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Gram-negative
Gram-negative bacteria
Gram-negative bacteria
are a group of bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the gram-staining method of bacterial differentiation.[1] They are characterized by their cell envelopes, which are composed of a thin peptidoglycan cell wall sandwiched between an inner cytoplasmic cell membrane and a bacterial outer membrane. Gram-negative bacteria
Gram-negative bacteria
are found everywhere, in virtually all environments on Earth
Earth
that support life. The gram-negative bacteria include the model organism Escherichia coli, as well as many pathogenic bacteria, such as Pseudomonas
Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Yersinia pestis
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Monophyly
In cladistics, a monophyletic group is a group of organisms that forms a clade, which consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor. Monophyletic groups are typically characterised by shared derived characteristics (synapomorphies), which distinguish organisms in the clade from other organisms. The arrangement of the members of a monophyletic group is called a monophyly. Monophyly
Monophyly
is contrasted with paraphyly and polyphyly as shown in the second diagram. A paraphyletic group consists of all of the descendants of a common ancestor minus one or more monophyletic groups. A polyphyletic group is characterized by convergent features or habits of scientific interest (for example, night-active primates, fruit trees, aquatic insects). The features by which a polyphyletic group is differentiated from others are not inherited from a common ancestor. These definitions have taken some time to be accepted
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Molecular Phylogenetics
Molecular phylogenetics (/məˈlɛkjʊlər ˌfaɪloʊdʒəˈnɛtɪks, mɒ-, moʊ-/[1][2]) is the branch of phylogeny that analyses hereditary molecular differences, mainly in DNA
DNA
sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships. The result of a molecular phylogenetic analysis is expressed in a phylogenetic tree. Molecular phylogenetics is one aspect of molecular systematics, a broader term that also includes the use of molecular data in taxonomy and biogeography.Contents1 History 2 Techniques and applications 3 Theoretical background 4 Limitations of molecular systematics 5 See also 6 Notes and references 7 Further reading 8 External linksHistory[edit] Further information: History of molecular evolution The theoretical frameworks for molecular systematics were laid in the 1960s in the works of Emile Zuckerkandl, Emanuel Margoliash, Linus Pauling, and Walter M
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Lipoprotein
A lipoprotein is a biochemical assembly whose purpose is to transport hydrophobic lipid (a.k.a. fat) molecules in water, as in blood or extracellular fluid. They have a single-layer phospholipid and cholesterol outer shell, with the hydrophilic portions oriented outward toward the surrounding water and lipophilic portions of each molecule oriented inwards toward the lipids molecules within the particles. Apolipoproteins are embedded in the membrane, both stabilising the complex and giving it functional identity determining its fate. Thus the complex serves to emulsify the fats. Many enzymes, transporters, structural proteins, antigens, adhesions, and toxins are lipoproteins. Examples include the plasma lipoprotein particles classified as HDL, LDL, IDL, VLDL and ULDL (a.k.a. chylomicrons) lipoproteins, according to density / size (an inverse relationship), compared with the surrounding plasma water
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Innate Immune System
The innate immune system, also known as the non-specific immune system or in-born immunity system,[1] is an important subsystem of the overall immune system that comprises the cells and mechanisms that defend the host from infection by other organisms
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Antimicrobial
An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or stops their growth.[1] Antimicrobial
Antimicrobial
medicines can be grouped according to the microorganisms they act primarily against. For example, antibiotics are used against bacteria and antifungals are used against fungi. They can also be classified according to their function. Agents that kill microbes are called microbicidal, while those that merely inhibit their growth are called biostatic
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Clade
A clade (from Ancient Greek: κλάδος, klados, "branch") is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".[1] The common ancestor may be an individual, a population, a species (extinct or extant), and so on right up to a kingdom and further. Clades are nested, one in another, as each branch in turn splits into smaller branches. These splits reflect evolutionary history as populations diverged and evolved independently. Clades are termed monophyletic (Greek: "one clan") groups. Over the last few decades, the cladistic approach has revolutionized biological classification and revealed surprising evolutionary relationships among organisms.[2] Increasingly, taxonomists try to avoid naming taxa that are not clades; that is, taxa that are not monophyletic
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Cytoplasm
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus. It comprises cytosol (the gel-like substance enclosed within the cell membrane) and the organelles – the cell's internal sub-structures. All of the contents of the cells of prokaryotic organisms (such as bacteria, which lack a cell nucleus) are contained within the cytoplasm. Within the cells of eukaryotic organisms the contents of the cell nucleus are separated from the cytoplasm, and are then called the nucleoplasm. The cytoplasm is about 80% water and usually colorless.[1] The submicroscopic ground cell substance or cytoplasmatic matrix which remains after exclusion the cell organelles and particles is groundplasm
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Detergent
A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with cleaning properties in dilute solutions.[1] These substances are usually alkylbenzenesulfonates, a family of compounds that are similar to soap but are more soluble in hard water, because the polar sulfonate (of detergents) is less likely than the polar carboxylate (of soap) to bind to calcium and other ions found in hard water. In most household contexts, the term detergent by itself refers specifically to laundry detergent or dish detergent, as opposed to hand soap or other types of cleaning agents. Detergents are commonly available as powders or concentrated solutions. Detergents, like soaps, work because they are amphiphilic: partly hydrophilic (polar) and partly hydrophobic (non-polar)
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Monera
Bacteria
Bacteria
and ArchaeaCladistically included but traditionally excluded groupsDomain Eukaryota Monera
Monera
(Greek - μονήρης (monḗrēs), "single", "solitary") (/məˈnɪərə/ mə-NEER-ə[citation needed]) is a kingdom that contains unicellular organisms with a prokaryotic cell organization (having no nuclear membrane), such as bacteria. They are single-celled organisms with no true nuclear membrane (prokaryotic organisms). The taxon Monera
Monera
was first proposed as a phylum by Ernst Haeckel
Ernst Haeckel
in 1866. Subsequently, the phylum was elevated to the rank of kingdom in 1925 by Édouard Chatton
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Earth
Earth
Earth
is the third planet from the Sun
Sun
and the only object in the Universe
Universe
known to harbor life. According to radiometric dating and other sources of evidence, Earth
Earth
formed over 4.5 billion years ago.[24][25][26] Earth's gravity interacts with other objects in space, especially the Sun
Sun
and the Moon, Earth's only natural satellite. Earth
Earth
revolves around the Sun
Sun
in 365.26 days, a period known as an Earth
Earth
year
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Taxonomic Rank
In biological classification, taxonomic rank is the relative level of a group of organisms (a taxon) in a taxonomic hierarchy. Examples of taxonomic ranks are species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, domain, etc. A given rank subsumes under it less general categories, that is, more specific descriptions of life forms. Above it, each rank is classified within more general categories of organisms and groups of organisms related to each other through inheritance of traits or features from common ancestors. The rank of any species and the description of its genus is basic; which means that to identify a particular organism, it is usually not necessary to specify ranks other than these first two.[2] Consider a particular species, the red fox, Vulpes
Vulpes
vulpes: the next rank above, the genus Vulpes, comprises all the "true" foxes
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Cavalier-Smith
Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge King's College LondonKnown for His system of classification of all organismsAwards Fellow of the Royal Society
Fellow of the Royal Society
(1998) International Prize for Biology
International Prize for Bi

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Braun's Lipoprotein
Braun's lipoprotein (BLP, Lpp, or murein lipoprotein), found in some gram-negative cell walls, is one of the most abundant membrane proteins; its molecular weight is about 7.2 kDa. It is bound at its C-terminal end (a lysine) by a covalent bond to the peptidoglycan layer (specifically to diaminopimelic acid molecules[1]) and is embedded in the outer membrane by its hydrophobic head (a cysteine with lipids attached). BLP tightly links the two layers and provides structural integrity to the outer membrane.Contents1 Characteristics 2 Functions 3 Immunology 4 ReferencesCharacteristics[edit] The gene encoding Braun's lipoprotein initially produces a protein composed of 78 amino acids, which includes a 20 amino acid signal peptide at the amino terminus.[2] The mature protein is 6 kDa in size.[3] Three monomers of Lpp assemble into a coiled-coil trimer.[4] Large amounts of Braun's lipoprotein is present, more than any other protein in E
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Lysis
Lysis
Lysis
(/ˈlaɪsɪs/ LY-sis; Greek λύσις lýsis, "a loosing" from λύειν lýein, "to unbind") refers to the breaking down of the membrane of a cell, often by viral, enzymic, or osmotic (that is, "lytic" /ˈlɪtɪk/ LIT-ək) mechanisms that compromise its integrity. A fluid containing the contents of lysed cells is called a lysate
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Phospholipids
Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes. They can form lipid bilayers because of their amphiphilic characteristic. The structure of the phospholipid molecule generally consists of two hydrophobic fatty acid "tails" and a hydrophilic "head" consisting of a phosphate group. The two components are joined together by a glycerol molecule. The phosphate groups can be modified with simple organic molecules such as choline. The first phospholipid identified in 1847 as such in biological tissues was lecithin, or phosphatidylcholine, in the egg yolk of chickens by the French chemist and pharmacist, Theodore Nicolas Gobley. Biological membranes in eukaryotes also contain another class of lipid, sterol, interspersed among the phospholipids and together they provide membrane fluidity and mechanical strength
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