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Granite
GRANITE ( /ˈɡrænᵻt/ ) is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture. Granites can be predominantly white, pink, or gray in color, depending on their mineralogy. The word "granite" comes from the Latin
Latin
_granum_, a grain, in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a holocrystalline rock. Strictly speaking, granite is an igneous rock with between 20% and 60% quartz by volume, and at least 35% of the total feldspar consisting of alkali feldspar , although commonly the term "granite" is used to refer to a wider range of coarse grained igneous rocks containing quartz and feldspar. The term "granitic" means granite-like and is applied to granite and a group of intrusive igneous rocks with similar textures and slight variations in composition and origin
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Igneous
IGNEOUS ROCK (derived from the Latin
Latin
word ignis meaning fire), or MAGMATIC ROCK, is one of the three main rock types , the others being sedimentary and metamorphic . Igneous rock
Igneous rock
is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava . The magma can be derived from partial melts of existing rocks in either a planet 's mantle or crust . Typically, the melting is caused by one or more of three processes: an increase in temperature , a decrease in pressure , or a change in composition. Solidification into rock occurs either below the surface as intrusive rocks or on the surface as extrusive rocks. Igneous rock
Igneous rock
may form with crystallization to form granular, crystalline rocks, or without crystallization to form natural glasses
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Potassium Feldspar
POTASSIUM FELDSPAR refers to a number of minerals in the feldspar group, and containing potassium : * Orthoclase
Orthoclase
(endmember formula K Al Si 3O 8), an important tectosilicate mineral that forms igneous rock * Microcline
Microcline
, chemically the same as orthoclase, but with a different crystalline structure * Sanidine , the high-temperature form of potassium feldspar (K,Na)(Si,Al)4O8 * Adularia
Adularia
, a more ordered low-temperature variety of orthoclase or partially disordered microcline * Amazonite (sometimes called "Amazon stone"), a green variety of microcline This article includes a list of related items that share the same name (or similar names). If an internal link incorrectly led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article
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Plagioclase Feldspar
PLAGIOCLASE is a series of tectosilicate (framework silicate) minerals within the feldspar group. Rather than referring to a particular mineral with a specific chemical composition, plagioclase is a continuous solid solution series, more properly known as the PLAGIOCLASE FELDSPAR series (from the Ancient Greek for "oblique fracture", in reference to its two cleavage angles). This was first shown by the German mineralogist Johann Friedrich Christian Hessel (1796–1872) in 1826. The series ranges from albite to anorthite endmembers (with respective compositions NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8), where sodium and calcium atoms can substitute for each other in the mineral's crystal lattice structure. Plagioclase in hand samples is often identified by its polysynthetic crystal twinning or 'record-groove' effect
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Quartz
QUARTZ is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra , with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2 . Quartz
Quartz
is the second most abundant mineral in Earth 's continental crust , behind feldspar . Quartz
Quartz
crystals are chiral , and exist in two forms, the normal α-quartz and the high-temperature β-quartz. The transformation from α-quartz to beta-quartz takes place abruptly at 573 °C (846 K). Since the transformation is accompanied by a significant change in volume, it can easily induce fracturing of ceramics or rocks passing through this temperature limit. There are many different varieties of quartz, several of which are semi-precious gemstones . Since antiquity, varieties of quartz have been the most commonly used minerals in the making of jewelry and hardstone carvings , especially in Eurasia
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Biotite
BIOTITE is a common phyllosilicate mineral within the mica group, with the approximate chemical formula K(Mg,Fe) 3AlSi 3O 10(F,OH) 2. More generally, it refers to the dark mica series, primarily a solid-solution series between the iron -endmember annite , and the magnesium -endmember phlogopite ; more aluminous end-members include siderophyllite . Biotite
Biotite
was named by J.F.L. Hausmann in 1847 in honor of the French physicist Jean-Baptiste Biot , who performed early research into the many optical properties of mica . Biotite
Biotite
is a sheet silicate . Iron
Iron
, magnesium , aluminium , silicon , oxygen , and hydrogen form sheets that are weakly bound together by potassium ions . It is sometimes called "iron mica" because it is more iron-rich than phlogopite
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Amphibole
AMPHIBOLE ( /ˈæmfᵻboʊl/ ) is the name of an important group of generally dark-colored, inosilicate minerals , forming prism or needlelike crystals, composed of double chain SiO 4 tetrahedra , linked at the vertices and generally containing ions of iron and/or magnesium in their structures. Amphiboles can be green, black, colorless, white, yellow, blue, or brown. The International Mineralogical Association currently classifies amphiboles as a mineral supergroup, within which are two groups and several subgroups. CONTENTS* 1 Mineralogy * 1.1 In rocks * 2 History and etymology * 3 Mineral species * 3.1 Chemical formula * 3.2 Descriptions * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References MINERALOGYAmphiboles crystallize into two crystal systems, monoclinic and orthorhombic . In chemical composition and general characteristics they are similar to the pyroxenes
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Muscovite
MUSCOVITE (also known as COMMON MICA, ISINGLASS, or POTASH MICA ) is a hydrated phyllosilicate mineral of aluminium and potassium with formula K Al 2(AlSi 3O 10)(F ,OH )2, or (KF )2(Al2O3 )3(SiO2 )6(H2O ). It has a highly perfect basal cleavage yielding remarkably thin laminae (sheets) which are often highly elastic . Sheets of muscovite 5 m × 3 m have been found in Nellore
Nellore
, India. Muscovite
Muscovite
with beryl (var. morganite) from Paprok, Afghanistan Muscovite
Muscovite
(var. alurgite), from Prabornaz Mine, Aosta Valley, Italy Muscovite
Muscovite
has a Mohs hardness of 2–2.25 parallel to the face, 4 perpendicular to the and a specific gravity of 2.76–3. It can be colorless or tinted through grays , browns , greens , yellows , or (rarely) violet or red , and can be transparent or translucent. It is anisotropic and has high birefringence
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Hornblende
HORNBLENDE is a complex inosilicate series of minerals (ferrohornblende – magnesiohornblende). It is not a recognized mineral in its own right, but the name is used as a general or field term, to refer to a dark amphibole . Hornblende
Hornblende
is an isomorphous mixture of three molecules ; a calcium -iron -magnesium silicate, an aluminium -iron-magnesium silicate, and an iron-magnesium silicate. The general formula can be given as (Ca,Na)2–3(Mg,Fe,Al)5(Al,Si)8O22(OH,F)2
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Amphiboles
AMPHIBOLE ( /ˈæmfɪboʊl/ ) is the name of an important group of generally dark-colored, inosilicate minerals , forming prism or needlelike crystals, composed of double chain SiO 4 tetrahedra , linked at the vertices and generally containing ions of iron and/or magnesium in their structures. Amphiboles can be green, black, colorless, white, yellow, blue, or brown. The International Mineralogical Association currently classifies amphiboles as a mineral supergroup, within which are two groups and several subgroups. CONTENTS* 1 Mineralogy * 1.1 In rocks * 2 History and etymology * 3 Mineral
Mineral
species * 3.1 Chemical formula * 3.2 Descriptions * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References MINERALOGYAmphiboles crystallize into two crystal systems, monoclinic and orthorhombic . In chemical composition and general characteristics they are similar to the pyroxenes
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Chennai
CHENNAI (/ˈtʃɛnaɪ/ ( listen ); formerly known as MADRAS /məˈdrɑːs/ ( listen ) or /-ˈdræs/ ) is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
. Located on the Coromandel Coast off the Bay of Bengal , it is one of the biggest cultural, economic and educational centres in South India. According to the 2011 Indian census (adjusted for the new limits of Chennai
Chennai
city), it is the fifth-largest city and fourth-most populous urban agglomeration in India
India
. The city together with the adjoining regions constitute the Chennai Metropolitan Area , which is the 36th-largest urban area by population in the world . Chennai
Chennai
is among the most visited Indian cities by foreign tourists. It was ranked 43rd most visited city in the world for year 2015. The Quality of Living Survey rated Chennai as the safest city in India
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India
INDIA, officially the REPUBLIC OF INDIA (_Bhārat Gaṇarājya_), is a country in South Asia . It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people ), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China , Nepal , and Bhutan to the northeast; and Myanmar (Burma) and Bangladesh to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives . India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia . The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE
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Felsic
In geology , FELSIC refers to igneous rocks that are relatively rich in elements that form feldspar and quartz . It is contrasted with mafic rocks, which are relatively richer in magnesium and iron . Felsic
Felsic
refers to those rocks rich in silicate minerals , magma , and rocks which are enriched in the lighter elements such as silicon , oxygen , aluminium , sodium , and potassium . They are usually light in color and have specific gravities less than 3. The most common felsic rock is granite . Common felsic minerals include quartz, muscovite , orthoclase , and the sodium-rich plagioclase feldspars. In terms of chemistry, felsic minerals and rocks are at the other end of the elemental spectrum from the mafic minerals and rocks
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