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Gmelin Database
The GMELIN DATABASE is a large database of organometallic and inorganic compounds updated quarterly. It is based on the German publication _GMELINS HANDBUCH DER ANORGANISCHEN CHEMIE_ ("Gmelin's handbook of inorganic chemistry") which was originally published by Leopold Gmelin in 1817; the last print edition, the 8th, appeared in the 1990s. The database currently contains every compound/reaction discovered between 1772 and 1995, amounting to 1.5 million compounds and 1.3 million different reactions, with over 85,000 titles, keywords and abstracts. It has over 800 different data fields on subjects such as the compounds electric, magnetic, thermal, crystal and physiological information. The Gmelin database is maintained by Elsevier MDL . It is the sister database to the Beilstein database , which deals with organic chemicals and reactions; both are now part of the Reaxys system. REFERENCES * ^ _Brockhaus ABC Chemie_, VEB F. A
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Chemical Database
A CHEMICAL DATABASE is a database specifically designed to store chemical information . This information is about chemical and crystal structures , spectra, reactions and syntheses, and thermophysical data. CONTENTS* 1 Types of chemical databases * 1.1 Chemical structures * 1.2 Literature database * 1.3 Crystallographic database * 1.4 NMR spectra database * 1.5 Reactions database * 1.6 Thermophysical database * 2 Chemical structure representation * 3 Search * 3.1 Substructure * 3.2 Conformation * 4 Descriptors * 5 Similarity * 6 Registration systems * 7 Tools * 8 See also * 9 References TYPES OF CHEMICAL DATABASESCHEMICAL STRUCTURESChemical structures are traditionally represented using lines indicating chemical bonds between atoms and drawn on paper (2D structural formulae ). While these are ideal visual representations for the chemist , they are unsuitable for computational use and especially for search and storage . Small molecules (also called ligands in drug design applications), are usually represented using lists of atoms and their connections. Large molecules such as proteins are however more compactly represented using the sequences of their amino acid building blocks. Large chemical databases for structures are expected to handle the storage and searching of information on millions of molecules taking terabytes of physical memory..
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Organometallic Chemistry
ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMISTRY is the study of chemical compounds containing at least one chemical bond between a carbon atom of an organic compound and a metal , including alkaline, alkaline earth, transition metal, and other cases. Moreover, some related compounds such as transition metal hydrides and metal phosphine complexes are often included in discussions of organometallic compounds. The field of organometallic chemistry combines aspects of traditional inorganic and organic chemistry . Organometallic compounds are widely used both stoichiometrically in research and industrial chemical reactions, as well as in the role of catalysts to increase the rates of such reactions (e.g., as in uses of homogeneous catalysis ), where target molecules include polymers, pharmaceuticals, and many other types of practical products. CONTENTS* 1 Organometallic compounds * 1.1 Coordination compounds with organic ligands * 1.2 Structure and properties * 2 Concepts and techniques * 3 History * 3.1 Organometallic chemistry timeline * 4 Scope * 5 Industrial applications * 6 Environmental concerns * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDSOrganometallic compounds are distinguished by the prefix "organo-" e.g. organopalladium compounds. Examples of such organometallic compounds include all Gilman reagents , which contain lithium and copper
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Inorganic Chemistry
INORGANIC CHEMISTRY deals with the synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds. This field covers all chemical compounds except the myriad organic compounds (carbon based compounds, usually containing C-H bonds), which are the subjects of organic chemistry . The distinction between the two disciplines is far from absolute, as there is much overlap in the subdiscipline of organometallic chemistry . It has applications in every aspect of the chemical industry, including catalysis , materials science , pigments , surfactants , coatings , medications , fuels , and agriculture
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Leopold Gmelin
LEOPOLD GMELIN (2 August 1788 – 13 April 1853) was a German chemist . Gmelin was professor at the University of Heidelberg
Heidelberg
among other things, he worked on the red prussiate and created Gmelin\'s test . Gmelin and his wife, portraits by Jakob Schlesinger , 1820 German postal stamp featuring Gmelin CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Work * 3 Literature * 4 External links LIFEGmelin was a son of the physician, botanist and chemist Johann Friedrich Gmelin and his wife Rosine Schott. Due to his family he early came in contact with medicine and the natural sciences, in 1804 he attended the chemical lectures of his father. In the same year Gmelin moved to Tübingen to work in the family pharmacy, he also studied at the University of Tübingen among other relatives like Ferdinand Gottlieb Gmelin ( a cousin ) and Carl Friedrich Kielmeyer ( husband of a cousin ). Supported by Kielmeyer, Gmelin moved to the University of Göttingen in 1805 and later he worked as assistant in the laboratory of Friedrich Stromeyer , by whom he successfully passed his exams in 1809. Leopold Gmelin
Leopold Gmelin
returned to Tübingen and again heard the lectures of Ferdinand Gottlieb Gmelin and Carl Friedrich Kielmeyer . In February 1811 Gmelin clashed with the medical student Gutike, according to an insult he challenged him to a duel, without serious injuries
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Elsevier MDL
MDL INFORMATION SYSTEMS, Inc. was a provider of R&D informatics products for the life sciences and chemicals industries. The company was launched as a computer-aided drug design firm (originally named Molecular Design Limited, Inc.) in January 1978 in Hayward, California. The company was acquired by Symyx Technologies , Inc. in 2007. Subsequently Accelrys merged with Symyx. The Accelrys name was retained for the combined company. In 2014 Accelrys was acquired by Dassault Systemes . The Accelrys business unit was renamed BioVia . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Innovations * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYMolecular Design Limited, Inc. was founded by Stuart Marson and W. Todd Wipke in 1978. With 15 years of research on computer synthesis at the University of California, Santa Cruz, Wipke, with Marson, fresh from a Ph.D. at Stanford University and a postdoctoral stint at the University of California, Berkeley, were convinced that computer-assisted molecular design was possible as a commercial enterprise. Employee #3 was Stephen Peacock, a colleague of Marson, and #4 was Jim Dill, a graduate student from Princeton, as was #5, Doug Hounshell, also a graduate of Princeton. MDL was the first company to provide interactive graphical registry and full and substructural retrieval
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Beilstein Database
The BEILSTEIN DATABASE is the largest database in the field of organic chemistry , in which compounds are uniquely identified by their Beilstein Registry Number . The database covers the scientific literature from 1771 to the present and contains experimentally validated information on millions of chemical reactions and substances from original scientific publications . The electronic database was created from _Beilstein's Handbook of Organic Chemistry_, founded by Friedrich Konrad Beilstein in 1881, but has appeared online under a number of different names, including Crossfire Beilstein. Since 2009, the content has been maintained and distributed by Elsevier Information Systems in Frankfurt under the product name " Reaxys ". The database contains information on reactions, substances, structures and properties. Up to 350 fields containing chemical and physical data (such as melting point , refractive index etc.) are available for each substance. References to the literature in which the reaction or substance data appear are also given. The Beilstein content made available through Reaxys is complemented by information drawn from Gmelin (which gives access to the Gmelin Database ), a very large repository of organometallic and inorganic information, as well as by information drawn from the Patent
Patent
Chemistry Database
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Reaxys
REAXYS is a web-based tool for the retrieval of chemistry information and data from published literature, including journals and patents. The information includes chemical compounds, chemical reactions, chemical properties, related bibliographic data, substance data with synthesis planning information, as well as experimental procedures from selected journals and patents. It is licensed by Elsevier
Elsevier
. Reaxys was launched in 2009 as the successor to the CrossFire databases. It was developed to provide research chemists with access to current and historical, relevant, organic, inorganic and organometallic chemistry information, from reliable sources via an easy-to-use interface. CONTENTS * 1 Scope and access * 2 Core data * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links SCOPE AND ACCESSOne of the primary goals of Reaxys is to provide research chemists with access to experimentally measured data – reactions, physical, chemical or pharmacological – in one universal and factual platform. Content covers organic, medicinal, synthetic, agro, fine, catalyst, inorganic and process chemistry and provides information on structures, reactions, and citations. Additional features include a synthesis planner and access to commercial availability information. There have been regular releases and enhancements to Reaxys since it was first launched, including similarity searching
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Wikidata
WIKIDATA is a collaboratively edited knowledge base operated by the Wikimedia Foundation . It is intended to provide a common source of data which can be used by Wikimedia projects such as , and by anyone else, under a public domain licence. This is similar to the way Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
provides storage for media files and access to those files for all Wikimedia projects, and which are also freely available for reuse. Wikidata
Wikidata
is powered by the software Wikibase . CONTENTS * 1 Concepts * 2 Development history * 2.1 Phase 1 * 2.2 Phase 2 * 2.3 Phase 3 * 3 Reception * 4 Logo * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links CONCEPTS Screenshots Three statements from Wikidata\'s item on the planet Mars. Values include links to other items and to Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
. A layout of the four main components of a phase-1 Wikidata
Wikidata
page: the label, description, aliases and interlanguage links. A article's list of interlanguage links as they appeared in an edit box (left) and on the article's page (right) prior to Wikidata
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * _Special_ (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials , a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on _The Blind Leading the Naked _ * "Special", a song on _ The Documentary _ album by GameFILM AND TELEVISION * Special (lighting) , a stage light that is used for a single, specific purpose * "Special" (Lost) , an episode of the television series _Lost_ * _Special_ (film) * _The Specials_ (film) * Television special , television programming that temporarily replaces scheduled programmingOTHER USES * A special price, a form of discounts and allowances * A kit car or one-off home built vehicle * A euphemi
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Gmelin Database
The GMELIN DATABASE is a large database of organometallic and inorganic compounds updated quarterly. It is based on the German publication _GMELINS HANDBUCH DER ANORGANISCHEN CHEMIE_ ("Gmelin's handbook of inorganic chemistry") which was originally published by Leopold Gmelin in 1817; the last print edition, the 8th, appeared in the 1990s. The database currently contains every compound/reaction discovered between 1772 and 1995, amounting to 1.5 million compounds and 1.3 million different reactions, with over 85,000 titles, keywords and abstracts. It has over 800 different data fields on subjects such as the compounds electric, magnetic, thermal, crystal and physiological information. The Gmelin database is maintained by Elsevier MDL . It is the sister database to the Beilstein database , which deals with organic chemicals and reactions; both are now part of the Reaxys system. REFERENCES * ^ _Brockhaus ABC Chemie_, VEB F. A
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Talk
TALK may refer to: * Conversation , interactive communication between two or more people * Speech , the production of a spoken language * Interaction , face to face conversations * Compulsive talking , beyond the bounds of what is considered to be a socially acceptable amount of talking * Communication , the encoding and decoding of exchanged messages between peopleCONTENTS * 1 Software * 2 Books * 3 Film and TV * 4 Music * 4.1 Albums * 4.2 Songs SOFTWARE * Google Talk , a Windows- and web-based instant messaging program * talk (software) , a Unix messaging program * AppleTalk , an early networking protocol designed by Apple for their Macintosh computersBOOKS * _Talk_ (play) , a play by Carl Hancock Rux * _Talk_ (magazine) , an American magazineFILM AND TV * _Talk_ (film) , a 1994 Australian film * Talk show , a broadcast program format * Talk radio , a radio formatMUSIC * Talk Talk , a British rock group active from 1981 to 1991ALBUMS * _Talk_ (Yes album) , 1994 * _Talk_ (Paul Kelly album) , 1981SONGS * "Talk" (Coldplay song) * "Talk" (DJ Snake song) * "Talk", by Kreesha Turner on the album _Passion _ * "Talk", by Tracy Bonham on the album _ The Liverpool Sessions _ * "Talk", by M.I.A
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Main Page
The 1983 ATLANTIC HURRICANE SEASON was the least active Atlantic hurricane season in 53 years. Although the season begins by convention on June 1, there were no tropical depressions until July 23, and only four of the season's seven depressions became tropical storms . Tropical Depression Three became Hurricane Alicia_(satellite image pictured)_ on August 17 and made landfall in Texas the next day, breaking thousands of glass windows in Houston's skyscrapers, killing 22 people and causing $1.7 billion in damage. The storm that became Hurricane Barry formed on August 25, crossed Florida, and made landfall near Brownsville, Texas
Brownsville, Texas
, dissipating five days later. Hurricane Chantal stayed out at sea, and was absorbed by a front on September 15. Tropical Depression Six formed on September 19 and caused heavy rains in the Caribbean
Caribbean
. Tropical Storm Dean, the final storm of the season, attained peak winds of 65 mph (105 km/h), and made landfall on the Delmarva Peninsula
Delmarva Peninsula
on September 29. (FULL ARTICLE... ) Recently featured: * 2012 Tour de France
2012 Tour de France
* Murder of Dwayne Jones * Audioslave * ARCHIVE * BY EMAIL * MORE FEATURED ARTICLES... DID YOU KNOW... _ Tjele helmet fragment
Tjele helmet fragment
* ..
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Portal
PORTAL may refer to: * Portal (architecture) , a monumental gate or door, or the extremities (ends) of a tunnel * Portals in fiction , magical or technological doorways that connect two locations, dimensions, or points in time * _ Portal _, a video game series developed by Valve Corporation CONTENTS* 1 Computing * 1.1 Gateways to information * 1.2 Other computing * 2 Art, entertainment, and media * 2.1 Games * 2.2 Music * 2.2.1 Groups * 2.2.2 Albums * 2.3 Other art, entertainment, and media * 3 Places * 4 Other uses * 5 People with the surname * 6 Construction methods and structures * 7 Drainage systems * 8 See also COMPUTINGGATEWAYS TO INFORMATION * Captive portal , controlling conne