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Glider (sailplane)
A glider or sailplane is a type of glider aircraft used in the leisure activity and sport of gliding.[1][2] The unpowered aircraft use naturally occurring currents of rising air in the atmosphere to remain airborne. Gliders are aerodynamically streamlined and are capable of gaining altitude and remaining airborne, and maintaining forward motion.Contents1 Types of gliders 2 History 3 Glider design 4 Launch and flight 5 Glide slope control 6 Landing 7 Instrumentation and other technical aids 8 Markings 9 Comparison of gliders with hang gliders and paragliders 10 Competition classes of glider 11 Major manufacturers of gliders 12 See also 13 References 14 External linksTypes of gliders[edit]ASH25M—a self-launching two-seater gliderGliders benefit from producing the least drag for any given amount of lift, and this is best achieved with long, thin wings, a fully faired narrow cockpit and a slender fuselage
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Cockpit (aviation)
A cockpit or flight deck is the area, usually near the front of an aircraft or spacecraft, from which a pilot controls the aircraft. Cockpit
Cockpit
of an Antonov An-124 Cockpit
Cockpit
of an A380. Most Airbus cockpits are glass cockpits featuring fly-by-wire technology.Swiss HB-IZX Saab 2000
Saab 2000
during flightRobin DR4001936 de Havilland Hornet MothThe cockpit of an aircraft contains flight instruments on an instrument panel, and the controls that enable the pilot to fly the aircraft. In most airliners, a door separates the cockpit from the aircraft cabin
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Flap (aircraft)
Flaps are a type of high-lift device used to increase the lift of an aircraft wing at a given airspeed. Flaps are usually mounted on the wing trailing edges of a fixed-wing aircraft. Flaps are used to lower the minimum speed at which the aircraft can be safely flown, and to increase the angle of descent for landing. Flaps also cause an increase in drag, so they are retracted when not needed. Extending the wing flaps increases the camber or curvature of the wing, raising the maximum lift coefficient or the upper limit to the lift a wing can generate. This allows the aircraft to generate the required lift at a lower speed, reducing the stalling speed of the aircraft, and therefore also the minimum speed at which the aircraft will safely maintain flight. The increase in camber also increases the wing drag, which can be beneficial during approach and landing, because it slows the aircraft
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Kevlar
Kevlar
Kevlar
is the registered trademark for a para-aramid synthetic fiber, related to other aramids such as Nomex
Nomex
and Technora. Developed by Stephanie Kwolek
Stephanie Kwolek
at DuPont
DuPont
in 1965,[1][2][3] this high-strength material was first commercially used in the early 1970s as a replacement for steel in racing tires. Typically it is spun into ropes or fabric sheets that can be used as such or as an ingredient in composite material components. Kevlar
Kevlar
has many applications, ranging from bicycle tires and racing sails to bulletproof vests, because of its high tensile strength-to-weight ratio; by this measure it is 5 times stronger than steel.[2] It is also used to make modern drumheads that withstand high impact
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Aerodynamics
Aerodynamics, from Greek ἀήρ aer (air) + δυναμική (dynamics), is the study of the motion of air, particularly its interaction with a solid object, such as an airplane wing. It is a sub-field of fluid dynamics and gas dynamics, and many aspects of aerodynamics theory are common to these fields. The term aerodynamics is often used synonymously with gas dynamics, the difference being that "gas dynamics" applies to the study of the motion of all gases, and is not limited to air. The formal study of aerodynamics began in the modern sense in the eighteenth century, although observations of fundamental concepts such as aerodynamic drag were recorded much earlier
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Carbon-fiber
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, carbon fiber reinforced plastic or carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic (CFRP, CRP, CFRTP or often simply carbon fiber, carbon composite or even carbon), is an extremely strong and light fiber-reinforced plastic which contains carbon fibers. The alternative spelling 'fibre' is common in British Commonwealth countries. CFRPs can be expensive to produce but are commonly used wherever high strength-to-weight ratio and rigidity are required, such as aerospace, automotive, civil engineering, sports goods and an increasing number of other consumer and technical applications. The binding polymer is often a thermoset resin such as epoxy, but other thermoset or thermoplastic polymers, such as polyester, vinyl ester or nylon, are sometimes used. The composite may contain aramid (e.g
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Glaser-Dirks DG-100
The Glaser-Dirks DG-100 of 1974 is the first sailplane manufactured by Glaser-Dirks, developed from the Akaflieg Darmstadt D-38, the Standard class sailplane was designed by Wilhelm Dirks.Contents1 Development 2 Variants 3 Specifications (DG-100) 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksDevelopment[edit] The first model had an all-flying tailplane, with anti-balance tabs along the entire trailing edges, and a two-piece canopy (movable and fixed parts), built of GFRP (glass-fibre reinforced plastic)/foam sandwich materials and resin impregnated rovings for high strength parts. Successive developments included the DG-100G, DG-101 and DG-101G. Most models are available with water ballast bags in the wings. The DG-101 and DG-101G had improvements such as a single-piece front-hinged canopy, improved crash resistant cockpit and a conventional tailplane (with fixed horizontal stabilizer and articulated elevator). There was also a club version of this sailplane with fixed landing gear
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Grunau Baby
The Schneider Grunau Baby
Schneider Grunau Baby
was a single-seat sailplane first built in Germany in 1931, with some 6,000 examples constructed in some 20 countries. It was relatively easy to build from plans, it flew well, and the aircraft was strong enough to handle mild aerobatics and the occasional hard landing. When the Baby first appeared, it was accepted wisdom that the pilot should feel as much unimpeded airflow as possible, to better sense rising and falling currents of air and temperature changes etc.Grunau Baby III from the Wasserkuppe Museum at the 2009 Munich OktoberfestIt was designed by Edmund Schneider with the assistance of Wolf Hirth and Hugo Kromer as a smaller version of Schneider's ESG 31 of the previous year, incorporating an elliptical wing design based on work done by Akaflieg Darmstadt. It was named after Grunau, the town where Schneider's factory was located, now Jeżów Sudecki
Jeżów Sudecki
in Poland
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Primary Glider
Primary gliders are a category of aircraft that enjoyed worldwide popularity during the 1920s and 1930s as people strove for simple and inexpensive ways to learn to fly.[1] Constructed of wood, metal cables and cloth, primary gliders were very light and easy to fly. They generally had no cockpit and no instruments.[1]Contents1 Operations 2 Modern Primaries 3 Types 4 ReferencesOperations[edit] Primary gliders were generally launched by bungee cord, whereby a rubber rope was arranged in a "V" with the glider at the apex. The ends of the rope were pulled by hand to launch the glider from a slope
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DG Flugzeugbau DG-800
The DG Flugzeugbau DG-800 series is a family of 15 metre and 18 metre single-seat gliders and motor gliders produced by Glaser-Dirks since 1993 and by DG Flugzeugbau GmbH after 1997. It is the successor to the DG-400 and the DG-600 models.Contents1 Design and development 2 Specifications (Competition DG-808C with 18-metre wings) 3 See also 4 ReferencesDesign and development[edit] The DG-800 was planned primarily as a powered self-launching sailplane. In the meantime it has spawned many variants, differentiated by the type of powerplant (Rotax, Midwest or Solo), the span extensions (15 metre, 18 metre, both in variants with or without winglets), maximum allowed take-off mass, etc. The newest model is the DG-808C, a self launching sailplane with Solo engine and the new designed "DEI-NT" Engine Control System. There are also unpowered variants, the DG-800S and DG-808S, aimed at competition flying
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Glasflügel H-201
The Glasflügel H-201 Standard Libelle (German: "Dragonfly") is an early composite Standard Class single-seat sailplane produced by Glasflügel from 1967.Contents1 Development 2 Design 3 Variants 4 Specifications (H-201B) 5 See also 6 ReferencesDevelopment[edit] The H-201 Standard Libelle was a follow-on Standard Class sailplane to the successful H-301 Libelle Open Class glider. It was similar to the H-301, with modifications to meet the Standard Class requirements. The prototype made its first flight in October 1967, with a total of 601 being built. The type soon made its mark in contest flying; one flown by Per-Axel Persson of Sweden, winner of the 1948 World Championships, came second in the Standard Class at the 1968 World Championships at Leszno in Poland. The Libelle and Standard Libelle were very popular and influential designs. Their very light wings and extremely easy rigging set a new benchmark
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World War I
Allied victoryCentral Powers' victory on the Eastern Front nullified by defeat on the Western Front Fall of the German, Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
and foundation of the Soviet Union Formation of new countries in Europe
Europe
and the Middle East Transfer of German colonies
German colonies
and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers Establishment of the League of Nations
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Wright Brothers
Signatures      Orville WrightBorn (1871-08-19)August 19, 1871 Dayton, OhioDied January 30, 1948(1948-01-30) (aged 76) Dayton, OhioEducation 3 years high schoolOccupation Printer/publisher, bicycle retailer/manufacturer, airplane inventor/manufacturer, pilot trainerWilbur WrightBorn (1867-04-16)April 16, 1867 Millville, IndianaDied May 30, 1912(1912-05-30) (aged 45) Dayton, OhioEducation 4 years high schoolOccupation Editor, bicycle retailer/manufacturer, airplane inventor/manufacturer, pilot trainerThe Wright brothers, Orville (August 19, 1871 – January 30, 1948) and Wilbur (April 16, 1867 – May 30, 1912), were two American aviators, engineers, inventors, and aviation pioneers who are generally credited[1][2][3] with inventing, building, and flying the world's first successful airplane
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Otto Lilienthal
Otto Lilienthal
Otto Lilienthal
(23 May 1848 – 10 August 1896) was a German pioneer of aviation who became known as the flying man[2]. He was the first person to make well-documented, repeated, successful flights with unpowered airplanes.[3] Newspapers and magazines published photographs of Lilienthal gliding, favorably influencing public and scientific opinion about the possibility of flying machines becoming practical. On 9 August 1896, his glider stalled and he was unable to regain control. Falling from about 15 m (50 ft), he broke his neck and died the next day, 10 August 1896.Contents1 Early life 2 Experiments in flight2.1 Projects 2.2 Test locations3 Worldwide notice 4 Final flight 5 Legacy 6 In popular culture 7 Gallery 8 See also 9 References9.1 Notes 9.2 Bibliography10 External linksEarly life[edit] Lilienthal was born on 23 May 1848 in Anklam, Pomerania Province, German kingdom of Prussia
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Sir George Cayley
Sir George Cayley, 6th Baronet
Baronet
(27 December 1773 – 15 December 1857) was an English engineer, inventor, and aviator. He is one of the most important people in the history of aeronautics
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Early Flying Machines
Early flying machines
Early flying machines
include all forms of aircraft studied or constructed before the development of the modern aeroplane by 1910. The story of modern flight begins more than a century before the first successful manned aeroplane, and the earliest aircraft thousands of years before.Contents1 Primitive beginnings1.1 Legends 1.2 Tower jumping 1.3 Early kites1.3.1 Man-carrying kites1.4 Rotor wings 1.5 Hot air balloons 1.6 The Renaissance2 Lighter than air2.1 Balloons 2.2 Dirigibles or airships3 Heavier than air: p
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