HOME TheInfoList.com
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff
[::MainTopicLength::#1500] [::ListTopicLength::#1000] [::ListLength::#15] [::ListAdRepeat::#3]

picture info

Global Catastrophic Risks
A GLOBAL CATASTROPHIC RISK is a hypothetical future event that has the potential to damage human well-being on a global scale. Some events could cripple or destroy modern civilization . Any event that could cause human extinction or permanently and drastically curtail humanity's potential is known as an EXISTENTIAL RISK. Potential global catastrophic risks include anthropogenic risks (technology risks, governance risks) and natural or external risks. Examples of technology risks are hostile artificial intelligence , biotechnology risks , or nanotechnology weapons
[...More...]

"Global Catastrophic Risks" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Richard Posner
RICHARD ALLEN POSNER (/ˈpoʊznər/ ; born January 11, 1939) is an American jurist and economist who was a United States
United States
Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit
United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit
in Chicago from 1981 until 2017, and is a Senior Lecturer at the University of Chicago
Chicago
Law
Law
School . He is a leading figure in the field of law and economics , and was identified by The Journal of Legal Studies as the most cited legal scholar of the 20th century. Posner is known for his scholarly range and for writing on topics outside of his primary field, law. In his various writings and books, he has addressed animal rights, feminism, drug prohibition, gay marriage (though he has reversed positions and now favors gay marriage), Keynesian economics, and academic moral philosophy, among other subjects
[...More...]

"Richard Posner" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Catastrophe
CATASTROPHE or CATASTROPHIC comes from the Greek κατά (kata) = down; στροφή (strophē) = turning. It may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 A general or specific event * 2 Art, entertainment, and media * 2.1 Fictional entities * 2.2 Literature * 2.3 Music * 2.4 Television * 3 Mathematics * 4 See also A GENERAL OR SPECIFIC EVENT * Disaster
Disaster
* The (Asia Minor) Catastrophe, a Greek name for the 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey * The Chernobyl Catastrophe, a name of the 1986 Chernobyl disaster * Blue sky catastrophe , a type of bifurcation of a periodic orbit, where the orbit vanishes into the blue sky * Catastrophic failure , complete failure of a system from which recovery is impossible (e.g
[...More...]

"Catastrophe" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Cost-benefit
COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS (CBA), sometimes called BENEFIT COSTS ANALYSIS (BCA), is a systematic approach to estimating the strengths and weaknesses of alternatives (for example in transactions, activities, functional business requirements or projects investments); it is used to determine options that provide the best approach to achieve benefits while preserving savings. The CBA is also defined as a systematic process for calculating and comparing benefits and costs of a decision, policy (with particular regard to government policy ) or (in general) project. Broadly, CBA has two main purposes: * To determine if an investment/decision is sound (justification/feasibility) – verifying whether its benefits outweigh the costs, and by how much; * To provide a basis for comparing projects – which involves comparing the total expected cost of each option against its total expected benefits. CBA is related to (but distinct from) cost-effectiveness analysis
[...More...]

"Cost-benefit" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Grey Goo
GREY GOO (also spelled GRAY GOO) is a hypothetical end-of-the-world scenario involving molecular nanotechnology in which out-of-control self-replicating robots consume all biomass on Earth
Earth
while building more of themselves, a scenario that has been called ecophagy ("eating the environment", more literally "eating the habitation"). The original idea assumed machines were designed to have this capability, while popularizations have assumed that machines might somehow gain this capability by accident. Self-replicating machines of the macroscopic variety were originally described by mathematician John von Neumann
John von Neumann
, and are sometimes referred to as von Neumann machines or clanking replicators . The term gray goo was coined by nanotechnology pioneer Eric Drexler
Eric Drexler
in his 1986 book Engines of Creation
[...More...]

"Grey Goo" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Safety Of High Energy Particle Collision Experiments
The safety of high energy particle collisions was a topic of widespread discussion and topical interest during the time when the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and later the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)—currently the world's largest and most powerful particle accelerator —were being constructed and commissioned. Concerns arose that such high energy experiments—designed to produce novel particles and forms of matter—had the potential to create harmful states of matter or even doomsday scenarios . Claims escalated as commissioning of the LHC drew closer, around 2008–2010. The claimed dangers included the production of stable micro black holes and the creation of hypothetical particles called strangelets , and these questions were explored in the media, on the Internet and at times through the courts
[...More...]

"Safety Of High Energy Particle Collision Experiments" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Plants
PLANTS are mainly multicellular , predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom PLANTAE. The term is today generally limited to the GREEN PLANTS, which form an unranked clade VIRIDIPLANTAE (Latin for "green plants"). This includes the flowering plants , conifers and other gymnosperms , ferns , clubmosses , hornworts , liverworts , mosses and the green algae , and excludes the red and brown algae . Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals , and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria ). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts , derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria . Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color
[...More...]

"Plants" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Animal
ANIMALS are multicellular , eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom ANIMALIA (also called METAZOA). The animal kingdom emerged as a clade within Apoikozoa as the sister group to the choanoflagellates . Animals are motile , meaning they can move spontaneously and independently at some point in their lives. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop , although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later in their lives. All animals are heterotrophs : they must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance . Most known animal phyla appeared in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion , about 542 million years ago. Animals can be divided broadly into vertebrates and invertebrates . Vertebrates have a backbone or spine (vertebral column ), and amount to less than five percent of all described animal species . They include fish , amphibians , reptiles , birds and mammals
[...More...]

"Animal" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Types Of Volcanic Eruptions
Several TYPES OF VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS—during which lava , tephra (ash , lapilli , volcanic bombs and volcanic blocks ), and assorted gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure —have been distinguished by volcanologists . These are often named after famous volcanoes where that type of behavior has been observed. Some volcanoes may exhibit only one characteristic type of eruption during a period of activity, while others may display an entire sequence of types all in one eruptive series. There are three different types of eruptions. The most well-observed are magmatic eruptions , which involve the decompression of gas within magma that propels it forward
[...More...]

"Types Of Volcanic Eruptions" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Geomagnetic Storm
A GEOMAGNETIC STORM is a temporary disturbance of the Earth
Earth
's magnetosphere caused by a solar wind shock wave and/or cloud of magnetic field that interacts with the Earth\'s magnetic field . The increase in the solar wind pressure initially compresses the magnetosphere. The solar wind's magnetic field interacts with the Earth’s magnetic field and transfers an increased energy into the magnetosphere. Both interactions cause an increase in plasma movement through the magnetosphere (driven by increased electric fields inside the magnetosphere) and an increase in electric current in the magnetosphere and ionosphere . During the main phase of a geomagnetic storm, electric current in the magnetosphere creates a magnetic force that pushes out the boundary between the magnetosphere and the solar wind
[...More...]

"Geomagnetic Storm" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Climate Change
Atmospheric physics Atmospheric dynamics (category) Atmospheric chemistry (category) METEOROLOGY Weather (category) · (portal) Tropical cyclone (category) CLIMATOLOGY Climate (category) Climate change (category) Global warming (category) · (portal) * v * t * e CLIMATE CHANGE is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years). Climate change may refer to a change in average weather conditions, or in the time variation of weather around longer-term average conditions (i.e., more or fewer extreme weather events). Climate change is caused by factors such as biotic processes, variations in solar radiation received by Earth, plate tectonics , and volcanic eruptions
[...More...]

"Climate Change" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Extraterrestrial Life
EXTRATERRESTRIAL LIFE, also called ALIEN LIFE (or, if it is a sentient or relatively complex individual , an "extraterrestrial" or "alien"), is life that does not originate from Earth
Earth
. These hypothetical life forms may range from simple single-celled organisms to beings with civilizations far more advanced than humanity . Although many scientists expect extraterrestrial life to exist in some form, there is no evidence for its existence to date. The Drake equation speculates about the existence of intelligent life elsewhere in the universe. The science of extraterrestrial life in all its forms is known as exobiology . Since the mid-20th century, there has been an ongoing search for signs of extraterrestrial life. The search encompasses a search for current and historic extraterrestrial life, and a narrower search for extraterrestrial intelligent life
[...More...]

"Extraterrestrial Life" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Survivorship Bias
SURVIVORSHIP BIAS or SURVIVAL BIAS is the logical error of concentrating on the people or things that made it past some selection process and overlooking those that did not, typically because of their lack of visibility. This can lead to false conclusions in several different ways. It is a form of selection bias . Survivorship bias
Survivorship bias
can lead to overly optimistic beliefs because failures are ignored, such as when companies that no longer exist are excluded from analyses of financial performance. It can also lead to the false belief that the successes in a group have some special property, rather than just coincidence (correlation proves causality ). For example, if three of the five students with the best college grades went to the same high school, that can lead one to believe that the high school must offer an excellent education
[...More...]

"Survivorship Bias" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Nanotechnology
NANOTECHNOLOGY ("NANOTECH") is manipulation of matter on an atomic , molecular , and supramolecular scale. The earliest, widespread description of nanotechnology referred to the particular technological goal of precisely manipulating atoms and molecules for fabrication of macroscale products, also now referred to as molecular nanotechnology . A more generalized description of nanotechnology was subsequently established by the National Nanotechnology Initiative , which defines nanotechnology as the manipulation of matter with at least one dimension sized from 1 to 100 nanometers . This definition reflects the fact that quantum mechanical effects are important at this quantum-realm scale, and so the definition shifted from a particular technological goal to a research category inclusive of all types of research and technologies that deal with the special properties of matter which occur below the given size threshold
[...More...]

"Nanotechnology" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Molecular Nanotechnology
MOLECULAR NANOTECHNOLOGY (MNT) is a technology based on the ability to build structures to complex, atomic specifications by means of mechanosynthesis . This is distinct from nanoscale materials . Based on Richard Feynman
Richard Feynman
's vision of miniature factories using nanomachines to build complex products (including additional nanomachines ), this advanced form of nanotechnology (or molecular manufacturing ) would make use of positionally-controlled mechanosynthesis guided by molecular machine systems. MNT would involve combining physical principles demonstrated by biophysics , chemistry , other nanotechnologies, and the molecular machinery of life with the systems engineering principles found in modern macroscale factories
[...More...]

"Molecular Nanotechnology" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

AI
Collective intelligence Collective action Self-organized criticality Herd mentality Phase transition Agen