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Governorates Of Jordan
Jordan is divided into twelve governorates (_muhafazah _) by the administrative divisions system of the Ministry of Interior. In 1994, four new governorates were created: Jerash , Ajloun , Madaba and Aqaba . Jerash Governorate and Ajloun Governorate were split from Irbid Governorate , Madaba Governorate was split from Amman Governorate and Aqaba Governorate was split from Ma\'an Governorate . Governorates are further subdivided into districts (_liwa_) and often into sub-districts (_qda_). GEOGRAPHYGeographically, the governorates of Jordan are located in one of three regions: the North Region, Central Region and the South Region. The three geographical regions are not distributed by area or populations but rather by geographical connectivity and distance among the population centres. The South Region is separated from the Central Region by the Mountains of Moab in Karak Governorate . The population centres of the Central and North Region are separated geographically by the mountains of Jerash Governorate
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Jordan
JORDAN (/ˈdʒɔːrdən/ ; Arabic : الأردن‎‎ _Al-Urdunn_), officially THE HASHEMITE KINGDOM OF JORDAN ( Arabic : المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية‎‎ _Al-Mamlakah Al-Urdunnīyah Al-Ḥāshimīyah_), is an Arab kingdom in Western Asia , on the East Bank of the Jordan River . Jordan is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the east and south; Iraq to the north-east; Syria to the north; Israel , Palestine and the Dead Sea to the west; and the Red Sea in its extreme south-west. Jordan is strategically located at the crossroads of Asia, Africa and Europe. The capital, Amman , is Jordan's most populous city as well as the country's economic, political and cultural centre. What is now Jordan has been inhabited by humans since the Paleolithic period. Three stable kingdoms emerged there at the end of the Bronze Age : Ammon , Moab and Edom . Later rulers include the Nabataean Kingdom , the Roman Empire , and the Ottoman Empire . After the Great Arab Revolt against the Ottomans in 1916 during World War I , the Ottoman Empire was partitioned by Britain and France. The Emirate of Transjordan was established in 1921 by the then Emir Abdullah I and it became a British protectorate
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Governorate
A GOVERNORATE is an administrative division of a country. It is headed by a governor . As English-speaking nations tend to call regions administered by governors either states , provinces , or colonies , the term _governorate_ is often used in translation from non- English-speaking administrations. The most common usage is as a translation of the Arabic _MUHAFAZAH _. It may also refer to the _GUBERNIYA _ and _general-gubernatorstvo _ of Imperial Russia or the 34 _GOBERNACIONES _ of Imperial Spain . CONTENTS * 1 Arab countries * 2 Russian Empire * 2.1 Congress Kingdom of Poland * 2.2 Grand Duchy of Finland * 3 Portuguese Empire * 4 Spanish Empire * 5 Italian Empire * 6 Germany * 7 Romania * 8 Vatican City * 9 References ARAB COUNTRIESThe term governorate is widely used in Arab countries to describe an administrative unit. Some governorates combine more than one _wilayah _; others closely follow traditional boundaries inherited from the Ottoman Empire 's _vilayet _ system. With the exception of Tunisia, all translations into the term governorate originate in the Arabic word _muhafazah _
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Muhafazah
A _MUḥāFAẓAH_ ( Arabic : محافظة‎‎ ; pl. محافظات muḥāfaẓāt ) is a first-level administrative division of many Arab countries , and a second-level administrative division in Saudi Arabia . The term is usually translated to "governorate ", and occasionally to "province ". It comes from the Arabic root ح ف ظ _ḥ-f-ẓ_, which means to "keep" and "guard". The head of a _muḥāfaẓah_ is the _muḥāfiẓ_. MUHAFAZAT IN ARAB COUNTRIES * Governorates of Bahrain * Governorates of Egypt * Governorates of Iraq * Governorates of Jordan * Governorates of Kuwait * Governorates of Libya (historic) * Governorates of Lebanon * Governorates of Oman * Governorates of the Palestinian National Authority * Governorates of Saudi Arabia (2nd level) * Governorates of Syria * Governorates of Yemen The governorates of Tunisia are _wilāyah _ in Arabic
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Jerash Governorate
JERASH GOVERNORATE (Arabic : محافظة جرش‎‎) is one of the 12 governorates in Jordan . It is located in the northwestern side of the country. The capital of the governorate is the city of Jerash . Jerash Governorate has the smallest area of the 12 governorates of Jordan, yet it has the second highest density in Jordan after Irbid Governorate . Jerash Governorate is ranked 7th by population. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 Administrative divisions * 3.1 Villages and Towns * 3.2 Refugee camps * 4 Demographics * 5 Industry and agriculture * 6 Education * 7 Gallery * 8 References HISTORYIn the first century of the Christian era this insignificant city (then Gerasa) experienced a fast ascent under Roman rule and the Pax Romana . It became part of the Decapolis and grew increasingly competitive with the older Petra as a commercial town. The inhabitants extracted iron ore from the nearby Ajlun mountains . Starting in the middle of the 1st century, this upswing led to active building and a rich abundance of architectural monuments, still impressive today. In the 2nd century, the Roman expansion wars in Asia led to further gains. Well-made roads were built to Pella , Philadelphia (now Amman ), Dion and to the provincial capital Bos(t)ra. Emperor Hadrian visited the city in the winter of 129-130. In the following centuries the political situation in this region changed fundamentally and the city's means declined
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Ajloun Governorate
AJLOUN GOVERNORATE (alternative spelling AJLUN GOVERNORATE) (Arabic : محافظة عجلون‎‎) is one of the governorates of Jordan , located north of Amman the capital of Jordan. Ajloun Governorate has the fourth highest population density in Jordan (after Irbid , Jerash , and Balqa Governorates) with a population density of 350.1 people/km² (2012 estimate). It is bordered by Jerash Governorate from the south east and Irbid Governorate from the north and west. CONTENTS * 1 Administrative divisions * 2 History * 3 Climate * 4 Demographics * 5 Economy * 6 Education * 7 Significant villages * 8 Gallery * 9 References ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONSArticle 14 of the Administrative Divisions System of the Ministry of Interior divides Ajloun Governorate into two departments. * 1. Capital Department: includes 50 towns and villages, with its administrative center in Ajloun . * 2. Kofranjah Department: includes 19 towns and villages, its administrative center is in Kofranjah.HISTORYAt a high elevation, Ajloun has one of the most beautiful forests in Jordan, and known for its long cold winters. It is famous for its castle (Ajlun Castle ), old name was Qal'at Salah Ad-Dein. The castle was built as a garrison to protect Ajloun strategic geography from the crusaders
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Madaba Governorate
MADABA, (Arabic مادبا) is one of the governorates of Jordan , it is located south west of Amman , capital of Jordan. Its capital is Madaba . The governorate is ranked eighth (from 12 governorates) by population and by area in Jordan. It is bordered by Balqa Governorate from the north, The Capital Governorate from the east, and Karak Governorate from the south, and the Dead Sea from the west. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Biblical and Ancient History * 1.2 Modern History * 2 Geography * 3 Economy * 3.1 Tourism * 3.2 Agriculture * 4 Administrative divisions * 5 Demographics * 6 Gallery * 7 References HISTORY Madaba Governorate hosts the World Economic Forum held on its Dead Sea coasts Many civilizations existed on the soils of Madaba, most prominent are the Moabites , Israelites /Jews , Nabateans , Romans , and the Arab Muslim empires. The city of Madaba is best known for its Byzantine and Umayyad mosaics , especially the Madaba Map , a large Byzantine-era mosaic map of Palestine and the Nile delta. BIBLICAL AND ANCIENT HISTORYMany sites in Madaba Governorate are considered biblical sites, some of which are: * Mount Nebo : according to the Bible , is the site where Moses viewed the Promised Land . Mount Nebo, just west of Madaba city, formed part of the Madaba Diocese during Byzantine times
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Aqaba Governorate
AQABA (Arabic : العقبة al-ʻAqabah‎‎) is one of the governorates of Jordan , located south of Amman , capital of Jordan. Its capital is Aqaba . It is the fourth largest governorate in Jordan by area and is ranked 10th by population. Aqaba, the port at the Red Sea , plays an important role in the economic life of Jordan. Two of Jordan's top three tourist destinations lie in Aqaba Governorate, Wadi Rum , and the port city of Aqaba . The port is Jordan's most important import/export hub. The industrial port lies about 15 km to the south from the beaches and the Aqaba city center. CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 History * 3 Economy * 4 Administrative divisions * 5 Demographics * 6 Gallery * 7 References GEOGRAPHYAqaba Governorate lies in the south western tip of Jordan, it borders Ma\'an Governorate from the east, Tafilah Governorate from the north, Saudi Arabia from the south, Israel from the west, and the Gulf of Aqaba from the southwest. There are two international crossing points in Aqaba Governorate, the Durra Border Crossing and Wadi Araba crossing . The Jordanian-Saudi border originally ran a few kilometers south of Aqaba. In 1965 the late King Hussein exchanged 12 km (7 mi) of the valuable coastal strip for areas in the desert. HISTORY Lawrence of Arabia The city of Aqaba was inhabited since 4000 BC, it reached its peak during the Roman era, when the Romans constructed the Via Traiana Nova route that terminates in Aqaba
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Irbid Governorate
IRBID or IRBED (Arabic : إربد‎‎) is a governorate of Jordan , located north of Amman , the country's capital. The capital of the governorate is the city of Irbid . The governorate has the second largest population in Jordan after Amman Governorate , and the highest population density in the country. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 Demographics * 4 Administrative divisions * 5 Cities, towns, and villages * 6 Economy * 7 References HISTORY The city of Um Qais (Gadara) An Australian excavation team in the ancient Roman city of Pella A Byzantine church in Um Qais A Byzantine site in Ar Ramtha Irbid was distinguished by the Greek , Roman and Islamic civilizations leaving behind them historical and archaeological sites. Roman and Greek cities such as Arabella (Irbid), Capitolias (Beit–Ras), Dion (Al Hisn ) that contains the Roman artificial hill and small Roman lake (water reservoir), Gadara (Umm Qais), Pella (Tabeqt Fahel) and Abila (Qwailbeh) were established. They were members of the Decapolis : a pact that consists of the ten Roman cities in the area. Ghassanids had established their country in the north of Jordan covering Irbid, Golan and Horan plains. It was described as the most beautiful Syrian countries. Also it had the Islamic soldiers’ supplies. Christianity spread out there in the second and the third century A.D. Irbid witnessed the Edomite and Ammonite civilizations
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Amman Governorate
AMMAN GOVERNORATE, officially known as MUHAFAZAT AL-ASIMA (Arabic محافظة العاصمة, English translation: The Capital Governorate), is one of the governorates in Jordan . The governorate's capital is the city of Amman , which is also the country's capital. The administrative center of the governorate as well as all government offices and parliament are located in the Abdali district. The Amman Governorate has the largest population of the 12 governorates of Jordan . It borders Zarqa Governorate to the north and north east, the governorates of Balqa and Madaba to the west, Karak and Ma\'an governorates to the south. It also shares an international border with Saudi Arabia from the east. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 Demographics * 4 Administrative divisions * 4.1 Nahias * 4.2 Districts * 5 Towns and villages * 6 Education * 7 External links * 8 References HISTORYThe land covered by the Amman Governorate has been inhabited since the prehistoric age, ruins of civilizations as early as 7250 BC have been discovered at \ 'Ain Ghazal near Amman , the site itself is one of the largest prehistoric settlements in the Middle East. Amman was the capital and stronghold of the Ammonites , which they called Rabbath Ammon, the Ammonites ruled almost the entire land of the Capital Governorate
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Ma'an Governorate
MA\'AN (Arabic : معان‎‎) is one of the governorates of Jordan , it is located south of Amman , Jordan's capital. Its capital is the city of Ma\'an . This governorate is the largest in the kingdom of Jordan by area. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 Demographics * 4 Administrative Divisions * 5 Gallery * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORYThe land of the Governorate of Ma'an hosts many historic sites. The land of Ma'an Governorate was under the Edomite rule, which had its capital in Busaira in neighboring Tafilah Governorate . The Edomites were then replaced by the Nabateans who left one of the most significant sites in the Middle East, the ancient city of Petra . After succeeding in repulsing Macedonian and Roman invasions, Petra finally fell to the Roman Empire in 103 A.D. Closely located to Petra is Mount Hor , where is it believed that Aaron the brother of Moses died: the mountain is named in Arabic Jebel Nebi Harun (Mountain of Prophet Aaron). There is a tomb for Aaron at the top of the mountain. In the 7th century A.D. the lands of Ma'an were annexed to the Islamic Khaliphate. With the coming of the Crusaders in the 11th century, The Crusaders took control of the highlands of Shoubak , at an elevation of more than 1300 meters above sea level, the Crusaders built the castle of Montreal in the city of Shoubak
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Moab
MOAB (/ˈmoʊæb/ ; Moabite : 𐤌𐤀𐤁 _mʾb_; Arabic : مؤاب‎‎ _muʾāb_; Hebrew : מוֹאָב‎, Modern _mo'av_, Tiberian _mōʾāḇ_; Ancient Greek : Μωάβ _Mōáb_; Assyrian _Mu'aba_, _Ma'ba_, _Ma'ab_; Egyptian _Mu'ab_) is the historical name for a mountainous tract of land in Jordan . The land lies alongside much of the eastern shore of the Dead Sea . The existence of the KINGDOM OF MOAB is attested to by numerous archaeological findings, most notably the Mesha Stele , which describes the Moabite victory over an unnamed son of King Omri of Israel . The Moabite capital was Dibon . According to the Hebrew Bible , Moab was often in conflict with its Israelite neighbours to the west. CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 Economy * 3 History * 4 Biblical and other narratives * 5 Religion * 6 Etymology * 7 Language * 8 In Jewish tradition * 9 Decline and fall * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links GEOGRAPHY Moab occupied a plateau about 3,000 feet (910 m) above the level of the Mediterranean , or 4,300 feet (1,300 m) above the Dead Sea , and rising gradually from north to south
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Karak Governorate
KARAK (Arabic : الكرك‎‎) is one of the governorates of Jordan , located south-west of Amman , Jordan's capital. Its capital is Al Karak . It borders Madaba and the Capital governorates to the north, Ma\'an Governorate from the east, Tafilah Governorate from the south, and the Dead Sea form the west. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Ancient history * 1.2 Modern history * 2 Geography * 3 Demographics * 4 Education * 5 Administrative departments * 6 References HISTORYANCIENT HISTORYThe land of Karak Governorate was the home of the Kingdom of Moab , during the first millennium BC. Their capital and stronghold is believed to be near the city of Al Karak , which was known as the QIR OF MOAB. For a brief period of time, the land of Karak Governorate came under Persian rule, and then the Nabateans took control of it, until the Romans invaded the Levant region and occupied their capital, Petra . After the coming of the Byzentines , they established a vassal state ruled by the Ghassanids . The city of Mu\'tah was the site of the first clash between the Muslim Arabs and the Byzantine Empire at the Battle of Mu\'tah in 629 AD. With the coming of the crusaders , the Principality of Kerak was established, after which Kerak was a center front between the Ayyubids and the crusaders. MODERN HISTORYFrom the 15th century until 1917, Karak was under Ottoman rule, then the Emirate of Transjordan
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Amman
AMMAN (English: /ɑːˈmɑːn/ ; Arabic : عمّان‎‎ _ʻammān_ pronounced ) is the capital and most populous city of Jordan , and the country's economic, political and cultural centre. Situated in north-central Jordan, Amman is the administrative centre of the Amman Governorate . The city has a population of 4,007,526 and a land area of 1,680 square kilometres (648.7 sq mi). Today, Amman is considered to be among the most liberal and westernized Arab cities. It is a major tourist destination in the region, particularly among Arab and European tourists. The earliest evidence of settlement in the area is a Neolithic site known as \ 'Ain Ghazal . Its successor was known as "Rabbath Ammon", which was the capital of the Ammonites , then as "Philadelphia", and finally as Amman. It was initially built on seven hills but now spans over 19 hills combining 27 districts, which are administered by the Greater Amman Municipality headed by its mayor Aqel Biltaji . Areas of Amman have either gained their names from the hills (Jabal) or the valleys (Wadi) they lie on, such as Jabal Lweibdeh and Wadi Abdoun. East Amman is predominantly filled with historic sites that frequently host cultural activities, while West Amman is more modern and serves as the economic center of the city
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Salt, Jordan
AL-SALT (Arabic : السلط‎‎ Al-Salt — pronounced Es-Sult or Es-Salt) is an ancient agricultural town and administrative centre in west-central Jordan . It is on the old main highway leading from Amman to Jerusalem . Situated in the Balqa highland, about 790–1,100 metres above sea level, the town is built in the crook of three hills, close to the Jordan Valley . One of the three hills, Jabal al-Qal'a, is the site of a 13th-century ruined fortress. It is the capital of Balqa Governorate . The Greater Salt Municipality has about 97,000 inhabitants (2006) of which 65% are Muslim and 35% Christians. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Municipal Districts * 3 Agriculture * 4 Education * 5 Tourism * 6 International relations * 7 Gallery * 8 References HISTORYIt is not known when the city was first inhabited, but it is believed that it was built by the Macedonian army during the reign of Alexander the Great . The town was known as Saltus in Byzantine times and was the seat of a bishopric . At this time, the town was considered to be the principal settlement on the East Bank of the Jordan River . The settlement was destroyed by the Mongols and then rebuilt during the reign of the Mamluk sultan Baibars (1260–1277) and became a regional capital once more during the time of the Ottoman Empire
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Zarqa
THE BLUE CITY OR AZ-ZARQā (Arabic : الزرقاء‎‎; English The Blue City BGN : AZ ZARQāʼ; local pronunciation ez-Zergā, ez-Zer'a, or ez-Zarka) is the capital of Zarqa Governorate in Jordan . Its name means "the blue city". CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 History * 3 Demographics * 4 Districts of Greater Zarqa Municipality * 5 Economy and infrastructure * 5.1 Transportation * 5.2 Industry * 6 Education * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links GEOGRAPHYZarqa is located in the Zarqa River basin in northeast Jordan . The city is situated 15 miles (24 km) northeast of Amman . HISTORY The Zarqa train station of the Ottoman-built Hejaz Railway . Although inhabited since the 1st century, the city of Zarqa was established by immigrants from the Caspian Sea region at the beginning of the 20th century. The first settlement in the city was established in 1902 by Chechen immigrants who were displaced from the wars between the Ottoman and Russian Empires . They settled along the Zarqa River. At that time a station on the Hejaz Railway was built in the new settlement. The railway station turned Zarqa into an important hub. On 10 April 1905, the Ottoman governor issued a decree that allowed the Chechen immigrants to own lands which they settled on. The population then quickly grew in size. On 18 November 1928, the new Jordanian government issued a decree to establish the first municipal council for Zarqa
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