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Granite
Granite
Granite
( /ˈɡrænɪt/) is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture. Granites can be predominantly white, pink, or gray in color, depending on their mineralogy. The word "granite" comes from the Latin
Latin
granum, a grain, in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a holocrystalline rock. Strictly speaking, granite is an igneous rock with between 20% and 60% quartz by volume, and at least 35% of the total feldspar consisting of alkali feldspar, although commonly the term "granite" is used to refer to a wider range of coarse grained igneous rocks containing quartz and feldspar. The term "granitic" means granite-like and is applied to granite and a group of intrusive igneous rocks with similar textures and slight variations in composition and origin
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Calcium Oxide
Calcium
Calcium
oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound. It is a white, caustic, alkaline, crystalline solid at room temperature. The broadly used term lime connotes calcium-containing inorganic materials, in which carbonates, oxides and hydroxides of calcium, silicon, magnesium, aluminium, and iron predominate. By contrast, quicklime specifically applies to the single chemical compound calcium oxide. Calcium
Calcium
oxide that survives processing without reacting in building products such as cement is called free lime.[5] Quicklime is relatively inexpensive
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QAPF Diagram
A QAPF diagram
QAPF diagram
is a double ternary diagram which is used to classify igneous rocks based on mineralogic composition. The acronym, QAPF, stands for "Quartz, Alkali feldspar, Plagioclase, Feldspathoid (Foid)". These are the mineral groups used for classification in QAPF diagram. Q, A, P and F percentages are normalized (recalculated so that their sum is 100%).Contents1 Origin 2 Usage 3 Reading QAPF diagram 4 References 5 External links 6 FootnotesOrigin[edit] QAPF diagrams were created by the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS): Subcommission on the Systematics of Igneous Rocks[1] fostered by Albert Streckeisen (whence their alternative name: Streckeisen diagrams)
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Extrusive
Extrusive refers to the mode of igneous volcanic rock formation in which hot magma from inside the Earth
Earth
flows out (extrudes) onto the surface as lava or explodes violently into the atmosphere to fall back as pyroclastics or tuff. This is as opposed to intrusive rock formation, in which magma does not reach the surface. The main effect of extrusion is that the magma can cool much more quickly in the open air or under seawater, and there is little time for the growth of crystals. Sometimes, a residual portion of the matrix fails to crystallize at all, instead becoming a natural glass or obsidian. If the magma contains abundant volatile components which are released as free gas, then it may cool with large or small vesicles (bubble-shaped cavities) such as in pumice, scoria, or vesicular basalt
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Equigranular
An equigranular material is composed chiefly of crystals of similar orders of magnitude to one another. Basalt
Basalt
and gabbro commonly exhibit an equigranular texture. References[edit]This article does not cite any sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)This article related to petrology is a stub
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Density
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume. The symbol most often used for density is ρ (the lower case Greek letter rho), although the Latin letter D can also be used. Mathematically, density is defined as mass divided by volume:[1] ρ = m V displaystyle rho = frac m V where ρ is the density, m is the mass, and V is the volume. In some cases (for instance, in the United States oil and gas industry), density is loosely defined as its weight per unit volume,[2] although this is scientifically inaccurate – this quantity is more specifically called specific weight. For a pure substance the density has the same numerical value as its mass concentration. Different materials usually have different densities, and density may be relevant to buoyancy, purity and packaging
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Mica
The mica group of sheet silicate (phyllosilicate) minerals includes several closely related materials having nearly perfect basal cleavage. All are monoclinic, with a tendency towards pseudohexagonal crystals, and are similar in chemical composition
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Standard Conditions For Temperature And Pressure
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data. The most used standards are those of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), although these are not universally accepted standards
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Alkali Feldspar
The alkali feldspar group are those feldspar minerals rich in the alkali elements, potassium and sodium. The alkali feldspars include albite, anorthoclase, microcline, orthoclase and sanidine.[1] Albite is considered as one of the alkali feldspars according to its chemical composition and it is also the alkali endmember of the plagioclase series.[2] Potassium
Potassium
and sodium feldspars are not perfectly miscible in the melt at low temperatures, intermediate compositions of the alkali feldspars therefore occur only in higher temperatures environments.[2] References[edit]^ " Alkali Feldspar". mindat.org. Retrieved December 4, 2011.  ^ a b Klein, Cornelis and Cornelius S. Hurlbut, Jr. Handbook of Mineralogy, Wiley, pp. 446-449 (Fig. 11-95 ISBN 0-471-80580-7This article about a specific silicate mineral is a stub
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Holocrystalline
Crystallinity refers to the degree of structural order in a solid. In a crystal, the atoms or molecules are arranged in a regular, periodic manner. The degree of crystallinity has a big influence on hardness, density, transparency and diffusion. In a gas, the relative positions of the atoms or molecules are completely random. Amorphous materials, such as liquids and glasses, represent an intermediate case, having order over short distances (a few atomic or molecular spacings) but not over longer distances. Many materials, such as glass-ceramics and some polymers, can be prepared in such a way as to produce a mixture of crystalline and amorphous regions. In such cases, crystallinity is usually specified as a percentage of the volume of the material that is crystalline. Even within materials that are completely crystalline, however, the degree of structural perfection can vary
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Petrography
Petrography
Petrography
is a branch of petrology that focuses on detailed descriptions of rocks. Someone who studies petrography is called a petrographer. The mineral content and the textural relationships within the rock are described in detail. The classification of rocks is based on the information acquired during the petrographic analysis. Petrographic descriptions start with the field notes at the outcrop and include macroscopic description of hand specimens. However, the most important tool for the petrographer is the petrographic microscope. The detailed analysis of minerals by optical mineralogy in thin section and the micro-texture and structure are critical to understanding the origin of the rock. Electron microprobe
Electron microprobe
analysis of individual grains as well as whole rock chemical analysis by atomic absorption, X-ray fluorescence, and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy are used in a modern petrographic lab
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Field Research
Field research
Field research
or fieldwork is the collection of information outside a laboratory, library or workplace setting. The approaches and methods used in field research vary across disciplines. For example, biologists who conduct field research may simply observe animals interacting with their environments, whereas social scientists conducting field research may interview or observe people in their natural environments to learn their languages, folklore, and social structures. Field research
Field research
involves a range of well-defined, although variable, methods: informal interviews, direct observation, participation in the life of the group, collective discussions, analyses of personal documents produced within the group, self-analysis, results from activities undertaken off- or on-line, and life-histories
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Sanidine
Sanidine
Sanidine
is the high temperature form of potassium feldspar with a general formula K(AlSi3O8).[1] Sanidine
Sanidine
is found most typically in felsic volcanic rocks such as obsidian, rhyolite and trachyte. Sanidine
Sanidine
crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system. Orthoclase
Orthoclase
is a monoclinic polymorph stable at lower temperatures. At yet lower temperatures, microcline, a triclinic polymorph of potassium feldspar, is stable. Due to the high temperature and rapid quenching, sanidine can contain more sodium in its structure than the two polymorphs that equilibrated at lower temperatures
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Pyroxene
The pyroxenes (commonly abbreviated to Px) are a group of important rock-forming inosilicate minerals found in many igneous and metamorphic rocks. Pyroxenes have the general formula is XY(Si,Al)2O6 (where X represents calcium, sodium, iron+2 and magnesium and more rarely zinc, manganese and lithium and Y represents ions of smaller size, such as chromium, aluminium, iron+3, magnesium, cobalt, manganese, scandium, titanium, vanadium and even iron+2). Although aluminium substitutes extensively for silicon in silicates such as feldspars and amphiboles, the substitution occurs only to a limited extent in most pyroxenes. They share a common structure consisting of single chains of silica tetrahedra. Pyroxenes that crystallize in the monoclinic system are known as clinopyroxenes and those that cystallize in the orthorhombic system are known as orthopyroxenes. The name pyroxene is derived from the Ancient Greek words for fire (πυρ) and stranger (ξένος)
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Silicon Dioxide
Silica Silicic oxide Silicon(IV) oxide Crystalline silicaIdentifiersCAS Number7631-86-9 YChEBICHEBI:30563 YChemSpider22683 YECHA InfoCard 100.028.678EC Number 231-545-4E number E551 (acidity regulators, ...)Gmelin Reference200274KEGGC16459 NMeSH Silicon+dioxide PubChem CID24261 RTECS number VV7565000UNIIETJ7Z6XBU4 YInChIInChI=1S/O2Si/c1-3-2 Y Key: VYPSYNLAJGMNEJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N YPropertiesChemical formulaSiO2Molar mass 60.08 g/molAppearance Transparent solid (Amorphous) White/Whitish Yellow (Powder/Sand
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