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Global Catastrophic Risks
A global catastrophic risk is a hypothetical future event which could damage human well-being on a global scale,[2] even crippling or destroying modern civilization.[3] An event that could cause human extinction or permanently and drastically curtail humanity's potential is known as an existential risk.[4] Potential global catastrophic risks include anthropogenic risks (technology, governance) and natural or external risks.[3] Examples of technology risks are hostile artificial intelligence and destructive biotechnology or nanotechnology. Insufficient or malign global governance creates risks in the social and political domain, such as a global war, including nuclear holocaust, bioterrorism using genetically modified organisms, cyberterrorism destroying critical infrastructure like the electrical grid; or the failure to manage a natural pandemic
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Nuclear Terrorism
Nuclear terrorism
Nuclear terrorism
refers to an act of terrorism in which a person or people belonging to a terrorist organization detonates a nuclear device.[1] Some definitions of nuclear terrorism include the sabotage of a nuclear facility and/or the detonation of a radiological device, colloquially termed a dirty bomb, but consensus is lacking
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Extraterrestrial Life
Extraterrestrial life,[n 1] also called alien life (or, if it is a sentient or relatively complex individual, an "extraterrestrial" or "alien"), is life that occurs outside of Earth
Earth
and that probably did not originate from Earth. These hypothetical life forms may range from simple prokaryotes to beings with civilizations far more advanced than humanity.[1][2] The Drake equation
Drake equation
speculates about the existence of intelligent life elsewhere in the universe. The science of extraterrestrial life in all its forms is known as exobiology. Since the mid-20th century, there has been an ongoing search for signs of extraterrestrial life. This encompasses a search for current and historic extraterrestrial life, and a narrower search for extraterrestrial intelligent life
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Human Overpopulation
Human overpopulation
Human overpopulation
(or population overshoot) occurs when the ecological footprint of a human population in a specific geographical location exceeds the carrying capacity of the place occupied by that group. Overpopulation can further be viewed, in a long term perspective, as existing if a population cannot be maintained given the rapid depletion of non-renewable resources or given the degradation of the quality of the environment to give support to the population. Changes in lifestyle could reverse overpopulated status without a large population reduction.[1][2][3] The term human overpopulation refers to the relationship between the entire human population and its environment: the Earth,[4] or to smaller geographical areas such as countries. Overpopulation can result from an increase in births, a decline in mortality rates, an increase in immigration, or an unsustainable biome and depletion of resources
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Crop Failures
Harvesting is the process of gathering a ripe crop from the fields. Reaping is the cutting of grain or pulse for harvest, typically using a scythe, sickle, or reaper.[1] On smaller farms with minimal mechanization, harvesting is the most labor-intensive activity of the growing season. On large mechanized farms, harvesting utilizes the most expensive and sophisticated farm machinery, such as the combine harvester. Process automation has increased the efficiency of both the seeding and harvesting process
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Sustainable Agriculture
Sustainable agriculture
Sustainable agriculture
is farming in sustainable ways based on an understanding of ecosystem services, the study of relationships between organisms and their environment.Contents1 History of the term 2 Farming and natural resources2.1 Water 2.2 Soil 2.3 Phosphate 2.4 Land 2.5 Energy3 Economics 4 Methods4.1 Sustainable intensification 4.2
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Dysgenics
Dysgenics (rarely cacogenics[1]) is the study of factors producing the accumulation and perpetuation of defective or disadvantageous genes and traits in offspring of a particular population or species.[2][3] The adjective "dysgenic" is the antonym of "eugenic". It was first used c. 1915 by David Starr Jordan, describing the supposed dysgenic effects of World War I.[4] Jordan believed that healthy men were as likely to die in modern warfare as anyone else, and that war killed only the physically healthy men of the populace whilst preserving the disabled at home.[5] Dysgenic mutations have been studied in animals such as the mouse[6] and the fruit fly.[7][8] In the context of human genetics, a dysgenic effect is the projected or observed tendency of a reduction in selection pressures and decreased infant mortality since the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
resulting in the increased propagation of deleterious traits and genetic disorders
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Types Of Volcanic Eruptions
Several types of volcanic eruptions—during which lava, tephra (ash, lapilli, volcanic bombs and volcanic blocks), and assorted gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure—have been distinguished by volcanologists. These are often named after famous volcanoes where that type of behavior has been observed. Some volcanoes may exhibit only one characteristic type of eruption during a period of activity, while others may display an entire sequence of types all in one eruptive series. There are three different types of eruptions. The most well-observed are magmatic eruptions, which involve the decompression of gas within magma that propels it forward
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Geomagnetic Storm
A geomagnetic storm (commonly referred to as a solar storm) is a temporary disturbance of the Earth's magnetosphere caused by a solar wind shock wave and/or cloud of magnetic field that interacts with the Earth's magnetic field. The increase in the solar wind pressure initially compresses the magnetosphere. The solar wind's magnetic field interacts with the Earth’s magnetic field and transfers an increased energy into the magnetosphere. Both interactions cause an increase in plasma movement through the magnetosphere (driven by increased electric fields inside the magnetosphere) and an increase in electric current in the magnetosphere and ionosphere. During the main phase of a geomagnetic storm, electric current in the magnetosphere creates a magnetic force that pushes out the boundary between the magnetosphere and the solar wind
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World Government
World government
World government
or global government is the notion of a common political authority for all of humanity, yielding a global government and a single state that exercises authority over the entire Earth. Such a government could come into existence either through violent and compulsory world domination or through peaceful and voluntary supranational union. There has never been a worldwide executive, legislature, judiciary, military, or constitution with global jurisdiction. The United Nations is limited to a mostly advisory role, and its stated purpose is to foster co-operation between existing national governments rather than exert authority over them.Contents1 History1.1 Origins of the idea 1.2 Dante 1.3 Francisco de Vitoria 1.4 Hugo Grotius 1.5 Immanuel Kant 1.6 Johann Gottlieb Fichte 1.7 Joseph Smith 1.8 Alfred, Lord Tennyson 1.9 Ulysses S
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Simulation Hypothesis
The simulation hypothesis proposes that all of reality, including the earth and the universe, is in fact an artificial simulation, most likely a computer simulation. Some versions rely on the development of a simulated reality, a proposed technology that would seem realistic enough to convince its inhabitants the simulation was real. The hypothesis has been a central plot device of many science fiction stories and films.Contents1 Origins 2 Simulation hypothesis2.1 Ancestor simulation 2.2 Criticism of Bostrom's anthropic reasoning 2.3 Arguments, within the trilemma, against the simulation hypothesis3 Consequences of living in a simulation 4 Testing the hypothesis physically 5 In popular culture5.1 Science fiction
Science fiction
themes6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksOrigins[edit] There is a long philosophical and scientific history to the underlying thesis that reality is an illusion
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Famine
A famine is a widespread scarcity of food,[1] caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies. This phenomenon is usually accompanied or followed by regional malnutrition, starvation, epidemic, and increased mortality. Every inhabited continent in the world has experienced a period of famine throughout history. In the 19th and 20th century, it was generally Southeast and South Asia, as well as Eastern and Central Europe
Europe
that suffered the most deaths from famine. The numbers dying from famine began to fall sharply from the 1970s. Some countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, continue to have extreme cases of famine. Since 2010, Africa
Africa
has been the most affected continent in the world
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Animal
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, reproduce sexually, and grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million in total. Animals range in size from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres (110 ft) long and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The study of animals is called zoology. Aristotle divided animals into those with blood and those without. Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809
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Plants
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. They form the clade Viridiplantae (Latin for "green plants") that includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns, clubmosses, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, and excludes the red and brown algae. Historically, plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, and all algae and fungi were treated as plants. However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts that are derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color
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Catastrophe
Catastrophe or catastrophic comes from the Greek κατά (kata) = down; στροφή (strophē) = turning. It may refer to:Contents1 A general or specific event 2 Art, entertainment, and media2.1 Fictional entities 2.2 Literature 2.3 Music 2.4 Television3 Mathematics 4 See alsoA general or specific event[edit]Disaster The (Asia Minor) Catastrophe, a Greek name for the 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey The Chernobyl Catastrophe, a name of the 1986 Chernobyl disaster Blue sky catastrophe, a type of bifurcation of a periodic orbit, where the orbit vanishes into the blue sky Catastrophic failure, complete failure of a system from which recovery is impossible (e.g
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Richard Posner
Richard Allen Posner (/ˈpoʊznər/; born January 11, 1939) is an American jurist and economist who was a United States
United States
Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit
United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit
in Chicago from 1981 until 2017,[1] and is a Senior Lecturer at the University of Chicago
Chicago
Law
Law
School. He is a leading figure in the field of law and economics, and was identified by The Journal of Legal Studies as the most cited legal scholar of the 20th century.[2] Posner is known for his scholarly range and for writing on topics outside of his primary field, law
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