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Governorate Of New Toledo
The Governorate of New Toledo
Governorate of New Toledo
was formed from the previous southern half of the Inca empire, stretching south into present day central Chile, and east into present day central Brazil. Established by King Charles I of Spain
Charles I of Spain
in 1528
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Cross Of Burgundy
The Cross of Burgundy
Cross of Burgundy
(Spanish: Cruz de Borgoña, Cruz de San Andrés), a form of St. Andrew's cross, was first used in the 15th century as an emblem by the Valois Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled a large part of eastern France
France
and the Low Countries
Low Countries
as effectively an independent state. The Duchy of Burgundy
Duchy of Burgundy
was inherited by the House of Habsburg on the extinction of the Valois ducal line
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Spanish Golden Age
The Spanish Golden Age
Spanish Golden Age
(Spanish: Siglo de Oro [ˈsiɣlo ðe ˈoɾo], "Golden Century") is a period of flourishing in arts and literature in Spain, coinciding with the political rise of the Spanish Habsburg dynasty. El Siglo de Oro does not imply precise dates and is usually considered to have lasted longer than an actual century. It begins no earlier than 1492, with the end of the Reconquista
Reconquista
(Reconquest), the sea voyages of Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
to the New World, and the publication of Antonio de Nebrija's Gramática de la lengua castellana (Grammar of the Castilian Language). Politically, it ends no later than 1659, with the Treaty of the Pyrenees, ratified between France and Habsburg
Habsburg
Spain
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Ecuador
Coordinates: 2°00′S 77°30′W / 2.000°S 77.500°W / -2.000; -77.500Republic of Ecuador República del Ecuador  (Spanish)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Dios, patria y libertad" (Spanish) "Pro Deo, Patria et Libertate" (Latin) "God, homeland and freedom"Anthem: Salve, Oh Patria  (Spanish) Hail, Oh HomelandLocation of  Ecuador  (dark green) in South America  (grey)Capital Quito 00°9′S 78°21′W / 0.150°S 78.350°W / -0.150; -78.350Largest city GuayaquilOfficial languages Spanish[1]Recognized regional languages Kichwa
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Colombia
Coordinates: 4°N 72°W / 4°N 72°W / 4; -72 Republic
Republic
of Colombia República de Colombia  (Spanish)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Libertad y Orden" (Spanish) "Freedom and Order"Anthem: ¡Oh, Gloria Inmarcesible!  (Spanish) O unfading glory!Location of  Colombia  (dark green) in South America  (grey)Capital and largest city Bogotá 4°35′N 74°4′W / 4.583°N 74.067°W / 4.583; -74.067Official languages SpanishaRecognized regional languages 68 ethnic languages and dialects
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Cuzco
Cusco
Cusco
(Spanish: Cuzco, [ˈkusko]; Quechua: Qusqu or Quechua: Qosqo, IPA: [ˈqɔsqɔ]), often spelled Cuzco (/ˈkuːskoʊ/), is a city in southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley of the Andes
Andes
mountain range. It is the capital of the Cusco Region
Cusco Region
as well as the Cusco Province. In 2013, the city had a population of 435,114. Located on the eastern end of the Knot of Cuzco, its elevation is around 3,400 m (11,200 ft). The site was the historic capital of the Inca Empire
Inca Empire
from the 13th until the 16th-century Spanish conquest. In 1983 Cusco
Cusco
was declared a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
by UNESCO. It has become a major tourist destination, hosting nearly 2 million visitors a year
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New Kingdom Of León
Leon, Léon
Léon
(French) or León (Spanish) may refer to:Contents1 Places1.1 Europe 1.2 North America 1.3 Central America 1.4 Other places2 People2.1 People with the nickname or stage name 2.2 People with the name3 Arts, entertainment, and media3.1 Titled works 3.2 Fictional entities4 Organizations 5 Technology 6 See alsoPlaces[edit] Europe[edit]León, Spain, capital city of the Province of León Province of León, Spain Kingdom of León, an independen
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Blasco Núñez Vela
Blasco Núñez Vela
Blasco Núñez Vela
y Villalba (c. 1490 – January 18, 1546) was the first Spanish viceroy of Peru.[1] Serving from May 15, 1544 to January 18, 1546, he was charged by Charles V with the enforcement of the controversial New Laws, which dealt with the failure of the encomienda system to protect the indigenous people of America from the rapacity of the conquistadors and their descendants.Contents1 Origins 2 Appointment as viceroy 3 The New Laws 4 Actions as viceroy 5 Deposition as viceroy 6 The civil war 7 See also 8 Notes 9 Sources 10 External linksOrigins[edit] Núñez Vela was a native of Ávila, born into an ancient and noble family. The Núñez Vela family, lords of Tabadillo, lived in this area from at least 1403. He was a descendant of Don Pedro Nuñez de la Fuente Almexir (Fuentearmegil) the loyal, who saved the life of the King of Castile, Alfonso VIII in 1163
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History Of Chile
The territory of Chile
Chile
has been populated since at least 3000 BC. By the 16th century, Spanish conquistadors began to subdue and colonize the region of present-day Chile, and the territory became a colony between 1540 and 1820, when it gained independence from Spain. The country's economic development was successively marked by the export of first agricultural produce, then saltpeter and later copper. The wealth of raw materials led to an economic upturn, but also led to dependency, and even wars with neighboring states
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French Wars Of Religion
Uneasy Catholic- Protestant
Protestant
truce House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
gains the French throne through Henry
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Brazil
Coordinates: 10°S 52°W / 10°S 52°W / -10; -52Federative Republic
Republic
of BrazilRepública Federativa do Brasil  (Portuguese) Flag Coat of arms Motto: Ordem e Progresso (Portuguese) "Order and Progress"Anthem: "Hino Nacional Brasileiro" (Portuguese) "Brazilian National Anthem" Flag anthem: "Hino à Bandeira Nacional" (Portuguese)[1] "National Flag Anthem" National sealSelo Nacional do Brasil National Seal of
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Portuguese Restoration War
Restoration
Restoration
may refer to:Contents1 Conservation, ecology, and environment 2 Cultural heritage 3 General 4 History 5 Arts 6 Technology 7 Medicine 8 Religion 9 Title or name 10 Vehicles 11 Other uses 12 See alsoConservation, ecology, and environment[edit] Assisted natural regeneration
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Enlightenment In Spain
The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
(in Spanish, Ilustración) came to Spain
Spain
in the eighteenth century with the new Bourbon dynasty, following the death of the last Habsburg monarch, Charles II, in 1700. "Like the Spanish Enlightenment, the Spanish Bourbon monarchs were imbued with Spain's Catholic identity."[1] The period of reform and 'enlightened despotism' under the Bourbons focused on centralizing and modernizing the Spanish government, and improvement of infrastructure, beginning with the rule of King Charles III and the work of his minister, José Moñino, count of Floridablanca
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Peninsular War
French Empire Bonapartist Spain Confederation of the Rhine Napoleonic Italy Duchy of WarsawCommanders and leaders Arthur Wellesley William Beresford Rowland Hill John Moore † Francisco Castaños Juan Martín Díez José Palafox Gregorio de la Cuesta Miguel Álava Esquivel Joaquín Blake Bernardino Freire † Francisco da Silveira Napoleon
Napoleon
I Joseph I Joachim Murat Jean-Andoche Junot
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Spanish Constitution Of 1812
The Spanish Constitution of 1812
Spanish Constitution of 1812
was established on 19 March 1812 by the Cádiz
Cádiz
Cortes, Spain's first national sovereign assembly, the Cortes Generales
Cortes Generales
("General Courts"),[1] in refuge in Cádiz
Cádiz
during the Peninsular War. It established the principles of universal male suffrage, national sovereignty, constitutional monarchy and freedom of the press, and supported land reform and free enterprise. This constitution, one of the most liberal of its time, was effectively Spain's first (see Constitutions of Spain), given that the Bayonne Statute issued in 1808 under Joseph Bonaparte
Joseph Bonaparte
never entered into effect
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Carlist Wars
The Carlist Wars
Carlist Wars
were a series of civil wars that took place in Spain during the 19th century. The contenders fought to establish their claim to the throne, although some political differences also existed. Indeed, several times during the period from 1833 to 1876 the Carlists — followers of Infante Carlos (later Carlos V) and his descendants — rallied to the cry of "God, Country, and King" and fought for the cause of Spanish tradition ( Legitimism
Legitimism
and Catholicism) against liberalism, and later the republicanism, of the Spanish governments of the day
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