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God In Judaism
In Judaism
Judaism
, GOD is understood to be the absolute one , indivisible, and incomparable being who is the ultimate cause of all existence. Judaism
Judaism
holds that Yahweh
Yahweh
, the god of Abraham
Abraham
, Isaac
Isaac
, and Jacob
Jacob
and the national god of the Israelites
Israelites
, delivered the Israelites
Israelites
from slavery in Egypt , and gave them the Law of Moses
Moses
at biblical Mount Sinai as described in the Torah
Torah

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Safed
SAFED ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: צְפַת‎ Tsfat, Ashkenazi : Tzfas, Biblical : Ṣ'fath; Arabic : صفد‎‎, Ṣafad) is a city in the Northern District of Israel. Located at an elevation of 900 metres (2,953 ft), Safed
Safed
is the highest city in the Galilee
Galilee
and in Israel. Due to its high elevation, Safed
Safed
experiences warm summers and cold, often snowy, winters. Since the 16th century, Safed
Safed
has been considered one of Judaism
Judaism
's Four Holy Cities , along with Jerusalem
Jerusalem
, Hebron
Hebron
and Tiberias
Tiberias
; since that time, the city has remained a center of Kabbalah
Kabbalah
and Jewish mysticism
Jewish mysticism

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Mishnah
—— Tannaitic —— * Mishnah * Tosefta
Tosefta
—— Amoraic ( Gemara
Gemara
) —— *
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Piyyut
A PIYYUT or PIYUT (plural PIYYUTIM or PIYUTIM, Hebrew פּיּוּטִים / פיוטים, פּיּוּטִ / פיוט pronounced ; from Greek ποιητής poiētḗs "poet") is a Jewish liturgical poem, usually designated to be sung, chanted, or recited during religious services . Piyyutim have been written since Temple times. Most piyyutim are in Hebrew or Aramaic , and most follow some poetic scheme, such as an acrostic following the order of the Hebrew alphabet or spelling out the name of the author. Many piyyutim are familiar to regular attendees of synagogue services. For example, the best-known piyyut may be Adon Olam ("Master of the World"), sometimes (but almost certainly wrongly) attributed to Solomon ibn Gabirol in 11th century Spain
Spain

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Hebron
HEBRON (Arabic : الْخَلِيل‎‎ al-Khalīl ; Hebrew
Hebrew
: חֶבְרוֹן‎ Ḥevron ) is a Palestinian city located in the southern West Bank
West Bank
, 30 km (19 mi) south of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
. Nestled in the Judaean Mountains
Judaean Mountains
, it lies 930 meters (3,050 ft) above sea level . It is the largest city in the West Bank
West Bank
, and the second largest in the Palestinian territories
Palestinian territories
after Gaza , and home to 215,452 Palestinians (2016), and between 500 and 850 Jewish settlers concentrated in and around the old quarter. The city is divided into two sectors: H1, controlled by the Palestinian Authority and H2, roughly 20% of the city, administered by Israel
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Mishnah Berurah
The MISHNAH BERURAH (Hebrew : משנה ברורה‎‎ "Clarified Teaching") is a work of halakha (Jewish law) by Rabbi
Rabbi
Yisrael Meir Kagan ( Poland
Poland
, 1838–1933), also colloquially known by the name of another of his books, Chofetz Chaim "Desirer of Life". It was first published in 1904. His Mishnah Berurah
Mishnah Berurah
is a commentary on Orach Chayim , the first section of the Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
which deals with laws of prayer, synagogue , Shabbat
Shabbat
and holidays , summarizing the opinions of the Acharonim (post-Medieval rabbinic authorities) on that work. The title Mishnah Berurah
Mishnah Berurah
is a reference to the portion in Deuteronomy where Israel is commanded to inscribe God's commandments in large clear writing on a mountainside
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Tosefta
—— Tannaitic —— * Mishnah
Mishnah
* Tosefta—— Amoraic ( Gemara
Gemara
) —— *
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Aruch HaShulchan
ARUCH HASHULCHAN ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: ערוך השולחן) is a chapter-by-chapter restatement of the Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
(the latter being the most influential codification of halakhah in the post-Talmudic era). Compiled and written by Rabbi Yechiel Michel Epstein (1829–1908), the work attempts to be a clear, organized summary of the sources for each chapter of the Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
and its commentaries, with special emphasis on the positions of the Jerusalem Talmud
Talmud
and Maimonides
Maimonides

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Four Holy Cities
The FOUR HOLY CITIES (Hebrew : ארבע ערי הקודש‎‎, Yiddish
Yiddish
: פיר רוס שטעט‎) is the collective term in Jewish tradition applied to the cities of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
, Hebron
Hebron
, Safed
Safed
and, later, Tiberias
Tiberias
, the four main centers of Jewish life after the Ottoman conquest of Israel
Israel
. The "holy cities" concept dates to the 1640s, with Tiberias
Tiberias
joining in 1740, resulting from the creation of an association between the cities for the collection of halukka (funds for the needy)
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Tzniut
The term TZNIUT (Hebrew : צניעות‎, tzniut, Sephardi pronunciation, tzeniut(h); Ashkenazi pronunciation, tznius, "modesty ", or "privacy ") is used within Judaism
Judaism
, and has its greatest influence as a concept within Orthodox Judaism
Judaism
. It is used to describe both the character trait of modesty and humility , as well as a group of Jewish laws pertaining to conduct in general, and especially between the sexes. The term is frequently used with regard to the rules of dress for women
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Siddur
A SIDDUR (Hebrew : סדור‎‎ ; plural SIDDURIM סדורים, ) is a Jewish prayer
Jewish prayer
book , containing a set order of daily prayers . The word siddur comes from the Hebrew root Hebrew : ס.ד.ר‎‎ meaning "order"
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Seven Laws Of Noah
The SEVEN LAWS OF NOAH ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: שבע מצוות בני נח‬ Sheva Mitzvot B'nei Noach), also referred to as the NOAHIDE LAWS or the NOACHIDE LAWS (from the English transliteration of the Hebrew pronunciation of "Noah"), are a set of imperatives which, according to the Talmud
Talmud
, were given by God as a binding set of laws for the "children of Noah
Noah
" – that is, all of humanity. Accordingly, any non-Jew who adheres to these laws because they were given by Moses
Moses
is regarded as a righteous gentile , and is assured of a place in the world to come (עולם הבא‬ Olam Haba ), the final reward of the righteous
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Tzedakah
TZEDAKAH or Ṣ\'DAQAH in Classical Hebrew (Hebrew : צדקה‎; Arabic : صدقة‎‎), is a Hebrew word literally meaning justice or righteousness but commonly used to signify charity , though it is a different concept from charity because tzedakah is an obligation and charity is typically understood as a spontaneous act of goodwill and a marker of generosity. It is based on the Hebrew word (צדק, Tzedek ) meaning righteousness , fairness or justice , and it is related to the Hebrew word Tzadik meaning righteous as an adjective (or righteous individual as a noun in the form of a substantive ). In Judaism
Judaism
, tzedakah refers to the religious obligation to do what is right and just, which Judaism
Judaism
emphasises are important parts of living a spiritual life
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Midrash
In Judaism
Judaism
, the MIDRASH (/ˈmɪdrɑːʃ/ ; Hebrew : מִדְרָשׁ‎; pl. מִדְרָשִׁים midrashim) is the genre of rabbinic literature which contains early interpretations and commentaries on the Written Torah and Oral Torah (spoken law and sermons), as well as non-legalistic rabbinic literature (aggadah ) and occasionally the Jewish religious laws (halakha ), which usually form a running commentary on specific passages in the Hebrew Scripture ( Tanakh ). The Midrash, capitalized, refers to a specific compilation of these writings, primarily from the first ten centuries CE . The purpose of midrash was to resolve problems in the interpretation of difficult passages of the text of the Hebrew Bible, using Rabbinic principles of hermeneutics and philology to align them with the religious and ethical values of religious teachers
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Hasidic Judaism
HASIDISM, sometimes HASIDIC JUDAISM ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: חסידות‎, hasidut, Ashkenazi pronunciation : ; originally, "piety"), is a Jewish religious sect. It arose as a spiritual revival movement in contemporary Western Ukraine during the 18th century
18th century
and spread rapidly throughout Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
. Today, most affiliates reside in the United States
United States
, Israel
Israel
, and Britain . Israel
Israel
Ben Eliezer, the " Baal Shem Tov ", is regarded as its founding father, and his disciples developed and disseminated it. Present-day Hasidism is a sub-group within Ultra-Orthodox ("Haredi") Judaism
Judaism
and is noted for its religious conservatism and social seclusion
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Shulchan Aruch
The SHULCHAN ARUCH (Hebrew : שֻׁלְחָן עָרוּך‎ , literally: "Set Table"), also known by various Jewish communities but not all as "the CODE OF JEWISH LAW," is the most widely consulted of the various legal codes in Judaism. It was authored in Safed (today in Israel
Israel
) by Yosef Karo in 1563 and published in Venice
Venice
two years later. Together with its commentaries, it is the most widely accepted compilation of Jewish law ever written. The halachic rulings in the Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
generally follow Sephardic law and customs , whereas Ashkenazi Jews
Ashkenazi Jews
will generally follow the halachic rulings of Moses Isserles , whose glosses to the Shulchan Aruch note where the Sephardic and Ashkenazi customs differ
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