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Grand Duke
The monarchic title of grand duke (feminine: grand duchess) ranked in order of precedence below emperor and king, and above that of sovereign prince and sovereign duke. It is or was used in some independent nations or states in Europe, particularly:In present-day Luxembourg Historically for the sovereigns of former independent countries such as: Tuscany
Tuscany
(from 1569 to 1860, now part of Italy); Baden, Oldenburg, Saxe-Weimar, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, etc
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Micronations
A micronation, sometimes referred to as a model country or new country project, is an entity that claims to be an independent nation or state but is not recognized by world governments or major international organizations.[1] Micronations
Micronations
are distinguished from imaginary countries and from other kinds of social groups (such as eco-villages, campuses, tribes, clans, sects, and residential community associations) by expressing a formal and persistent, even if unrecognized, claim of sovereignty over some physical territory. Micronations
Micronations
are also distinct from true secessionist movements; micronations' activities are almost always trivial enough to be ignored rather than challenged by the established nations whose territory they claim. Several micronations have issued coins, flags, postage stamps, passports, medals, and other items
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Baden
Baden
Baden
is a historical German territory. Together with Württemberg
Württemberg
and the former Prussian province of Hohenzollern, two other historical territories, it currently[timeframe?] forms the Federal State of Baden-Württemberg.[1] History[edit] Following the dissolution of the old Duchy of Swabia, Baden
Baden
underwent a history which can be summarized as follows: Margraviate of Baden
Margraviate of Baden
(1112–1806) Electorate of Baden
Electorate of Baden
(1803–1806) Grand Duchy of Baden
Grand Duchy of Baden
(1806–1918) Republic of Baden
Republic of Baden
(1918–1945)After World War II this territory was subdivided between Württemberg-Baden
Württemberg-Baden
and Baden
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Bassarona Iva
Bassarona
Bassarona
iva, the grand duke,[1] is a species of nymphalid butterfly found in the Himalayas. Range[edit] It is found in Sikkim, Bhutan, Assam, Manipur, and the southern Shan States of Myanmar.[1] Subspecies[edit] Bassarona
Bassarona
iva iva (Sikkim, Assam
Assam
and possibly Bhutan) Bassarona
Bassarona
iva cooperi Tytler (southern Shan States)References[edit]^ a b " Bassarona
Bassarona
Moore, [1897]" at Markku Savela's Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
and Some Other Life FormsTaxon identifiersWd: Q4868031 EoL: 10629161This Limenitidinae
Limenitidinae
article is a stub
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Ridder (title)
Ridder ([ˈrɪdər]; English: "Knight") is a noble title in the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Belgium. Traditionally it denotes the second lowest rank within the nobility, standing below Baron, but above the untitled nobility (Jonkheer) in these countries. "Ridder" is a literal translation of Latin Eques and originally meant "horseman" or "rider". For its historical association with warfare and the landed gentry in the Middle Ages, it can be considered roughly equal to the titles of "Knight" or "Baronet". In the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Belgium
Belgium
no female equivalent exists. The collective term for its holders in a certain area as an executive and legislative assembly is named the Ridderschap (e.g
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Dame
Dame
Dame
is an honorific title and the feminine form of address for the honour of knighthood in the British honours system and the systems of several other Commonwealth countries, such as Australia
Australia
and New Zealand, with the masculine form of address being Sir
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Vidame
Vidame
Vidame
(French: [vidam]) was a feudal title in France, a term descended from mediaeval Latin vicedominus.[1] Like the avoué or advocatus, the vidame was originally a secular official chosen by the bishop of the diocese—with the consent of the count—to perform functions on behalf of the church's earthly interest that were religiously inappropriate; this especially included violence, even in the service of justice, and to act as protector. Unlike the advocatus, however, the vice-dominus was at the outset an ecclesiastical official, who acted as the bishop's lieutenant (locum tenens) or vicar. But the causes that changed the character of the advocatus operated also in the case of the vidame
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Baron
Baron
Baron
is a title of honour, often hereditary. The female equivalent is baroness.Contents1 Etymology 2 Continental Europe2.1 France 2.2 Germany 2.3 Italy 2.4 The Low Countries 2.5 The Nordic Countries 2.6 Russia 2.7 Spain3 The United Kingdom and Ireland3.1 History 3.2 Irish Barons 3.3 Coronet 3.4 Style of address 3.5 Scottish feudal baronies3.5.1 Chapeau and helm 3.5.2 Style of address4 Other 5 See also 6 Sources 7 ReferencesEtymology[edit] The word baron comes from the Old French
Old French
baron, from a Late Latin
Late Latin
baro "man; servant, soldier, mercenary" (so used in Salic Law; Alemannic Law has barus in the same sense)
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Baronet
A baronet (/ˈbærənɪt/ or /ˈbærəˌnɛt/;[1] abbreviated Bart or Bt[1]) or the rare female equivalent, a baronetess (/ˈbærənɪtɪs/,[2] /ˈbærənɪtɛs/,[3] or /ˌbærəˈnɛtɛs/;[4] abbreviation Btss), is the holder of a baronetcy, a hereditary title awarded by the British Crown. The practice of awarding baronetcies was originally introduced in England in the 14th century and was used by James I of England
James I of England
in 1611 as a means of raising funds. A baronetcy is the only British hereditary honour that is not a peerage, with the exception of the Anglo-Irish
Anglo-Irish
Black Knight, White Knight
Knight
and Green Knight
Knight
(of which only the Green Knight
Knight
is extant)
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Lady
The word lady is a civil term of respect for a woman among English speakers. It is the equivalent of gentleman. It is also a formal title in the United Kingdom. "Lady" is used before the surname of a woman with a title of nobility or honorary title suo jure, or the wife of a lord, a baronet, and a knight, and also before the first name of the daughter of a Duke, Marquess, or Earl
Earl
throughout the United Kingdom. Once used to describe only women of a high social class, race, community, and status in Europe; now the term is commonly used to refer to any adult woman among English-speakers globally
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Ritter
Ritter
Ritter
(German for "knight") is a designation used as a title of nobility in German-speaking areas. Traditionally it denotes the second-lowest rank within the nobility, standing above "Edler" and below "Freiherr" (Baron). For its historical association with warfare and the landed gentry in the Middle Ages, it can be considered roughly equal to the titles of "Knight" or "Baronet". As with most titles and designations within the nobility in German-speaking areas, the rank was normally hereditary and generally was used with the nobiliary particle of von or zu before a family name. The wife of a Ritter
Ritter
was called a "Frau" (in this sense "Lady") and not Ritterin. In the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
the title of " Ritter
Ritter
von" was bestowed upon citizens who deserved more than the plain "von" but were not considered deserving enough as to be given a barony as "Freiherr"
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Knight
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch or other political leader for service to the monarch or country, especially in a military capacity. Historically, in Europe, knighthood was conferred upon mounted warriors.[1] During the High Middle Ages, knighthood was considered a class of lower nobility. By the Late Middle Ages, the rank had become associated with the ideals of chivalry, a code of conduct for the perfect courtly Christian warrior. Often, a knight was a vassal who served as a fighter for a lord, with payment in the form of land holdings.[2] The lords trusted the knights, who were skilled in battle on horseback. Knighthood
Knighthood
in the Middle Ages was closely linked with horsemanship (and especially the joust) from its origins in the 12th century until its final flowering as a fashion among the high nobility in the Duchy of Burgundy in the 15th century
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Knighthood
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch or other political leader for service to the monarch or country, especially in a military capacity. Historically, in Europe, knighthood was conferred upon mounted warriors.[1] During the High Middle Ages, knighthood was considered a class of lower nobility. By the Late Middle Ages, the rank had become associated with the ideals of chivalry, a code of conduct for the perfect courtly Christian warrior. Often, a knight was a vassal who served as a fighter for a lord, with payment in the form of land holdings.[2] The lords trusted the knights, who were skilled in battle on horseback. Knighthood
Knighthood
in the Middle Ages was closely linked with horsemanship (and especially the joust) from its origins in the 12th century until its final flowering as a fashion among the high nobility in the Duchy of Burgundy in the 15th century
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Châtelain
Châtelain
Châtelain
(Med. Lat. castellanus, from castellum, a castle) was originally merely the French equivalent of the English castellan, i.e. the commander of a castle. With the growth of the feudal system, however, the title gained in France
France
a special significance which it never acquired in England, as implying the jurisdiction of which the castle became the centre. The châtelain was originally, in Carolingian
Carolingian
times, an official of the count; with the development of feudalism the office became a fief, and so ultimately hereditary
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Esquire
Esquire
Esquire
(British English: /ɪˈskwaɪə/;[1] American English: /ˈɛsˌkwaɪr/ or /ɪˈskwaɪr/;[2] abbreviated Esq.)[3] is usually a courtesy title. In the United Kingdom, Esquire
Esquire
historically was a title of respect accorded to men of higher social rank, particularly members of the landed gentry above the rank of gentleman and below the rank of knight. In 1826, William Blackstone
William Blackstone
reiterated that, "the title should be limited to those only who bear an office of trust under the Crown and who are styled esquires by the king in their commissions and appointments; and all, I conceive, who are once honoured by the king with the title of esquire have a right to that distinction for life."[4][5] By the early 20th century, it came to be used as a general courtesy title for any man in a formal setting, usually as a suffix to his name, as in "Todd Smith, Esq.", with no precise significance
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Laird
Laird
Laird
(/ˈlɛərd/) is a generic name for the owner of a large, long-established Scottish estate, roughly equivalent to an esquire in England, yet ranking above the same in Scotland. In the Scottish order of precedence, a laird ranks below a baron and above a gentleman. This rank is only held by those lairds holding official recognition in a territorial designation by the Lord
Lord
Lyon King
King
of Arms
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