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Governorates Of Egypt
For administrative purposes, Egypt
Egypt
is divided into twenty-seven governorates (محافظة muḥāfaẓah; Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [moˈħɑfzˤɑ]; genitive case: muḥāfaẓat  [moˈħɑfzˤet]; plural: محافظات muḥāfaẓāt [moħɑfˈzˤɑːt]).[1] Egyptian governorates are the top tier of the country's jurisdiction hierarchy. A governorate is administered by a governor, who is appointed by the President of Egypt
Egypt
and serves at the president's discretion
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Gamal Abdel Nasser
Gamal Abdel Nasser
Gamal Abdel Nasser
Hussein (/ˈnɑːsər, ˈnæsər/;[1] Arabic: جمال عبد الناصر حسين‎, Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [ɡæˈmæːl ʕæbdenˈnɑːsˤeɾ ħeˈseːn]; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death in 1970. Nasser led the 1952 overthrow of the monarchy and introduced far-reaching land reforms the following year
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Egyptian Revolution Of 1952
Overthrow, abdication, and exile of King FaroukEnd of rule of the Muhammad Ali dynasty Establishment of the Republic of Egypt End of British occupation of Egypt Beginning of the Nasser era Revolutionary wave
Revolutionary wave
across the Arab world Beginning of the Arab Cold WarTerritorial changes Independence of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.Belligerents Kingdom of Egypt supported by:  United Kingdom  United States Free Officers Movement Supported by: Soviet UnionCommanders and leaders
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Land Reform In Egypt
The post-revolution Egyptian Land Reform was an effort to change land ownership practices in Egypt following the 1952 Revolution launched by Gamal Abdel Nasser and the Free Officers Movement.Contents1 Problems prior to 1952 2 Law Number 178 3 Modifications to land reform 4 Results 5 See also 6 References 7 NotesProblems prior to 1952[edit] Prior to the 1952 coup that installed Naguib as President, less than six percent of Egypt's population owned more than 65% of the land in the country, and less than 0.5% of Egyptians owned more than one-third of all fertile land.[1] These major owners had almost autocratic control over the land they owned and charged high rents which averaged 75% of the income generated by the rented land. These high rents coupled with the high interest rates charged by banks plunged many small farmers and peasants into debt. Furthermore, peasants who worked as laborers on farms also suffered, receiving average wages of only eight to fifteen piastres a day
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Arab Socialist Union (Egypt)
Socialism
Socialism
is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production[10] as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.[11] Social ownership
Social ownership
may refer to forms of public, collective or cooperative ownership, or to citizen ownership of equity.[12] There are many varieties of socialism and there is no single definition encapsulating all of them,[13] though social ownership is the common element shared by its various forms.[5][14][15] Socialist
Socialist
economic systems can be divided into non-market and market forms.[16] Non-market socialism involves the substitution of factor markets and money, with engineering and technical criteria, based on calculation performed in-kind, thereby producing an economic mechanism that functions according to different economic laws from those of capitalism
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Regions Of Egypt
The General Organization for Physical Planning (GOPP), which was established in 1981, shows Egypt
Egypt
divided into seven regional units for physical planning purposes (urban planning, the founding of new towns, new cities and such). The government body works on aspects of urban planning, land use in consideration of the economic conditions of regional units
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Anwar Sadat
Muhammad Anwar el-Sadat (Arabic: محمد أنور السادات‎ Muḥammad Anwar as-Sādāt, Egyptian [muħæmmæd ˈʔɑnwɑɾ essæˈdæːt]; 25 December 1918 – 6 October 1981) was the third President of Egypt, serving from 15 October 1970 until his assassination by fundamentalist army officers on 6 October 1981. Sadat was a senior member of the Free Officers who overthrew King Farouk in the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, and a close confidant of President Gamal Abdel Nasser, under whom he served as Vice President twice and whom he succeeded as President in 1970. In his eleven years as president, he changed Egypt's trajectory, departing from many of the political and economic tenets of Nasserism, re-instituting a multi-party system, and launching the Infitah economic policy
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Ministry Of Foreign Affairs (Egypt)
Ministry may refer to:Contents1 Government 2 Religion 3 Music 4 Fiction 5 See alsoGovernment[edit] Ministry (collective executive), the complete body of government ministers under the leadership of a prime minister Ministry (government department), a department of a governmentReligion[edit]Christian ministry, activity by Christians to spread or express their faithMinister (Christianity), clergy authorized by a church or religious organization to perform teaching or rituals Ordination, the process by which individuals become clergy
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List Of Former Political Parties In Egypt
Politics
Politics
(from Greek: πολιτικά, translit. Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.[1] It refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance—organized control over a human community, particularly a state.[2] In modern nation states, people have formed political parties to represent their ideas. They agree to take the same position on many issues, and agree to support the same changes to law and the same leaders.[3] An election is usually a competition between different parties.[4] Some examples of political parties are the African National Congress (ANC) in South Africa, the Tories
Tories
in Great Britain
Great Britain
and the Indian National Congress. Politics
Politics
is a multifaceted word
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Hosni Mubarak
Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak (Arabic: محمد حسني السيد مبارك‎, Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [mæˈħæmmæd ˈħosni (ʔe)sˈsæjjed moˈbɑːɾɑk], Muḥammad Ḥusnī Sayyid Mubārak; born 4 May 1928) is a former Egyptian military and political leader who served as the fourth President of Egypt
President of Egypt
from 1981 to 2011. Before he entered politics, Mubarak was a career officer in the Egyptian Air Force. He served as its commander from 1972 to 1975 and rose to the rank of air chief marshal in 1973.[1] Some time in the 1950s, he returned to the Air Force Academy as an instructor, remaining there until early 1959.[1] He assumed presidency after the assassination of Anwar Sadat
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Economic Regions Of Egypt
The General Organization for Physical Planning (GOPP), which was established in 1981, shows Egypt
Egypt
divided into seven regional units for physical planning purposes (urban planning, the founding of new towns, new cities and such). The government body works on aspects of urban planning, land use in consideration of the economic conditions of regional units
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Arabic Language
Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: العَرَبِيَّة‎) al-ʻarabiyyah [ʔalʕaraˈbijːah] ( listen) or (Arabic: عَرَبِيّ‎) ʻarabī [ˈʕarabiː] ( listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world.[4] It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic
Arabic
is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form (Modern Standard Arabic) [5]. The modern written language (Modern Standard Arabic) is derived from Classical Arabic
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Infitah
Infitah (Arabic: انفتاح‎ Infitāḥ, IPA: [enfeˈtæːħ] "openness") was Egyptian President
President
Anwar Sadat's policy of "opening the door" to private investment in Egypt
Egypt
in the years following the 1973 October War
October War
(Yom Kippur War) with Israel. Infitah was accompanied by a break with longtime ally and aid-giver the USSR
USSR
— which was replaced by the United States
United States
— and by a peace process with Israel symbolized by Sadat's dramatic flight to Jerusalem in 1977
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Supreme Constitutional Court Of Egypt
The Supreme Constitutional Court (Egyptian Arabic: المحكمة الدستورية العليا‎, El Mahkama El Dustūrīya El ‘Ulyā) is an independent judicial body in Egypt, located in the Cairo
Cairo
suburb of Maadi. The Supreme Constitutional Court is the highest judicial power. It alone undertakes the judicial control in respect of the constitutionality of the laws and regulations and shall undertake the interpretation of the legislative texts in the manner prescribed by law. In addition, the court is empowered to settle competence disputes between the judicial and the administrative courts.Contents1 History 2 Structure 3 Building 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] The establishment of the Supreme Constitutional Court goes back to the argument which was raised over the right of courts or any judicial bodies to pronounce on the constitutionality of the laws issued by the Legislative power
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Ali Abdel Aal
Ali Abdel Aal Sayyed Ahmed (born 29 November 1948) is an Egyptian law professor and politician. He has been Speaker of the House of Representatives since 10 January 2016. As law professor he worked at Ain Shams University
Ain Shams University
and specialized in constitutional law. Career[edit] Abdel Aal was born on 29 November 1948.[1] He studied law and obtained a degree in 1972. The next year he started working as a deputy to a prosecutor. In 1974 he became a university lecturer.[1] Ten years later he obtained his PhD in State at the University of Paris.[1][2] Abdel Aal was cultural attaché in the city of his alma mater from 1987 to 1991. The next year he served as constitutional advisor to the Parliament of Egypt. In 1993 he helped with the drafting of the Constitution of Ethiopia
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Sherif Ismail
Sherif Ismail
Sherif Ismail
Mohamed (Arabic: شريف إسماعيل‎  pronounced [ʃɪˈɾiːf esmæˈʕiːl]; born 6 July 1955[1]) is an Egyptian engineer who has been Prime Minister of Egypt
Prime Minister of Egypt
since 2015. Previously he was Minister of Petroleum and Mineral Resources from 2013 to 2015. Career[edit] Ismail studied mechanical engineering at Ain Shams University
Ain Shams University
and graduated in 1978.[2] He has held managerial posts at state-run petrochemical and natural gas firms
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