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GLONASS
GLONASS
GLONASS
(Russian: ГЛОНАСС, IPA: [ɡɫɐˈnas]; Глобальная навигационная спутниковая система; transliteration Globalnaya navigatsionnaya sputnikovaya sistema), or "Global Navigation Satellite System", is a space-based satellite navigation system operating in the radionavigation-satellite service. It provides an alternative to GPS and is the second navigational system in operation with global coverage and of comparable precision. Manufacturers of GPS
GPS
navigation devices say that adding GLONASS
GLONASS
made more satellites available to them, meaning positions can be fixed more quickly and accurately, especially in built-up areas where the view to some GPS
GPS
satellites is obscured by buildings.[1][2][3] Development of GLONASS
GLONASS
began in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1976
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Vladimir Putin
President of Russia IncumbentEarly life Pets Political careerPolitical viewsDomestic policylegislation and programs military reformForeign policy Putin's PlanElectionsElectoral history 2000 2004 2012 2018 (campaign)PremiershipFirst Cabinet Second CabinetPresidencyInaugurations1st 2nd 3rd 4thInternational trips Political groups Public image SpeechesMunich 2007 Crimea
Crimea
2014 Valdai 2014Media galleryv t eVladimir Vladimirovich Putin (/ˈpuːtɪn/; Russ
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SK-42 Reference System
The SK-42 reference system also known as the Krasovsky 1940 ellipsoid, is a coordinate system established in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1942 as Systema koordinat (Russian: Система координат 1942 года), and provides parameters which are linked to the geocentric Cartesian coordinate system
Cartesian coordinate system
PZ-90. It was used in geodetic calculations, notably in military mapping and determining state borders.[1] The Krasovsky 1940 ellipsoid uses a semi-major axis (equatorial radius) a of 6,378,245 m, and an inverse flattening 1/f of 298.3.[2]:220 Citations and notes[edit]^ slide 11, Borodko ^ Office, United States Naval Observatory Nautical Almanac; Office, Great Britain Nautical Almanac (2005). Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac
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Legenda (satellite System)
Legenda, or the MKRC Legenda system, is a Soviet satellite targeting system mated to the SS-N-19
SS-N-19
missile. It consisted of the US-P SIGINT satellites and the US-A Radar Ocean reconnaissance satellites, which were nuclear powered.[1] Legenda is now believed to be non-functional after the US-A sats were deactivated. See also[edit]P-700 GranitReferences[edit]^ Brian Harvey The Rebirth of the Russian Space Program: 50 Years After 2007 "The US P (“P” for “passive”; industry code of 11F120) program began with Cosmos 699 in 1974, becoming operational as the Legenda system in 1978. US P5 are built by the Arsenal Design Bureau in St. Petersburg. Thirty-six were launched .. Russian reconnaissance satellitesIMINTPhotographicYantar Zenit Orlets AlmazElectro-opticalAraks Arkon Enisei Kobalt PersonaSIGINTELINTTselina-2 LianaMASINTSecondary MissionOko US-KMO EKSKosmosThis Soviet Union–related article is a stub
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Map Projection
A map projection is a systematic transformation of the latitudes and longitudes of locations from the surface of a sphere or an ellipsoid into locations on a plane.[1] Maps cannot be created without map projections. All map projections necessarily distort the surface in some fashion. Depending on the purpose of the map, some distortions are acceptable and others are not; therefore, different map projections exist in order to preserve some properties of the sphere-like body at the expense of other properties. There is no limit to the number of possible map projections.[2]:1 More generally, the surfaces of planetary bodies can be mapped even if they are too irregular to be modeled well with a sphere or ellipsoid; see below. Even more generally, projections are a subject of several pure mathematical fields, including differential geometry, projective geometry, and manifolds
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International Terrestrial Reference System
The International Terrestrial Reference System
International Terrestrial Reference System
(ITRS) describes procedures for creating reference frames suitable for use with measurements on or near the Earth's surface. This is done in much the same way that a physical standard might be described as a set of procedures for creating a realization of that standard. The ITRS defines a geocentric system of coordinates using the SI system of measurement. An International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) is a realization of the ITRS. New ITRF solutions are produced every few years, using the latest mathematical and surveying techniques to attempt to realize the ITRS as precisely as possible. Due to experimental error, any given ITRF will differ very slightly from any other realization of the ITRF
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Cartography
Cartography
Cartography
(from Greek χάρτης khartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps. Combining science, aesthetics, and technique, cartography builds on the premise that reality can be modeled in ways that communicate spatial information effectively. The fundamental problems of traditional cartography are to:Set the map's agenda and select traits of the object to be mapped. This is the concern of map editing. Traits may be physical, such as roads or land masses, or may be abstract, such as toponyms or political boundaries. Represent the terrain of the mapped object on flat media. This is the concern of map projections. Eliminate characteristics of the mapped object that are not relevant to the map's purpose. This is the concern of generalization. Reduce the complexity of the characteristics that will be mapped
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Latitude
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface. Latitude
Latitude
is an angle (defined below) which ranges from 0° at the Equator
Equator
to 90° ( North
North
or South) at the poles. Lines of constant latitude, or parallels, run east–west as circles parallel to the equator. Latitude
Latitude
is used together with longitude to specify the precise location of features on the surface of the Earth. Without qualification the term latitude should be taken to be the geodetic latitude as defined in the following sections
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Geography Of Russia
Coordinates: 60°N 100°E / 60°N 100°E / 60; 100Geography of RussiaContinent EurasiaRegion Eastern Europe, Northern AsiaCoordinates 60°00′00″N 100°00′00″E / 60.000°N 100.000°E / 60.000; 100.000Area Ranked 1st • Total 17,098,246 km2 (6,601,670 sq mi) • Land 95.79% • Water 4.21%Coastline 37,654 km (23,397 mi)BordersNorway 195.8 km (121.7 mi) Finland 1,271.8 km (790.3 mi) Estonia 138 km (86 mi) Latvia 270.5 km (168.1 mi) Lithuania 266 km (165 mi) Poland 204.1 km (126.8 mi) Belarus 1,239 km (770 mi) Ukraine 1,925.8 km (1,196.6 mi) Georgia 875.5 km (544.0 mi) Azerbaijan 372.6 km (231.5 mi) Kazakhstan 7,512.8 km (4,668.2 mi) Mongolia 3,485 km (2,165 mi) China 4,209.3 km (2,615.5 mi) North Korea 17
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Sea Level Datum Of 1929
The Sea Level Datum of 1929
Sea Level Datum of 1929
was the vertical control datum established for vertical control surveying in the United States
United States
of America by the General Adjustment of 1929. The datum was used to measure elevation (altitude) above, and depression (depth) below, mean sea level (MSL). Mean sea level
Mean sea level
was measured at 26 tide gauges: 21 in the United States and 5 in Canada. The datum was defined by the observed heights of mean sea level at the 26 tide gauges and by the set of elevations of all bench marks resulting from the adjustment. The adjustment required a total of 66,315 miles (106,724 km) of leveling with 246 closed circuits and 25 circuits at sea level. Since the Sea Level Datum of 1929
Sea Level Datum of 1929
was a hybrid model, it was not a pure model of mean sea level, the geoid, or any other equipotential surface
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OSGB36
The Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
National Grid reference
Grid reference
system is a system of geographic grid references used in Great Britain, distinct from latitude and longitude. It is often called British National Grid (BNG).[1][2] The Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
(OS) devised the national grid reference system, and it is heavily used in their survey data, and in maps based on those surveys, whether published by the Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
or by commercial map producers
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Russian Federation
Coordinates: 60°N 90°E / 60°N 90°E / 60; 90Russian Federation Росси́йская Федерaция (Russian) Rossiyskaya FederatsiyaFlagCoat of armsAnthem:  "Gosudarstvenny gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii"  (transliteration) "State Anthem of the Russian Federation"Location of Russia
Russia
(green) Russian-administered Crimea
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ED50
ED50
ED50
("European Datum 1950") is a geodetic datum which was defined after World War II
World War II
for the international connection of geodetic networks. Background[edit] Some of the important battles of World War II
World War II
were fought on the borders of Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium
Belgium
and France, and the mapping of these countries had incompatible latitude and longitude positioning. This led to the setting up of ED50
ED50
as a consistent mapping datum for much of Western Europe. It was, and still is, used in much of Western Europe
Western Europe
apart from Great Britain, Ireland, Sweden and Switzerland, which have their own datums. It used the International Ellipsoid of 1924 ("Hayford-Ellipsoid" of 1909) (radius of the Earth's equator 6378.388 km, flattening 1/297, both exact)
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World Geodetic System
The World Geodetic System
World Geodetic System
(WGS) is a standard for use in cartography, geodesy, and navigation including GPS
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North American Vertical Datum Of 1988
The North American Vertical Datum of 1988
North American Vertical Datum of 1988
(NAVD 88) is the vertical control datum of orthometric height established for vertical control surveying in the United States
United States
of America based upon the General Adjustment of the North American Datum of 1988. NAVD 88 was established in 1991 by the minimum-constraint adjustment of geodetic leveling observations in Canada, the United States, and Mexico. It held fixed the height of the primary tidal bench mark, referenced to the International Great Lakes Datum of 1985 local mean sea level height value, at Rimouski, Quebec, Canada
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