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Grand Duchy Of Hesse
The Grand Duchy of Hesse
Hesse
and by Rhine
Rhine
(German: Großherzogtum Hessen und bei Rhein), or the Grand Duchy of Hesse
Hesse
(German: Großherzogtum Hessen) between 1806 and 1816, was an independent country and member state of the Confederation of the Rhine
Confederation of the Rhine
as of 1806, when the Landgraviate of Hesse- Darmstadt
Darmstadt
was elevated to a Grand Duchy which it remained until 1918, when the monarchy was overthrown. Hesse
Hesse
lost its independence when it joined the German Empire
German Empire
in 1871
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World War II
Pacific WarChina Pacific Ocean South-East Asia South West Pacific Japan Manchuria & North Korea Mediterranean and Middle EastNorth Africa East Africa Mediterranean Sea Adriatic Malta Yugoslavia Iraq Syria–Lebanon Iran Italy Dodecanese Southern France Other campaignsAtlantic Arctic Strategic bombing Americas French West Africa Indian Ocean Madagascar Contemporaneous warsSoviet–Japanese border conflicts Franco-Thai War Ecuadorian–Peruvian War Ili Rebellion World War II Alphabetical indices A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 0–9Navigation CampaignsCountriesEquipment TimelineOutlineLists PortalCategoryBibliography vte World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis
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Louis II, Grand Duke Of Hesse
Louis
Louis
may refer to: Louis
Louis
(given name), origin and several individuals with this name
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Queen Victoria
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom
Queen of the United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and King George III
King George III
died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held relatively little direct political power
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Fortress Mainz
The Fortress
Fortress
of Mainz
Mainz
was a fortressed garrison town between 1620 and 1918. At the end of the Napoleonic Wars, under the term of the 1815 Peace of Paris, the control of Mainz
Mainz
passed to the German Confederation and became part of a chain of strategic fortresses which protected the Confederation. With the dissolution of the Confederation and the Austro-Prussian War, control of the fortress first passed to Prussia, and, after the 1871 Unification of Germany, to the German Empire.Contents1 1839 2 1864 3 Structures and buildings 4 References 5 External links1839[edit] In 1839 an article on Mainz
Mainz
in The Penny Cyclopædia
The Penny Cyclopædia
stated that Mainz was one of the strongest fortresses in Europe, and a chief bulwark of Germany against France
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Rhine
The Rhine
Rhine
(Latin: Rhenus, Romansh: Rein, German: Rhein, French: le Rhin,[1] Dutch: Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden
Graubünden
in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland
Rhineland
and the Netherlands
Netherlands
and eventually empties into the North Sea. The largest city on the Rhine
Rhine
is Cologne, Germany, with a population of more than 1,050,000 people
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Electorate Of Cologne
The Electorate of Cologne
Cologne
(German: Kurfürstentum Köln), sometimes referred to as Electoral Cologne
Cologne
(German: Kurköln), was an ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
that existed from the 10th to the early 19th century. It consisted of the Hochstift
Hochstift
— the temporal possessions — of the Archbishop
Archbishop
of Cologne
Cologne
and ruled by him in his capacity as prince-elector. There were only two other ecclesiastical prince-electors in the Empire: the Electorate of Mainz and the Electorate of Trier
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German Mediatization
German mediatization
German mediatization
(English: /miːdiətaɪˈzeɪʃən/; German: deutsche Mediatisierung) was the major territorial restructuring that took place between 1802 and 1814 in Germany and the surrounding region (until 1806 the Holy Roman Empire) by means of the mass mediatization and secularization[1] of a large number of Imperial Estates: ecclesiastical principalities, free imperial cities, secular principalities and other minor self-ruling entities that lost their independent status and were absorbed into the remaining states. In the strict sense of the word, mediatization consists in the subsumption of an immediate (German: unmittelbar) state into another state, thus becoming mediate (mittelbar), while generally leaving the dispossessed ruler with his private estates and a number of privileges and feudal rights, such as low justice
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Napoleon
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. As Napoleon, he was Emperor of the French
Emperor of the French
from 1804 until 1814, and again briefly in 1815 during the Hundred Days. Napoleon
Napoleon
dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France
France
against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815. He is considered one of the greatest commanders in history, and his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide
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German Language
German (Deutsch [dɔʏtʃ] (listen)) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol
South Tyrol
in Italy, the German-speaking Community
German-speaking Community
of Belgium, and Liechtenstein. It is also one of the three official languages of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship
Opole Voivodeship
in Poland. The languages which are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch: Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. There are also strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group
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List Of Countries By Population
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population. It includes sovereign states, inhabited dependent territories and, in some cases, constituent countries of sovereign states, with inclusion within the list being primarily based on the ISO standard ISO 3166-1. For instance, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is considered as a single entity while the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
are considered separately. In addition, this list includes certain states with limited recognition not found in ISO 3166-1. The population figures do not reflect the practice of countries that report significantly different populations of citizens domestically and overall
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List Of Countries And Dependencies By Area
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area. Entries in this list include, but are not limited to, those in the ISO 3166-1 standard, which includes sovereign states and dependent territories
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German Revolution Of 1918
Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
victory:Abdication of Emperor Wilhelm II Monarchy of Germany <
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World War I
Allied victory Central Powers
Central Powers
victory on the Eastern Front nullified by defeat on the Western Front Fall of all continental empires in Europe
Europe
(including Germany, Russia, Turkey and Austria-Hu
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Abgeordnetenhaus (Prussia)
The Prussian House of Representatives
Prussian House of Representatives
(German: Preußisches Abgeordnetenhaus) was, until 1918, the second chamber of the Prussian Landtag, the other chamber being the Prussian House of Lords. It was elected according to the three-class franchise, and had been established by the Prussian constitution of 5 December 1848. The name "House of Representatives" (Abgeordnetenhaus) was introduced in 1855.Contents1 Franchise 2 Legislative periods 3 Composition 4 Presidents 5 AbolitionFranchise[edit]Palais Hardenberg, Berlin: seat of the House of Representatives until 1899From 1849, the election of representatives within the Kingdom of Prussia was performed according to the three-class franchise system. The election was indirect
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Landtag Of Hesse
Government (61)     CDU (47)      The Greens (14)Opposition Parties     SPD (37)      The Left (6)      FDP (6)ElectionsLast election22 September 2013Next electionbefore January 2019Meeting placeStadtschloss, WiesbadenWebsitewww.hessischer-landtag.de/ Landtag
Landtag
of Hesse Landtag
Landtag
of Hesse, extensionThe Landtag
Landtag
of Hesse
Hesse
(German: Hessischer Landtag) is the Parliament of the State of Hesse
Hesse
in the Federal Republic of Germany. It convenes in the Stadtschloss, Wiesbaden. As a Legislature it is responsible for passing laws at the state level and enacting the budget. Its most important function is to elect and control the state government
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