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Grand Duke
The monarchic title of GRAND DUKE (feminine: GRAND DUCHESS) ranked in order of precedence below emperor and king , and above that of sovereign prince and sovereign duke . It is or was used in some independent nations or states in Europe, particularly: * In present-day Luxembourg
Luxembourg
* Historically for the sovereigns of former independent countries such as: Tuscany
Tuscany
(from 1569 to 1860, now part of Italy); Baden
Baden
, Oldenburg , Saxe-Weimar , Mecklenburg-Schwerin , etc
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Vidame
VIDAME (French: ) was a feudal title in France
France
, a term descended from mediaeval Latin vicedominus. Like the avoué or advocatus , the vidame was originally a secular official chosen by the bishop of the diocese —with the consent of the count —to perform functions on behalf of the church's earthly interest that were religiously inappropriate; this especially included violence, even in the service of justice, and to act as protector. Unlike the advocatus, however, the vice-dominus was at the outset an ecclesiastical official, who acted as the bishop's lieutenant (locum tenens ) or vicar . But the causes that changed the character of the advocatus operated also in the case of the vidame
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Baron
BARON is a title of honour, often hereditary. The female equivalent is BARONESS. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Continental Europe * 2.1 France * 2.2 Germany
Germany
* 2.3 Italy * 2.4 The Low Countries * 2.5 The Nordic Countries * 2.6 Russia * 2.7 Spain * 3 The United Kingdom and Ireland * 3.1 History * 3.2 Irish Barons * 3.3 Coronet * 3.4 Style of address * 3.5 Scottish feudal baronies * 3.5.1 Chapeau and helm * 3.5.2 Style of address * 4 Other * 5 See also * 6 Sources * 7 References ETYMOLOGYThe word baron comes from the Old French baron, from a Late Latin baro "man; servant, soldier, mercenary" (so used in Salic Law
Salic Law
; Alemannic Law has barus in the same sense)
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Viscount
A VISCOUNT (/ˈvaɪkaʊnt/ ( listen ) VY-kownt , for male ) or VISCOUNTESS (/ˈvaɪkaʊntɪs/ , for female ) is a title used in certain European countries for a noble of varying status, but historically deemed to convey a lower-middling rank
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Earl
An EARL /ɜːrl/ is a member of the nobility . The title is Anglo-Saxon in origin, akin to the Scandinavian form JARL, and meant "chieftain ", particularly a chieftain set to rule a territory in a king's stead. In Scandinavia, it became obsolete in the Middle Ages and was replaced by duke (hertig/hertug/hertog). In later medieval Britain, it became the equivalent of the continental count (in England in the earlier period, it was more akin to a duke ; in Scotland
Scotland
it assimilated the concept of mormaer ). However, earlier in Scandinavia, jarl could also mean a sovereign prince . For example, the rulers of several of the petty kingdoms of Norway had the title of jarl and in many cases they had no less power than their neighbours who had the title of king
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Landgrave
LANDGRAVE (Dutch : landgraaf, German : Landgraf; Swedish : lantgreve, French : landgrave; Latin : comes magnus, comes patriae, comes provinciae, comes terrae, comes principalis, lantgravius) was a noble title used in the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
, and later on in its former territories. The German titles of Landgraf, Markgraf ("margrave "), and Pfalzgraf ("count palatine ") are in the same class of ranks as Herzog ("duke") and above the rank of a Graf
Graf
("count"). CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Description * 3 Examples * 4 Related terms * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links ETYMOLOGYThe English word LANDGRAVE is the equivalent of the German LANDGRAF, a compound of the words Land and Graf
Graf
(German: count). DESCRIPTIONThe title referred originally to a count who had imperial immediacy , or feudal duty owed directly to the Holy Roman Emperor
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Count Palatine
COUNT PALATINE is a high noble title, used to render several comital (of or relating to a count or earl) styles, in some cases also shortened to Palatine , which can have other meanings as well
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Micronations
A MICRONATION, sometimes referred to as a MODEL COUNTRY or NEW COUNTRY PROJECT, is an entity that claims to be an independent nation or state but is not recognized by world governments or major international organizations. Micronations
Micronations
are distinguished from imaginary countries and from other kinds of social groups (such as eco-villages , campuses , tribes , clans , sects , and residential community associations ) by expressing a formal and persistent, even if unrecognized, claim of sovereignty over some physical territory. Micronations
Micronations
are also distinct from true secessionist movements; micronations' activities are almost always trivial enough to be ignored rather than challenged by the established nations whose territory they claim. Several micronations have issued coins , flags , postage stamps , passports , medals , and other items
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The Grand Duke
THE GRAND DUKE; OR, THE STATUTORY DUEL, is the final Savoy Opera written by librettist W. S. Gilbert
W. S. Gilbert
and composer Arthur Sullivan
Arthur Sullivan
, their fourteenth and last opera together. It premiered at the Savoy Theatre on 7 March 1896, and ran for 123 performances. Despite a successful opening night, the production had a relatively short run and was the partnership's only financial failure, and the two men never worked together again. In recent decades, the opera has been revived professionally, first in the US and then in the UK. In The Grand Duke, Gilbert and Sullivan
Gilbert and Sullivan
come full circle, back to the theme of their first collaboration, Thespis : a troupe of actors taking political power
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Tuscany
TUSCANY (/ˈtʌskəni/ TUSK-ə-nee ; Italian : Toscana, pronounced ) is a region in central Italy
Italy
with an area of about 23,000 square kilometres (8,900 square miles) and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants (2013). The regional capital is Florence
Florence
(Firenze). Tuscany
Tuscany
is known for its landscapes, traditions, history, artistic legacy, and its influence on high culture . It is regarded as the birthplace of the Italian Renaissance
Italian Renaissance
and has been home to many figures influential in the history of art and science, and contains well-known museums such as the Uffizi
Uffizi
and the Pitti Palace . Tuscany produces wines , including Chianti
Chianti
, Vino Nobile di Montepulciano , Morellino di Scansano and Brunello di Montalcino
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Baden
BADEN is a historical German territory. Together with Württemberg and the former Prussian province of Hohenzollern , two other historical territories, it currently forms the Federal State of Baden- Württemberg . HISTORYFollowing the dissolution of the old Duchy of Swabia , Baden underwent a history which can be summarized as follows: * Margraviate of Baden (1112–1806) * Electorate of Baden (1803–06) * Grand Duchy of Baden (1806–1918) * Republic of Baden (1918–45)After World War II this territory was subdivided between Württemberg-Baden and Baden. Finally, the state of Baden-Württemberg was formed in 1952
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Luxembourg
Coordinates : 49°45′N 6°10′E / 49.750°N 6.167°E / 49.750; 6.167 Grand Duchy of Luxembourg * Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg (Luxembourgish ) * Großherzogtum Luxemburg (German ) * Grand-Duché de Luxembourg
Luxembourg
(French ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: " Mir wëlle blei
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Title
A TITLE is a prefix or suffix added to someone's name in certain contexts. It may signify either veneration, an official position or a professional or academic qualification. In some languages, titles may be inserted before a last name (for example, Graf
Graf
in German , Cardinal in Catholic usage or clerical titles such as Archbishop
Archbishop
). Some titles are hereditary
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Mecklenburg-Schwerin
The DUCHY OF MECKLENBURG-SCHWERIN was a duchy in northern Germany created in 1701, when Frederick William and Adolphus Frederick II divided the Duchy of Mecklenburg
Duchy of Mecklenburg
between Schwerin
Schwerin
and Strelitz. Ruled by the successors of the Nikloting House of Mecklenburg
House of Mecklenburg
, Mecklenburg- Schwerin
Schwerin
remained a state of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
along the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
littoral between Holstein-Glückstadt
Holstein-Glückstadt
and Duchy
Duchy
of Pomerania
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Saxe-Weimar
SAXE-WEIMAR (German : Sachsen-Weimar) was one of the Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine branch of the Wettin dynasty in present-day Thuringia
Thuringia
. The chief town and capital was Weimar
Weimar
. The Weimar
Weimar
branch was the most genealogically senior extant branch of the House of Wettin
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Stem Duchy
A STEM DUCHY (German : Stammesherzogtum, from Stamm, meaning "tribe", in reference to the Germanic tribes
Germanic tribes
of the Franks
Franks
, Saxons
Saxons
, Bavarians and Swabians ) was a constituent duchy of the kingdom of Germany at the time of the extinction of the Carolingian dynasty
Carolingian dynasty
(the death of Louis the Child in 911) and the transitional period leading to the formation of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
later in the 10th century. The Carolingians had dissolved the original tribal duchies of the Frankish Empire in the 8th century. As the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
declined in the late 9th century, the old tribal areas assumed new identities as the subdivisions of the realm
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