennis player to have won each Grand Slam event at least four times. Graf was ranked world No. 1 by the Women\'s Tennis
Tennis
Association (WTA) for a record 377 total weeks—the longest period for which any player, male or female, has held the number-one ranking since the WTA and the Association of Tennis
Tennis
Professionals began issuing rankings. She won 107 singles titles, which ranks her third on the WTA's all-time list after Martina Navratilova (167 titles) and Chris Evert (157 titles). She and Margaret Court
Margaret Court
are the only players, male or female, to win three grand slams in a calendar year five times (1988, 1989, 1993, 1995 and 1996)
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Martina Navratilova
US$ 21,626,089 * 13th in all-time rankings INT. TENNIS HOF 2000 (member page) SINGLES CAREER RECORD 1,442–219 (86.8%) CAREER TITLES 167 WTA, 1 ITF (Open era record ) HIGHEST RANKING No. 1 (July 10, 1978) GRAND SLAM SINGLES RESULTS AUSTRALIAN OPEN W (1981 , 1983 , 1985 ) FRENCH OPEN W (1982 , 1984 ) WIMBLEDON W (1978 , 1979 , 1982 , 1983 , 1984 , 1985 , 1986 , 1987 , 1990 ) US OPEN W (1983 , 1984 , 1986 , 1987 ) OTHER TOURNAMENTS TOUR FINALS W (1978 , 1979 , 1981 , 1983 , 1984 , 1985 , 1986Mar , 1986Nov ) DOUBLES CAREER RECORD 747–143 (83.9%) CAREER TITLES 177 WTA, 9 ITF (Open era record) HIGHEST RANKING No
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John Newcombe
JOHN DAVID NEWCOMBE, AO , OBE (born 23 May 1944) is a former tennis player from Australia
Australia
who is one of the few men to have attained a world No. 1 ranking in both singles and doubles. At the majors he won seven singles titles and an all-time record 17 men's doubles titles. He also contributed to five Davis Cup
Davis Cup
titles for Australia
Australia
during an age when Davis Cup
Davis Cup
was deemed as significant as the majors. Tennis magazine rated him the 10th best male player of the period 1965–2005. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Grand Slam finals * 2.1 Singles (7 titles, 3 runners-up) * 3 Performance timeline * 3.1 Singles * 4 Distinctions * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 External links BIOGRAPHYA natural athlete, Newcombe played several sports as a boy before devoting himself to tennis. He was the Australian junior champion from 1961 to 1963 and was a member of Australia's Davis Cup
Davis Cup
winning team in 1964. He won his first Grand Slam title in 1965 by taking the Australian Championships doubles title with fellow Australian Tony Roche . That same year, the duo won the Wimbledon doubles title. They teamed to win the Australian doubles championship three more times, Wimbledon another four times and the US Championships in 1967, the French Championships in 1967, and the French Open in 1969
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Björn Borg
BJöRN RUNE BORG (Swedish pronunciation: ( listen ); born 6 June 1956) is a Swedish former world No. 1 tennis player widely considered to be one of the greatest in the history of the sport. Between 1974 and 1981 he became the first man in the Open Era to win 11 Grand Slam singles titles (six at the French Open and five consecutive at Wimbledon ). He also won three year-end championships and 15 Grand Prix Super Series titles. Borg set numerous Open Era records that still stand, including winning 41% of the Grand Slam singles tournaments he entered and 90% of those matches, winning both the French Open and Wimbledon for three consecutive years, and winning three Grand Slams without losing a set (1976 Wimbledon and 1978 "> Björn Borg
Björn Borg
playing a double-handed backhand shot at the 1979 ABN World Tennis Tournament 1979 – FRENCH AND WIMBLEDON TITLES AND YEAR-END NO.1 RANKINGBorg lost to McEnroe again in four sets in the final of the 1979 WCT Finals but was now overtaking Connors for the top ranking. Borg established himself firmly in the top spot with his fourth French Open singles title and fourth straight Wimbledon singles title, defeating Connors in a straight-set semifinal at the latter tournament
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