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Grand Slam (tennis)
The GRAND SLAM tournaments, also called MAJORS, are the four most-important annual tennis events. They offer the most ranking points, prize money, public and media attention, the greatest strength and size of field, and greater number of "best of" sets for men. The Grand Slam itinerary consists of the Australian Open in mid January, the French Open
French Open
in May and June, Wimbledon in July, and the US Open in August and September. Each tournament is played over a period of two weeks. The Australian and United States
United States
tournaments are played on hard courts , the French on clay , and Wimbledon on grass . Wimbledon is the oldest, founded in 1877, followed by the US in 1881, the French in 1891, and the Australian in 1905. However, of these four, only Wimbledon was a major before 1924–25, the time when all four became designated Grand Slam tournaments. Skipping Grand Slam tournaments—especially the Australian Open because of the remoteness, the inconvenient dates (around Christmas and New Year's Day) and the low prize money—was not unusual before 1982, which was the start of the norm of counting Grand Slam titles
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Grand Slam (other)
GRAND SLAM or GRAND SLAM may refer to: CONTENTS* 1 Sports and games * 1.1 Auto racing * 1.2 Chess * 1.3 Equestrian * 1.4 Golf * 1.5 Judo * 1.6 Tennis * 1.7 Video games * 1.8 Other sports * 2 Entertainment * 2.1 Personal achievements * 2.2 Fiction * 2.3 Film and television * 2.4 Music * 3 Military * 4 Other SPORTS AND GAMESAUTO RACING * Grand Slam (NASCAR) , winning all Sprint Cup Series majors in a calendar year * Grand Slam (Formula One) , winning a race from pole while leading every lap and scoring the fastest lapCHESS * Grand Slam Chess Association , a series of major annual chess tournaments * Grand Slam Masters Final, or Bilbao Chess Master
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Tennis
TENNIS is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles ) or between two teams of two players each (doubles ). Each player uses a tennis racket that is strung with cord to strike a hollow rubber ball covered with felt over or around a net and into the opponent's court . The object of the game is to play the ball in such a way that the opponent is not able to play a valid return. The player who is unable to return the ball will not gain a point, while the opposite player will. Tennis is an Olympic sport and is played at all levels of society and at all ages. The sport can be played by anyone who can hold a racket, including wheelchair users . The modern game of tennis originated in Birmingham , England , in the late 19th century as "LAWN TENNIS". It had close connections both to various field ("lawn") games such as croquet and bowls as well as to the older racket sport of _real tennis _. During most of the 19th century, in fact, the term "tennis" referred to real tennis, not lawn tennis: for example, in Disraeli 's novel _Sybil _ (1845), Lord Eugene De Vere announces that he will "go down to Hampton Court and play tennis." The rules of tennis have changed little since the 1890s. Two exceptions are that from 1908 to 1961 the server had to keep one foot on the ground at all times, and the adoption of the tiebreak in the 1970s
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ATP World Tour Finals
The ATP FINALS is the second highest tier of men's tennis tournament after the four Grand Slam tournaments. It is held annually in November at the O2 Arena in London, United Kingdom. The ATP Finals are the season-ending championships of the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) World Tour , featuring the top eight singles players and doubles teams of the ATP Rankings . The tournament was first held in 1970, although it had a different name at the time. Roger Federer
Roger Federer
holds the record for the most singles titles, with six, while Peter Fleming and John McEnroe hold the record with 7 titles in doubles. In the current tournament, winners are awarded up to 1500 rankings points; with each round-robin loss, 200 points are deducted from that amount. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Qualification * 3 Points, prize money and trophies * 4 Format * 5 Sponsors * 6 Venues * 7 Past finals * 7.1 Singles * 7.2 Doubles * 8 Singles performances * 9 Doubles performances * 10 Records * 11 See also * 12 References * 13 External links HISTORYThe event is the fourth evolution of a championship which began in 1970. It was originally known as the MASTERS GRAND PRIX and was part of the Grand Prix Tennis Circuit . It was organised by the International Lawn Tennis Federation (ILTF )
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WTA Tour Championships
The WTA FINALS (formerly known as the WTA TOUR CHAMPIONSHIPS short: WTA CHAMPIONSHIPS), is a professional tennis tournament played annually at the end of the season for the top-ranked players on the Women\'s Tennis
Tennis
Association (WTA) tour. The location and number of players has changed since the first edition in 1972. Since 2003 there have been eight singles players divided into two round robin groups, and eight doubles teams. The WTA Finals is unofficially considered the fifth most prestigious event of a season after the four Grand Slam tournaments. It also has the largest prize money and ranking points after the majors. The most successful finals player is Martina Navratilova , who has won 8 singles titles and 13 doubles titles. To qualify for the WTA Finals, WTA players compete throughout the year in over 53 WTA tournaments throughout the world, as well as the four Grand Slam events. Players earn ranking points on the Porsche Race To Singapore
Singapore
leaderboard, and the top 8 singles players and top 8 doubles teams on this leaderboard at the conclusion of the year (as of the Monday following the final regular season tournament) earn the right to compete in the WTA Championships. For singles, all results from that year count towards a player's ranking; for doubles, only the best 11 results for a team from that year count towards the team's ranking
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ATP World Tour Masters 1000
The ATP WORLD TOUR MASTERS 1000 (previously known as the ATP CHAMPIONSHIP SERIES, SINGLE-WEEK , ATP SUPER 9 , TENNIS MASTERS SERIES , and ATP MASTERS SERIES) is the third highest tier of annual men's tennis tournament after the four Grand Slam tournaments and ATP World Tour Finals . Results in ATP Masters 1000 events earn players more world ranking points than regular tournaments, though not as many as Grand Slam events or the year-end ATP World Tour Finals. Up until 2007, most Masters Series finals were contested as best of five-set matches. Currently, all Masters Series events are decided in best of three-set matches. Rafael Nadal and Novak Djokovic hold the record for the most singles titles with 30 each since the Masters series began in 1990. The Bryan Brothers have won a record 36 doubles titles, all as a team. No player has ever won all 9 singles titles in his career, with Novak Djokovic winning 8, and Andre Agassi , Roger Federer , Rafael Nadal and Andy Murray each winning 7. However, in doubles, Daniel Nestor and the Bryan Brothers (Bob and Mike ) have each won all 9 titles throughout their careers. Djokovic holds the record for 6 singles titles in a year (2015). In doubles, the Bryans have won 6 titles in a single year once (2014) and 5 titles in a single year twice (2007 and 2013)
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WTA Premier Tournaments
1988–2008 * Tier I * Tier II * Tier III * Tier IV and V 2009–present * Premier tournaments * International tournaments Other * Fed Cup
Fed Cup
PREMIER TOURNAMENTS is a category of tennis tournaments in the Women\'s Tennis
Tennis
Association tour, implemented since the reorganization of the schedule in 2009. As of 2017, Premier events include: * Four "Premier Mandatory" events in Indian Wells, Key Biscayne, Madrid, and Beijing
Beijing
with prize money of $4.5 million. * Five "Premier 5" events in Dubai, Rome, Cincinnati, Toronto/Montreal, and Wuhan
Wuhan
with prize money of $2 million. * Twelve "Premier" events with prize money of $600,000 to $1,000,000.The ranking points awarded to the winners of these tournaments are: "Premier Mandatory" 1000; "Premier 5" 900; and "Premier" 470. This compares to 2,000 points for winning a major, up to 1,500 points for winning the WTA Finals, and 280 for winning an International tournament . This system differs from that used for the men's ATP rankings, but only slightly. The men have nine Masters events with 1,000 points for the winner (akin to WTA Premier Mandatory and Premier 5 tournaments), and the next two tiers of ATP tournaments offer 500 and 250 points for winning respectively
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Tennis At The Summer Olympics
Tennis
Tennis
was part of the Summer Olympic Games
Summer Olympic Games
program from the inaugural 1896 Summer Olympics , but was dropped after the 1924 Summer Olympics due to disputes between the International Lawn Tennis Federation and the International Olympic Committee over allowing amateur players to compete. After two appearances as a demonstration sport in 1968 and 1984, it returned as a full medal sport at the 1988 Summer Olympics and has been played at every edition of the Games since then. 2012 Women's Singles medalists, Serena Williams (center), Maria Sharapova
Maria Sharapova
(right) and Victoria Azarenka (left). In 1896, 1900, 1904, 1988, and 1992, semifinal losers shared bronze medals. In all other years, a playoff match for the bronze medal was staged. From the 2004 Athens
Athens
Olympics until the 2012 London
London
Olympics , results from the Olympics was counted towards both the ATP and WTA world rankings in singles for that calendar year; no points will be awarded for the 2016 Rio Olympics
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ATP World Tour 500 Series
The ATP WORLD TOUR 500 SERIES (previously known as the ATP CHAMPIONSHIP SERIES and ATP INTERNATIONAL SERIES GOLD) is the fourth highest tier of men's tennis tournament after the four Grand Slam tournaments, ATP World Tour Finals , and the ATP World Tour Masters 1000 . The series includes 13 tournaments, with 500 rankings points awarded for the events' singles champions – which accounts for the name of the series. Tournaments have various draws of 32 and 48 for singles and 16 and 24 for doubles. It is mandatory for leading players to enter at least four 500 events, including at least one after the US Open; if they play fewer than four, or fail to play in one after the US Open they get a "zero" score towards their world ranking for each one short. Both Rafael Nadal
Rafael Nadal
and Roger Federer hold the record for most titles at 18, while Daniel Nestor holds the record for most doubles titles won with 20
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ATP World Tour 250 Series
The ATP WORLD TOUR 250 SERIES (previously known as the ATP WORLD SERIES and ATP INTERNATIONAL SERIES) is the fifth-highest tier of men's tennis tournament after the four Grand Slam tournaments, ATP World Tour Finals , ATP World Tour Masters 1000 , and ATP World Tour 500 . The series includes 40 tournaments, with 250 rankings points awarded to each singles champion—which accounts for the name of the series. Draws consist of 28, 32, or 48 for singles and 16 for doubles
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WTA International Tournaments
The INTERNATIONAL TOURNAMENTS is a category for professional tennis tournaments of Women\'s Tennis
Tennis
Association from the 2009 WTA Tour onwards, which replaced the previous Tier III and Tier IV categories. As of the 2017 season , there are 32 tournaments, all knock-out tournaments with a prize money for every event at $250,000 ($750,000 for Shenzhen
Shenzhen
and $500,000 for Tianjin
Tianjin
)
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ATP Challenger Tour Finals
The ATP CHALLENGER TOUR FINALS was a tennis tournament played between 2011 and 2015 at the end of season, involving the top seven players in that year's ATP Challenger Tour
ATP Challenger Tour
, plus an invited player from the tournament's host country. Like the ATP World Tour Finals , the ATP Challenger Tour
ATP Challenger Tour
Finals was not a straightforward knockout tournament. Eight players were divided into two groups of four, and play three round-robin matches each against the other three players in their group. From there, the two players with the best records in each group progressed to the semifinals, with the winners meeting in the final to determine the champion
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Atp Challenger Tour
The ATP CHALLENGER TOUR, known until the end of 2008 as the ATP CHALLENGER SERIES, is a series of international men's professional tennis tournaments. The top tier of men's tennis is the ATP World Tour , Challenger Tour events are the second highest level of competition, and the Futures tournaments on the ITF Men\'s Circuit are the third and final tier of international professional competition. The ATP Challenger Tour is administered by the Association of Tennis Professionals . Players who succeed on the ATP Challenger Tour
ATP Challenger Tour
earn sufficient ranking points to become eligible for main draw or qualifying draw entry at ATP World Tour tournaments. Players on the Challenge Tour are either young players, those who fail to qualify for ATP events, or former ATP winners looking to get back into the big tour. CONTENTS * 1 History of challenger events * 2 Present-day prize money and ranking points * 3 Player quality * 4 Tretorn Serie+ * 5 List of events * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORY OF CHALLENGER EVENTS Logo of the Challenger Tour pre 2009. The first challenger events were held in 1978, with eighteen events taking place. Two were held on the week beginning January 8, one in Auckland
Auckland
and another in Hobart
Hobart

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WTA 125s
The WTA 125K SERIES or WTA 125S is an international series of professional women's tennis tournaments organized by the Women\'s Tennis
Tennis
Association starting in 2012. Sometimes called the WTA Challenger series (in analogy of the men's ATP Challenger Series
ATP Challenger Series
) it is the second highest level of women's competition, right below the top-tier WTA Tour , and just above the ITF Women\'s Circuit tournaments. Players who succeed in the WTA 125s earn sufficient ranking points to become eligible for the main draw or qualifying draw entry of WTA Tour tournaments. PRIZE MONEYThe tournaments offer total prize money of $125,000. Hospitality in these tournaments is included automatically. SEASONS * 2012 WTA 125K series * 2013 WTA 125K series * 2014 WTA 125K series * 2015 WTA 125K series * 2016 WTA 125K series * 2017 WTA 125K series REFERENCES * ^ "Cadantu Among Cali\'s Winners". WTA. Retrieved 13 February 2013. * ^ http://www.wtatennis.com/tournaments/tournamentId/3043/title/oec-taipei-wta-ladies-open OEC WTA Challenger * ^ "Taipei to host first WTA tennis challenger event". Retrieved 30 September 2013
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ITF Men's Circuit
The ITF MEN\'S CIRCUIT is a series of professional tennis tournaments held around the world that are organized by the International Tennis Federation . The ITF Men's Circuit
ITF Men's Circuit
represents the lowest rung of the men's professional tennis ladder. ITF tournaments are incorporated into the ATP rankings, enabling young professionals to progress on to the ATP Challenger Tour
ATP Challenger Tour
and ultimately the full ATP World Tour . Nearly every professional player has spent some time on the ITF Men's Circuit. CONTENTS * 1 Format * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links FORMATOriginally, the ITF Men's Circuit
ITF Men's Circuit
consisted of satellite tournaments , each of which took place over four weeks. However, in the late 1990s, the ITF introduced FUTURES TOURNAMENTS, allowing for greater flexibility in the organization of the tournaments for national associations, and participation in tournaments for players. Over time, the ratio of Futures tournaments to satellites increased until 2007, when satellites were eliminated entirely. Futures tournaments allow for players to win career titles and improve their rankings. Futures are held in both singles and doubles, and last one week. As of 2017, the prize fund for each tournament is either US$15,000 or US$25,000. Some tournaments also provide housing for participants
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ITF Women's Circuit
The ITF WOMEN\'S CIRCUIT is a series of professional tennis tournaments run by the International Tennis
Tennis
Federation for female professional tennis players. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 List of events * 3 References * 4 External links HISTORYIt serves as a developmental circuit for the WTA Tour , which is run by the independent Women\'s Tennis
Tennis
Association (WTA). There are several hundred ITF Women's Circuit
ITF Women's Circuit
tournaments each year, spread across all six inhabited continents, with prize money ranging from USD $10,000 to USD $100,000. Players who succeed on the ITF Women's Circuit earn sufficient points to be eligible for qualifying draw or main draw entry to WTA tournaments. Until 2011 the ITF Women's Circuit
ITF Women's Circuit
was the level immediately below the main WTA Tour, but in 2012 the WTA introduced an intermediate level, the WTA 125K series . There is also an ITF Men\'s Circuit , but it only incorporates the lower-level Futures tournaments . Mid-level men's tournaments, equivalent to the WTA 125k series and the bigger money events on the ITF Women's Circuit, come under the aegis of the ATP as part of the