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Grand Duchy Of Tuscany
Coordinates: 43°N 11°E / 43°N 11°E / 43; 11Grand Duchy of TuscanyGranducato di Toscana1569–1801 1815–1859FlagCoat of armsAnthem "La Leopolda"The Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Tuscany
at its greatest extent in 1796.Capital FlorenceLanguages ItalianReligion CatholicismGovernment Unitary absolute monarchyGrand Duke •  1569–1574 Cosimo I de' Medici (first) •  1824–1859 Leopold II (last)History •  Established 27 August 1569 •  End of Medici rule 9 July 1737&#
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Latin Language
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Pope Pius V
Pope
Pope
Saint
Saint
Pius V (17 January 1504 – 1 May 1572), born Antonio Ghislieri (from 1518 called Michele Ghislieri, O.P.), was head of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and ruler of the Papal States
Papal States
from 8 January 1566 to his death in 1572. He is venerated as a saint of the Catholic Church.[2] He is chiefly notable for his role in the Council of Trent, the Counter-Reformation, and the standardization of the Roman rite within the Latin Church. Pius V declared Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
a Doctor of the Church.[3][4] As a cardinal, Ghislieri gained a reputation for putting orthodoxy before personalities, prosecuting eight French bishops for heresy
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Italy
Coordinates: 43°N 12°E / 43°N 12°E / 43; 12Italian Republic Repubblica Italiana  (Italian)FlagEmblemAnthem: Il Canto degli Italiani  (Italian) "The Song of the Italians"Location of  Italy  (dark green) – in Europe  (light green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (light green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Rome 41°54′N 12°29′E / 41.900°N 12.483°E / 41.900; 12.483Official languages ItalianaNative languages see full listReligion83.3% Christians 12.4% irreligious 3.7% Muslims 0.2% Buddhists 0.1% Hindus 0.3% other religions[1]Demonym ItalianGovernment Unitary constitutional parliamentary republic• PresidentSergio Mattarella• Prime MinisterPaolo Gentiloni• President of the SenateElisabetta Casellati•&
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Monarchy
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty. The actual power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic (crowned republic), to partial and restricted (constitutional monarchy), to completely autocratic (absolute monarchy). Traditionally the monarch's post is inherited and lasts until death or abdication. In contrast, elective monarchies require the monarch to be elected.[1] Both types have further variations as there are widely divergent structures and traditions defining monarchy. For example, in some[which?] elected monarchies only pedigrees are taken into account for eligibility of the next ruler, whereas many hereditary monarchies impose requirements regarding the religion, age, gender, mental capacity, etc
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(Latin: Sacrum Romanum Imperium; German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and continued until its dissolution in 1806.[6] The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it also came to include the Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, and numerous other territories.[7][8][9] On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe, more than three centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire
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List Of Countries By Population
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population. It includes sovereign states, inhabited dependent territories and, in some cases, constituent countries of sovereign states, with inclusion within the list being primarily based on the ISO standard ISO 3166-1. For instance, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is considered as a single entity while the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
are considered separately. In addition, this list includes certain states with limited recognition not found in ISO 3166-1. The population figures do not reflect the practice of countries that report significantly different populations of citizens domestically and overall
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Treaty Of Campo Formio
The Treaty of Campo Formio
Treaty of Campo Formio
(today Campoformido) was signed on 18 October 1797 (27 Vendémiaire VI) by Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon Bonaparte
and Count Philipp von Cobenzl
Philipp von Cobenzl
as representatives of the French Republic and the Austrian monarchy, respectively.[1][2] The treaty followed the armistice of Leoben (18 April 1797), which had been forced on the Habsburgs by Napoleon's victorious campaign in Italy. It ended the War of the First Coalition and left Great Britain
Great Britain
fighting alone against revolutionary France. The treaty, in its public articles, only concerned France
France
and Austria. It called for a Congress of Rastatt to be held to negotiate a final peace for the Holy Roman Empire
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Royal Highness
Royal Highness (abbreviated HRH for His Royal Highness or Her Royal Highness) is a style used to address or refer to some members of royal families, usually princes and princesses but not normally monarchs or their spouses of equal rank to them (that is, not kings, queens regnant, or queens consort), who are usually styled Majesty. When used as a direct form of address, spoken or written, it takes the form "Your Royal Highness". When used as a third-person reference, it is gender-specific (His Royal Highness or Her Royal Highness, both abbreviated HRH) and, in plural, Their Royal Highnesses (TRH).Contents1 Origin 2 African usage 3 Holy Roman Empire 4 Kingdom of the Netherlands 5 United Kingdom 6 Denmark 7 Sweden 8 Saudi Arabia 9 See also 10 ReferencesOrigin[edit] By the 17th century, all local rulers in Italy adopted the style Highness, that was once used by kings and emperors only
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Napoleon I Of France
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. As Napoleon, he was Emperor of the French
Emperor of the French
from 1804 until 1814, and again briefly in 1815 during the Hundred Days. Napoleon
Napoleon
dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France
France
against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815. He is considered one of the greatest commanders in history, and his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide
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Apoplexy
Apoplexy (from Ancient Greek ἀποπληξία, meaning 'a striking away') is bleeding within internal organs and the accompanying symptoms. For example, ovarian apoplexy is bleeding in the ovaries. The term formerly referred to what is now called a stroke;[1] nowadays, health care professionals typically specify the type of apoplexy, such as cerebral, ovarian and pituitary apoplexy. Informally or metaphorically, the term apoplexy is associated with being furious, especially as "apoplectic".[2]Contents1 Historical meaning 2 Haemorrhage 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistorical meaning[edit] From the late 14th to the late 19th century,[3] apoplexy referred to any sudden death that began with a sudden loss of consciousness, especially one in which the victim died within a matter of seconds after losing consciousness
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Ottomans
The Ottoman Turks (or Osmanlı Turks, Turkish: Osmanlı Türkleri) were the Turkish-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
who formed the base of the state's military and ruling classes. Reliable information about the early history of Ottoman Turks is scarce, but they take their Turkish name, Osmanlı ("Osman" being corrupted in some European languages as "Ottoman"), from the house of Osman I (reigned ca. 1299–1326), the founder of the dynasty that ruled the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
for its entire 624 years. After the expansion from its home in Bithynia, the Ottoman principality began incorporating other Turkish-speaking Muslims and non-Turkish Christians, becoming the Ottoman Turks and ultimately the Turks of the present
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Leopold II, Grand Duke Of Tuscany
Leopold
Leopold
may refer to:Contents1 People1.1 Royalty1.1.1 Austria1.1.1.1 Rulers of Austria from the Babenberg dynasty 1.1.1.2 Rulers of Austria from the Habsburg dynasty 1.1.1.3 Grand Dukes of Tuscany / Habsburg-Lorraine 1.1.1.4 Other1.1.2 Other dynasties1.1.2.1 Bavaria 1.1.2.2 Belgium 1.1.2.3 Lippe 1.1.2.4 Styria1.1.3 United Kingdom2 Arts, entertainment, and media2.1 Fictional entities 2.2 Other arts, entertainment, and media3 Brands and enterprises 4 Military hardware 5 Places5.1 Australia 5.2 Austria 5.3 Belgium 5.4 Canada 5.5 Congo 5.6 Germ
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Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor
Maximilian II (31 July 1527 – 12 October 1576), a member of the Austrian House of Habsburg, was Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
from 1564 until his death. He was crowned King of Bohemia
King of Bohemia
in Prague
Prague
on 14 May 1562 and elected King of Germany
King of Germany
(King of the Romans) on 24 November 1562. On 8 September 1563 he was crowned King of Hungary
King of Hungary
and Croatia in the Hungarian capital Pressburg (Pozsony in Hungarian; now Bratislava, Slovakia). On 25 July 1564 he succeeded his father Ferdinand I as ruler of the Holy Roman Empire.[1][2] Maximilian's rule was shaped by the confessionalization process after the 1555 Peace of Augsburg. Though a Habsburg
Habsburg
and a Catholic, he approached the Lutheran Imperial estates with a view to overcome the denominational schism, which ultimately failed
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Absolute Monarchy
Absolute monarchy, or despotic monarchy,[1][2] is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.[3] These are often, but not always, hereditary monarchies
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